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• • • • • Depleting fossil fuel Optimum plant utilization Global warming Designated consumer Generate more energy with same fuel

the more economical it is.EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT CAN GIVE YOU – For an average increase of 1 % in the Efficiency would result in:– Coal savings of approx.000 Million – CO2 reduction about 13. . 11 million tons per annum worth Rs.5 million tons per annum – Lower generation cost per kWh as more efficient the unit works.13.

MAJOR CAUSE OF INEFFICENCY IN POWER PLANT • High Flue gas exit Temp • Excessive amount of excess air(O2) • Poor Mill/Burners performance causing high unburnt carbon in fly and bottom ash • Poor insulation • Poor house Keeping • Poor instrumentation and automation .

MAJOR CAUSE OF INEFFICENCY IN POWER PLANT (Cont---) • Not running the units on design parameter • Heaters not in service or poor performance of regenerative system • Poor condenser vacuum • Excessive DM water consumptionpassing and leakages • Use of Reheat spray to control Reheat Temperature • Poor Cylinder Efficiency of turbine .

HOW TO ACHIEVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY ? • Adopt state of the art technologies • Adopt cutting edge technologies • Review & Re-engineering of the existing systems • Bench Marking • Energy Auditing .

provided we shed the myths and believe in applying result oriented efforts. .CAN WE IMPROVE EFFICIENCY? -Yes . -Work out to identify & quantify the cost of hidden losses. -Bring in requisite operational behavioral change.

SOME OF THE MYTHS – High PLF & availability translates into Optimum Efficiency – Heat rate is the responsibility of Efficiency Management Group at Stations – Equipment maintenance to be taken-up based on periodic overhaul schedule – Boiler performance degradations has no relation to Turbine Cycle performance .

• Results follow immediately after testing is completed.Some of the Myths contd… • Design heat rate is the best achievable heat rate. • Heat rate is the responsibility of Energy & Efficiency Management Group (EEMG) at Stations. • Station instruments are accurate for monitoring heat rate parameters. • Efficiency tests are the same as performance guarantee test. . • Heat rate improvement requires large investment.

contd • ‘Design’ is not the best achievable performance • • • • Predicted performance based on Turbine Heat Balance Diagrams and Boiler Efficiency at different loads ‘Design’ is based on specific ambient conditions that vary throughout the year Actual initial performance could be different from design or changes might have been made to plant Current performance to be compared to an achievable ‘expected’ value to establish efficiency gaps .

operation and design parameters. .Need to clearly understand the relation between performance & fuel . Maintenance. . . Turbine and their auxiliaries on Net Unit Heat Rate.Impacts of operating efficiency of Boiler.Availability.SYNERGIZE OPERATION OF UNIT .-Operational behavior and performance .& .Maximum Achievable Load.

Burner & wind Box design. Platens & pendants heat transfer Surfaces.& Volatile Matter. Moisture Contents. Ash Contents. • -Operational Parameter:-Level of Excess Air.SOME CRITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING BOILER PERFORMANCE • -Fuel. & operating Condition of Burner Tilt Mechanism. Ash Composition.-Heating Value. • -Design:-Heating input per plan area. Height of Boiler. .

H. -In consistency in fired fuel characteristics results in variation in excess air requirement thereby increasing stack loss and hence boiler efficiency reduction. overloading of ash handling system.H. and R. Hence again increase in attempration spray and THR. -Ash composition and contents increases damage to pressure parts surfaces because of melting behavior of low fusion ash temperature of blended coal in particular. overloading of ID Fan and ultimately unit load limitation. Contd. Hence increase in THR. . • • -High heat value causes excessive radiant heat transfer to water walls thereby leaving lesser heat for super heater and re-heater.BEHAVIOURAL IMPACTS • • • • -Low heat value results in over firing of fuel causing more heat availability for super heater and re-heater thus more attempration spray requirement. fans and increased soot blowing -Moisture content increase causes increase in heat transfer to S.

IMPACTS - contd… • • • • • Normally excess air ranges from 15% to 30% of stoichiometric air. maximum 3% of flow can be taken as make up for these causes including soot blowing requirements. Intelligently devised soot blowing can result in saving the fuel. Contd. -Soot blowing is dependent on ash contents and is unit specific. -Poorly effective damper control also is the cause of higher SEC of fans both primary and secondary. -The quality and purity of feed water and make up water is also required to be maintained in a meticulous way by limiting blow down losses to nearly 1% and by checking the passing and leakages of valves. However. . -High O2 % and presence of CO at ID Fan outlet are indicator of air in leakages and improper combustion in furnace.

loading and availability because of following systems and equipments performance also needed to be looked into. Pulverizing system Air Heater Fans Electrostatic Precipitator Fly ash handling system Bottom ash handling system Waste disposal system . preparation and handling systems. The systems are:Fuel receiving.IMPACTS contd… • -Cascading effects on efficiency.

&OUT PUT • Various design & operating parameters of a unit are responsible for its cycle performance.& out put. .PERFORMANCE IMPACTS ON STEAM CYCLE . heat rate. UNIT HEAT RATE.

2. 3.P. 11. 6. 7. 4. Re-heater & its system pressure drop Extraction line pressure drop Make up Turbine exhaust pressure Air preheat Condensate sub-cooling S/H & R/H spray flows Wet Bulb Temp. 5. Top Heaters out of service H. heater drain pump Type of BFP drives & method of flow control . 9. 8. 10.CRITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING CYCLE PERFORMANCE • • • • • • • • • • • 1.

3% respectively.1% & 0. • . • .Normally designed for pressure drop equivalent to 10% of HP exhaust pressure .Every one 1% decrease in drop can improve THR and output by 0.RH & ITS SYSTEM PRESSURE DROP….

THR would be poorer by 0. • For every 2% increase in this pressure drop. .09%.EXTRACTION LINE PRESSURE DROP… • Permissible pressure drop between stage pressure & Shell pressure is maximum 6%.

Acceptable value of make up water is 3% to offset cycle water losses. • .Cycle make up….2% reduction on output is there.For every 1% increase in make up 0. . • .4% increase in THR & 0.

EXHAUST PRESSURE… • Increase & decrease in exhaust pressure do affect the THR. • Though no valid thumb rule has been devised so far. . however last stage blade design & exhaust area of turbine do affect the impact of changing exhaust pressure.

heater or hot water pre heating coil to maintain AVERAGE COLD & TEMPERATURE (ACET) to escape dew point temperature complications. . • Air preheat of combustion air before entry to regenerative air heater is done with either with steam coil air pre . • Condensate retrieval is necessary to avoid deterioration to THR depending upon unit load and combustion pre heating duty.AIR PRE-HEAT….

an increase of 0.5 deg C subcooling .CONDENSATE SUB-COOLING… • For 30% total flow and 2. .001% in THR can be there for every subsequent 10% increase in flow.

H. it is always less the generative and less productive as well. SPRAY FLOW… • . correction need to be done in THR & load computed from the curves supplied with the machine. Spray water whether drawn from BFP or after the final heater. .H & S. • Every 1% spray flow.R.

. Is lowered resulting in poor THR. But at the same time final feed water tamp.TOP HEATER OUT OF SERVICE…. • Extraction steam flow meant for top heater is required to pass through turbine thereby increasing the output.

HPH DRAIN PUMP… • Retrieval of drip from HPH 6 & 7 is important for load even around 50%. • Drain pump when deployed can improve the THR by 2.5kCal/kwh. .

. • .56% and output by 0. Adoption of turbine driven BFP to suit the design requirements can improve THR by 0. Though four options are available for choosing the suitable BFP drive and control concepts.BFP DRIVE SELECTION… • .58%.

• -Devise a unit specific efficiency control sheet for few terminal conditions (Act vs Des). • -Monitor once per shift to know the operating efficiency and check any deterioration. • -Carry out performance/diagnostic study as suggested in the Auditing Manual & operating manual. . • -Zero down to specific system and then to component.PERFORMANCE MONITORING • -Analyze the poor efficiency areas from previous record .

Thank You .