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POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA

POWER SCENARIO
• POWER or ELECTRICITY critical infrastructural component for multidimensional growth and basic human need • Reliable and quality power at competitive rates to Indian industry - important for global competition. • Clean and Green Sustainable Power – need of the day. • Energy Security

EVOLUTION OF POWER SECTOR

‘Concurrent Subject’ : joint responsibility of State and Central Governments.POWER SECTOR-AN OVERVIEW Electricity . Private sector .small presence in Distribution and making entry into Transmission. . Bulk of transmission and distribution functions with State Utilities.

blend of thermal. natural gas and nuclear power accounts for smaller proportion of power.POWER SECTOR-AN OVERVIEW Conventional Generation .  Captive power plants being encouraged to supply surplus power to Grid. Coal based thermal power plants and in some regions hydro power plants . solar.e. Oil. Emphasis also on non-conventional energy sources i. hydro and nuclear sources. wind. biogas and tidal. .mainstay of electricity generation.

GROWTH OF INSTALLED GENERATING CAPACITY IN INDIA (figs.362 2.046 '02 1.990 MW .18.329 '06 '07 '47 1.664 '74 28.027 '66 16.877 '03 1.448 '80 42.695 '55 '61 4. in MW) Thermal Hydro Nuclear Renewable 1.287 1.07.171 '95 1.24.907 * '12 (Projeced) Source: CEA * Total generation as on 30-06-2011 is 1.426 '04 2.585 '85 63.24.05.653 9.76.32.636 '90 81.

15.) % of Coal based Generation in Total Generation 61 59 57 53 Upto 30-06-2011 coal based capacity is 9.6743 MW out of total thermal capacity 1.COUNTRY’S SHARE OF COAL IN TOTAL POWER GENERATION AND INSTALLED CAPACITY OVER YEARS % of Coal based Capacity in Total Generating Capacity 73 69 71 68 Share in % (app.649 MW 2000 2003 2005 2008 Year .

ALL INDIA PLF (%) OF THERMAL POWER STATIONS (COAL AND LIGNITE BASED) Source: CEA .

2007 .Electricity Conservation Act  2003.Electricity Act  February . .Rural Electrification Policy  August 2006.MAJOR LEGISLATIVE / POLICY INITIATIVES OF GOVERNMENT  1998. 2006 .Report submitted by Working Group on Power for 11th Plan constituted by Planning Commission.Electricity Regulatory Commission Act  1998 .  August.National Electricity Policy  January 2006.Integrated Energy Policy.  January 2007.National Tariff Policy  August 23.Electricity Laws (Amendment) Act  2001.National Electricity Plan notified.2005.

• Electricity Sector to achieve financial turnaround and commercial viability • Consumers’ interests to be accorded top priority. • Availability of power on demand to be fully met by 2012 • Energy shortage and peaking shortage to be overcome by providing adequate spinning reserves • Reliability and quality of power to be supplied in efficient manner .NATIONAL ELECTRICITY POLICY – THE WAY FORWARD • Access to electricity for all households in next 5 years. .

2005. Central and State Governments to develop workable and successful models for public private partnership. Special mechanisms to be created to encourage private investment in transmission sector   . transmission and distribution to become increasingly critical in view of rapidly growing investment needs.   Role of private participation in generation.ENCOURAGING PRIVATE PARTICIPATION  Competition encouraged .NATIONAL ELECTRICITY POLICY .to bring significant benefit to consumers Guidelines for competitive bidding issued by Government in January.

ENCOURAGING PRIVATE PARTICIPATION  Private Sector participation in distribution encouraged for achieving requisite reduction in T&D losses and improving quality of service to consumer Multi Year tariff framework. promote efficiency and rapid reduction of system losses.important structural incentive to minimize risks for utilities and consumers. Competition through concept of multiple licensees in same area through their independent distribution system   .NATIONAL ELECTRICITY POLICY .

• Distribution reform . • Well planned and strong transmission and distribution system to ensure optimal utilization of transmission capacities • Would facilitate achieving objective of cost effective delivery of power. . in phases in distribution.key to long term sustainability of the power sector. • Respective State Regulatory Commissions to facilitative framework for open access.OPEN ACCESS IN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION • Electricity Act & National Electricity Policy mandates non-discriminatory open access in transmission and.

PRESENT POWER SCENARIO .

S.E. 2008) st NUCLEAR 4120 2.. 24.8% R.4% HYDRO.8% THERMAL 93115 64% TOTAL IC-1.627 MW .45. 12195 8. 36198.INSTALLED CAPACITY IN THE COUNTRY (as on 31 August.

CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY MINISTRY OF POWER GOVERNMENT OF INDIA EVOLUTION OF UNIT SIZE OF COAL BASED POWER PLANTS  Largest unit size in 1950-30 MW  First re-heat unit of 82.5 MW in 1966 at Bandel TPS  First 200 MW unit at Obra TPS in 1977  First 500 MW unit at Trombay in 1984  Committee constituted by CEA recommended 800 to 1000 MW unit size in future  In 11th Plan 800/660 MW units planned .

Pr MS/RH Temp Gross Efficiency (HHV ) (%) ~31 32-33 Unit Size kg/cm2 30-50 60-100 60 90 oC 482 535 110/120/140 210 250 500 130 150 150 170 535/535 535/535 535/535 538/538 35-36 37.6 210/250 & 500 MW Units Constitute Over 80% of the Total Capacity .8 38.4 38.CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY MINISTRY OF POWER GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PREVAILING UNIT SIZES IN INDIA MS.

125.87 11.41 .03.Details of IC of renewable energy sources (As on 31.63 2034.2008) Sources / Systems Wind Power Installed Capacity ( MW) Biomass Power & Biomass Gasifiers Small Hydro Power Solar power & others Total 7666.84 1325.07 87.

TRANSMISSION & NATIONAL GRID  Development in a phased manner – commensurate with generation / load growth.  High capacity lines (HVDC & 765 kV) .  Economy in generation through efficient transmission  Conservation of Right-of-Way  In forest areas with rich flora & fauna. construction of lines with high towers / high voltage rating – leading to reduced forest cutting.

EVOLUTION OF ELECTRIC GRID National Grid Regional Grids with ATS of Central Generation State Grids by SEBs Interconnecting Regional Grids with HVDC 1990s 1970-80s Shift from Regional self sufficiency concept to National level Planning 1950’s Local 1950-60’s 2000 onwards Towards National Grid System .

….BENEFITS OF NATIONAL GRID Encourage Competition and Choice by facilitating electricity trade 1129 % increase in number of approved transactions in Short-term Open Access at Inter State level 82% increase in volume of energy traded in Short-term Open Access at Inter State level 35000 30000 30000 25000 22526 Energy in Millon Units 23134 20000 16441 15000 10000 5000 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Energy Traded (Contd.) .

74 53 60 40 20 0 2001-02 3 4 2002-03 7 0 2 0 2004-05 Year 1 0 2005-06 0 0 2006-07 Minor 0 0 2007-08 Major 2003-04 . ….) Security and Reliability enhanced by reduction in number of grid disturbances Grid Disturbances 100 80 Nos.BENEFITS OF NATIONAL GRID (Contd.

Development of Transmission Voltages Levels • 132 kV Highest level at the time of Independence • Iintroduction of 220 kV in 1960 • 400 kV in 1977 • HVDC back-to-back link in 1989. • 500kV. HVDC bi-pole line in 1990 • 765 kV transmission line from 2000 onwards. .

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072 1997 2002 2007 2008 ( upto Feb ) 2012 (proj.) Source: CEA .927 150.290 209.GROWTH OF HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINKS Cumulative HT Lines 220 KV and above (in ckm) 293.210 197.477 119.

2005.201108 12 (Projected) As per UN Methodology (Gross Electrical Energy Availability / Source: CEA Population) .199081 91 2000.200601 05 06 07 2007.PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY IN INDIA Growth Pattern kWh/year 613 632 672 704 1000 559 348 176 1980.2004.

only about 56% of households have access to electricity. with rural access being 44% and urban access about 82%.6% (2007-08).STATUS OF POWER SECTOR Country facing energy shortage of 9. As per Census 2001. .8% and peak shortage of 16. Annual per capita consumption about 704 kWh as against world average of about ~2400 KWh.

052 6.793 (-)18.6 (-)9.660 (-)72.64.392 1.ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY POSITION OF THE COUNTRY (2007-08) Peak (MW) Requirement Availability (-)Shortage/ (+)Surplus Energy (MU) 7.37.8 .886 90.08.093 (%) (-)16.

861 (-)Shortage/ (+)Surplus (%) (-) 15.952 (-) 10.08) Peak (MW) Requirement Availability 1.6 (-)33.813 2.18.08-August.922 91.ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY POSITION OF THE COUNTRY (April.559 (-) 14.84.363 Energy (MU) 3.06.6 .

which are – Cess on captive power generation not to be imposed.335 MW (10th Plan end) • Open Access to be made effective • Efforts underway to resolve crucial issues.22.CAPTIVE POWER • National Electricity Policy stipulates liberal provisions for setting up captive power plants • Installed Capacity if Captive plants. . – Wheeling charges for transfer of surplus power may not exceed 7% of the generation cost within the state.

• Very high cross subsidies surcharge levied by some state.Captive Power • Very high electricity duty imposed on captive power generation by some states. . To be brought down • Fixation of reasonable tariff by State Regulatory Commission for surplus power available from CPPs. • To make available additional fuel required by CPPs • SERC’s to promote arrangements between cogenerator and concerned distribution licensee for purchase of surplus power from cogeneration plants.

MAJOR PROBLEMS OF POWER SECTOR • Inadequate power generation capacity • Lack of optimum utilization of the existing generation capacity • Inadequate inter-regional transmission links • Inadequate and ageing sub-transmission & distribution network Cont.. .

MAJOR PROBLEMS OF POWER SECTOR • High T&D losses. large scale theft and skewed tariff structure • Slow pace of rural electrification • Inefficient use of electricity by end consumer • Lack of grid discipline .

CAPACITY ADDITION PLANNING FOR 11TH AND 12TH PLAN .

114 MW.110 21. Nuclear – 1180 MW .281 19.180* 6 * Thermal -12.10TH PLAN –TARGET AND ACTUAL CAPACITY ADDITION (MW)  Original Target  Capacity Slipped / Dropped  Net Capacity Addition from Original Target  Additional Projects identified during the Plan   Capacity Slipping from additional projects Net Capacity Addition from additional Projects 1.829 8.351 41.886 MW. Hydro – 7.969 Net Capacity added during 10 TH Plan 21.320 6.

MAJOR REASONS FOR SLIPPAGES FROM 10th PLAN (MW) Original Plan S. Court Cases Law & Order Problems Nuclear projects included on best effort basis(otherwise scheduled for XI plan) Adjustment due to change of size Total .No 1 2 Major Reasons for Slippage Delay in supplies/erection by suppliers/ contractors Delay in tie-up super critical technology by BHEL (one unit at Sipat and one at Kahalgaon were replaced by 500 MW units) Non-availability of Gas Delay in award of works mainly in state sector/NLC Projects not taken up/Escrow cover not given/financial closure not achieved/funds not tied up Delay in clearance/investment decision (Hydro projects) Hydro Project .delay in environmental clearance.281MW * Out of a total additional capacity of 8320 MW identified during Mid –Term Review . R&R issues. delay in signing of MoU. geological surprises. natural calamities.990 14554 220 6507 500 Thermal 2670 3960 1713 1423 5278 2391 3155 60 1220 91 6969* 222 1450 835 23 Nuclear 220 Hydro 679 Additional ProjectsThermal 3350 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total slippage: 21.

e. Coal quality improvement • . IGCC).Major Steps of Integrated approach • • • Capacity Addition from Conventional fuel based plants complemented by Renewable Energy based plants to extent possible. Introduction of Clean Coal Technologies (Supercritical Technology. Ultra supercritical technology. R&M of Old thermal power projects. Retirement of old and small size generating units. National Electricity Plan based on Conventional Energy Sources with priority to Hydro and Nuclear plants Strategies/ Initiatives being taken/ required to be taken for low carbon growth i.e. Other measures to reduce pollution i. Reduction in T&D losses.

high capital cost. • Active steps to harness Nuclear energy on a larger scale being taken but contribution minor as yet. New Hydro Policy to encourage private participation in hydro power generation. Constraints restricting progress are large gestation period.CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY MINISTRY OF POWER POWER GENERATION POWER GENERATION . law & order etc. • Renewables. Issues such as R&R. • Limited dependability on gas based capacity Availability of gas at reasonable rates being a constraint for gas based projects. .843 MW gas based capacity envisaged.STRATEGY - GOVERNMENT OF INDIA STRATEGY • Large emphasis on hydro development. During 11th Plan only about 6.

Continuous efforts directed at generating maximum energy from each tonne of coal with minimum effect on environment .STRATEGY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA . • Coal based power projects expected to be main stay of Indian Power Sector for next 50-70 years.CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY MINISTRY OF POWER POWER GENERATION POWER GENERATION .STRATEGY • Renewable energy sources to be made economically viable.At present can play dominant role in meeting remote located demands where not economic to extend the grid.

18 to 2021-22) 14th Plan (2022-23 to 2026 .12) 12th Plan (2012-13 to 2016-17) 13th Plan (2017 .Development of Hydro Power projects Plan Period Hydro Capacity Total Hydro Capacity Addition (MW) at the end of plan (MW) 15627 30000 31000 36494 50280 80280 111280 147774 11th Plan (2007-08 to 2011 .27) .

000 (12th Plan) 9.070* ( 11th Plan) 94.5% (over 2006-07) 2016-17 1470 2.209 7.DEMAND AND CAPACITY REQUIREMENT Year Energy Requirement (BU) Peak Demand (MW) Proposed Capacity Addition during 5 year plan (MW) Generation growth rate (CAGR) 2011-12 1038 1.000 77.52.4% (over 2011-12) * Feasible capacity as per latest assessment .18.

783 MW (34%) 36.874 MW 47% Total 78.700 MW .043 MW (19%) PVT SECTOR STATE SECTOR CENTRAL SECTOR 26.CAPACITY ADDITION TARGETTED FOR 11th PLAN (SECTORWISE) 15.

3% HYDRO.000 MW : Captive – 12.070* MW NUCLEAR. 75.183MW.609 MW.280 MW) : New Renewables – 14.7.FEASIBLE CAPACITY ADDITION FOR 11th PLAN – 77.000 MW * Feasible capacity as per latest assessment Additional capacity expected .2. 20. 58.380MW. Gas.2% THERMAL.507MW.293 MW. 4. 15.183 MW ( Coal – 48. 3.5% Thermal – 58. Lignite.

Coal Linkage available for 96% of projects .11.666 MW (83%) under construction .000 MW gas based projects if gas available at reasonable price .720 MW thermal projects under best effort  Additional 13.65.    11th Plan – 77.000 MW slippages due to causes attributable to equipment suppliers and contractors.All gas based projects under execution or gas tied up from local sources category.11TH PLAN TARGET AND STATUS  10th Plan capacity addition only 21.85% hydro capacity under construction .404 MW capacity already commissioned (Till date) .180 MW. About 11.   Additional 3.070 MW .

.INTERNATIONAL CONCLAVE ON KEY INPUTS  On 4th-5th July.2007 organized by CBIP/MoP/CEA. Purpose-To discuss issues to be addressed to ensure timely Implementation of projects during 11th Plan and beyond .

Ash Handling.MAJOR ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO BE ADDRESSED • Manufacturing Capability/ Availability of Main Plant and Balance Of Plant Equipment Constraints in supply of main equipment for thermal capacity as well as in supply of balance of plant like Coal Handling plant. CW Pumps etc. . Water treatment plants.  Need to develop additional domestic players to adequately meet additional demand and promote competition.

tunneling. dam construction etc.  Serious efforts needed by major power companies to develop vendors for supply and erection of equipment and for taking up civil construction.  New technologies and Use of latest construction machinery for hydro projects required for fast progress in construction. Chimneys .Limited contractors in erection of cooling towers.MAJOR ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO BE ADDRESSED • Construction and Erection Agencies & Equipment  Augmentation required in number of construction agencies undertaking Civil & E&M works at power plants . .

Coal .MAJOR ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO BE ADDRESSED • Fuel Availability  Requirement of coal for 11th Plan – 550 MT. MoP to formulate Fuel Supply Transport Agreement . Availability at present36 MMSCMD. 40 MT equivalent of 68 MT of Indian coal to be imported  Requirement of gas (90% PLF) – 89 MMSCMD. gas not sufficient • Transportation for fuel and equipment  Establishment of new rail links for coal evacuation from coal mining blocks  Railways.

increasing test facilities.  Franchisees to be developed in rural areas and local community to be trained.Substantial augmentation in manufacturing capacity of transformers.  Strengthening of erection and commissioning teams and development of new vendors  Increase in demand of CRGO  Shortage of indigenous materials and Equipment viz. . meters.MAJOR ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO BE ADDRESSED • Transmission & Distribution Equipment  Need for capacity building for transmission and distribution system including supply of equipment and execution of works . online test facilities and mobile repair facilities. single phase distribution transformers and switchgears. OLTC and bushings.  Installation of LT Capacitors to be speeded up.  More agencies required for turnkey execution of projects. Need for indigenous manufacturing capacity for 765 KV voltage level equipment.

gradually increase to 5% for meeting training needs  Man power requirement during 11th Plan is 1 Million for Construction and O& M .MAJOR ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO BE ADDRESSED • Critical Key Inputs     To encourage domestic steel producers for production of CRGO Advanced planning for material to be imported CRGO to be exempt from custom duty Detailed analysis by Planning Commission to assess requirement of various key input considering requirement of all sectors of economy • Manpower Development & Training  CEA has taken up with project developers and major EPC contractors to adopt ITI in vicinity of projects to build up skilled manpower pool for Power Sector to be utilized by them.  Quick implementation of National Training Policy’s recommendation allocation of separate funds of 1.5% of salary budget .

MAJOR ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO BE ADDRESSED • • • Delays in clearances Testing facilities to be increased and CPRI to play a proactive role R&D  Power Utilities as well as manufacturing units to enhance budget allocation for R&D  To attract young talent .

000 MW .100 1400 Total 14.500 2.11th Plan tentative targets for grid interactive renewable power (Figures in MW) Sources / Systems Wind Power Biomass Power Baggasse Cogeneration Biomass Gasifiers Small Hydro (up to 25 MW) Target for 11th plan 10.000 Targets for 12th Plan likely to be at least 14.

08.07. 82. .88.655 in 2008 (as on 31.Village Electrification Number of villages electrified increased from 3061 in 1950 to about 4.3% village electrification).

by 12th Plan end about 38.000 MW Renewable power expected. • Assuming PLF of 20 %. • This energy considered while planning for 12th Plan .000 MW during 12th Plan also.Renewable Energy Sources during 12th Plan • Capacity addition during 12th Plan expected to be more than 11th Plan due to incentives by MNRE for setting up of Solar and Wind power plants • Considering at least 14. generation about 67 BU.

3000MW S.18%. Capacity corresponding to 3000 MW and 1600 MW also worked out • 25. • As result of studies 12th Plan total Generating capacity 94.000 MW Hydro and 8. 14.800 MW Coastal) • Capacity with 1600 MW S.R: LOLP – 0.18.R.81.2. Lignite 60 MT • All India Studies for 5% S.15%) .92.171 MW thermal.495 MW LC.431 which includes 61.(28.570 MW.00% (Norms – LOLP-1% & ENS. Peak Demand.500 MW Nuclear as must run stations. 15. – 82.970 MW • Fuel consumption(2016-17) – Coal 815 MT.12th Plan Tentative Capacity Addition • Demand as per 17th EPS – Energy Requirement – 13.066 BU.190 MW PH. ENS – 0.209 MW • Spinning Reserve – 5% as per National Electricity Policy.R..0.

000 MW.007 %.560 MW including 6000 MW gas) • LOLP-0. Peak Demand.2.380 MW capacity greater than 100 MW unit size) • Studies indicate 13th Plan capacity addition-1. .634 MW capacity upto 100 MW unit size and 31.500 MW.98.14.060 MW (Hydro-34.19.13th Plan Tentative Capacity Expansion ASSUMPTIONS • 17th EPS Demand – Energy Requirement.5% . Thermal -62.014 MW Coal & Lignite based capacity more than 27 yrs old. (5. • Beginning of 13th Plan 37.508 MU.05. Reliability Criteria met. Nuclear -8.18 % and ENS-0.253 MW • Spinning Reserve .

STRATEGIES FOR CLEAN AND GREEN ENVIRONMENT .

Existing status of CO2 per capita emission – different countries
Country India USA Australia U.K Japan China World
Per capita CO2 emission in 2004 (tonnes/MWhr of CO2) 1.2 20.6 16.2 9.8 9.9 3.8 4.5

UNDP Human Development report 2007/08

• Clean Coal technologies
 Supercritical Technology – 2% efficiency gain possible  Ultra Supercritical Technology –additional efficiency 0.75% over 800 MW supercritical  Integrated Gasification Technology – higher efficiency of 4045%

• Reduction in T & D losses – All India T&D losses- 28.65%
in 2006-07. Aim to bring down to 15%

• R & M of old thermal power stations – Benefits of CDM to be extended to overcome fund constraints • Energy Efficiency improvement

TECHNOLOGIES USED AT COMBUSTION STAGE Clean coal technologies( CCT) – have pollution abatement in energy conversion process so external environmental control equipments not required
MINISTRY OF POWER GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY

• Adoption of Supercritical technology • Ultra supercritical (USC) and advanced USC technology • Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion ( CFBC) • Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) • Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) • In-Situ gasification • Low NOx burners • Oxy-fuel combustion

580 4.6 .UNIT-WISE DETAILS OF I.250 34.3 500 36 18. OF UNITS CAPACITY(MW) DESIGN EFFICIENCY(%) Actual Operating Efficiency(%) Upto 100 95 5634 28.000 38.04 38.4 35.3 >100 & upto 199 200/210 250 73 157 17 8440 33.C (coal + lignite)( as on 31/3/2007) UNIT SIZE IN MW NO.6 to 37.2 to 31.

13th & 14th Plans 600 MW (nos) 500 MW (nos) 250/300 200/210 125/135 Total /330 MW MW Subcritical MW (nos) (nos) MW (nos) 7 62 12 0 0 9 6 0 0 0 4 14 2 0 0 9620 45470 18270 4000 0 10TH Plan 11TH Plan 12th Plan 13TH Plan 14th Plan 0 8 7 0 0 11 42 20 8 0 . 11th . 12th.Sub-critical units in 10th.

Super-critical units in 10th . 12th .300 61.300 . 13th & 14th Plans Total Sub critical MW 10TH Plan 11TH Plan 9620 45470 660 MW (nos) 800 MW (nos) Total Super critical MW 0 5420 Total MW 0 7 0 1 9620 50890 12th Plan 13TH Plan 14th Plan 18270 4000 0 25 36 45 33 36 52 42. 11th .170 56.560 71.560 71.900 52.

Comparison of Sub-critical/Super critical Capacity In Various Plans (MW) 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 9620 18270 5420 0 45470 42900 52560 71300 10000 0 10th Plan 4000 0 11th Plan 12th Plan 13th Plan 14th Plan Sub-Critical Super Critical .

80 (2006-07) .44% (2006-07) (coal & lignite based plants) • Present weighted average CO2 emission rate (t CO2 /MWh) (including imports) : 0.ALL INDIA EFFICIENCY AND EMISSION RATES • All India thermal efficiency – 32.

3 471 .99 36.4 278 13th Plan 56500 231595 1542 1028 1507 0.3 182 12th Plan 58485 175095 1164 785 1152 0.96 37.02 35.Likely Coal Based Capacity Addition & Expected Emission End of The Plan Coal Based Capaci ty Additio n (MW) Cumulati ve Coal Base d Capacity (MW) Total Gener ation from Coal Based Plants (BU) Coal Consumpti on (MT) Co2 Emissio n (MT) Co2 Emissio n per unit of Thermal Generati on Expected Ther mal Effici ency Total Ash Genera tion (MT) 11th Plan 50240 116610 708 492 722 1.97 36.85 363 14th Plan 72000 303595 2033 1337 1961 0.

Coal Price Data. Monthly Energy If Hydro Project.Life of the plant. Auxiliary Consumption.Requirement Of Planning Process Data of Existing Plants  Outage Rate. Capital Cost. Heat Rate.Capacity (MW). Executing Agency Candidate Projects Demand data Load Curves Hourly demand data of Past one Year .

Planning Models In CEA • Integrated System Planning (ISPLAN) • Expansion Generation Electric Analysis System (EGEAS) • Multysym Model .

Thank You .