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HEAT TRANSFER Convection with Phase Change (Boiling and Condensation) .

Heat transfer is a discipline of THERMAL ENGINEERING that concerns the exchange of THERMAL ENERGY from one physical system to another. and phase-change transfer.HEAT TRANSFER Heat is defined in physics as the transfer of thermal energy across a well-defined boundary around a thermodynamic system . . thermal radiation. Heat transfer only occurs because of a temperature-difference driving force and heat flows from the high to the low temperature region. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms. convection. such as heat conduction.

Convection The transfer of energy between an object and its environment. due to fluid motion Radiation The transfer of energy to or from a body by means of the emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation.The fundamental modes of heat transfer are Conduction or diffusion The transfer of energy between objects that are in physical contact. .

It cannot take place in solids.e. gases).CONVECTION Convection is the movement of molecules within fluids (i. liquids. convection plays a role in the Earth's atmosphere. since neither bulk current flows nor significant diffusion can take place in solids. . Discrete convective cells in the atmosphere can be seen as clouds. is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids Due to its role in heat transfer. with stronger convection resulting in thunderstorms. and its mantle. convection. its oceans.

as a result of some external condition. . pressure.Phase Change A phase transition is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase or state of matter to another. resulting in an abrupt change in volume. such as temperature. During a phase transition of a given medium certain properties of the medium change. often discontinuously. and others. a liquid may become gas upon heating to the boiling point. The measurement of the external conditions at which the transformation occurs is termed the phase transition point. For example.

. . It is the convective heat transfer process that involves a phase change from liquid to vapour state.Boiling Boiling is associated with transformation of liquid to vapor at a solid/liquid interface due to convection heat transfer from the solid.

Special cases Pool Boiling : Liquid motion is due to natural convection and bubble-induced mixing. as well as by bubble-induced mixing. Saturated Boiling : Liquid temperature is slightly larger than saturation temperature Sub cooled Boiling : Liquid temperature is less than saturation temperature . Forced Convection Boiling : Fluid motion is induced by external means.

The boiling curve .

the latent heat of vaporization must be released. . is of great significance in industry. The amount of the heat is the same as that absorbed during vaporization at the same fluid pressure. During condensation. . like boiling. Condensation heat transfer.Condensation The CONDENSATION process is the reverse of boiling process! Condensation occurs when a vapor is cooled and changes its phase to a liquid.

a vapor will condense to liquid when it is cooled sufficiently or comes in contact with something (e.Condensation Condensation is the process by which a vapor is converted to its liquid state.g. For this reason the condensation process is used in many thermal systems In general. a solid or another fluid) that is below its equilibrium temperature.. a significant amount of heat can be released during the condensation process. . Because of the large internal energy difference between the liquid and vapor states.


FILM CONDENSATION IF the condensate tends to wet the surface and there by forms a liquid film . the heat from the vapour to the cooling medium is transferred through the film of the condensate formed on the surface. then the process is known as ”FILM CONDENSATION” Here. .

DROPWISE CONDENSATION • • THE vapour condenses into small liquid droplets of various sizes which fall down the surface in random fashion. THE drops form in cracks and pits on the surface . break away from the surface . grow in size . knock off other droplets and eventually run off the surface . without forming a film under the influence of gravity. .

These droplets then flow downwards. This film can then flow downwards. increasing in thickness as additional vapour is picked up along the way. accumulating static droplets below them along the way . VS In drop wise condensation vapour droplets form at an acute angle to a surface.COMPARISION Film wise and Drop wise are 2 forms of condensationIn film wise condensation a laminar film of vapour is created upon a surface.