Jigs and Fixtures

Definitions
 Jig: A device that holds the
work and locates the path of the tool.

 Fixture: A device fixed to the
worktable of a machine and locates the work in an exact position relative to the cutting tool.
Superior Jig

 J& F are precision tools,
expensive to manufacture

Difference between Jig & Fixture
Jig 1. Used to guide and hold the workpiece 2.Used to drilling and related operations only 3. It is lighter in weight & construction 4.It requires drill bushes Fixture 1.Only hold the workpiece 2. Used for milling, boring, grinding,shaping 3. It is heavier in weight & construction 4. It require setting block

Components of JIGS & Fixture
1. Body-Sufficiently rigid bodies (plate, box or frame structure 2. Locating elements-position the w/p in relation to cutting
tool

3. Clamping elements-hold the w/p firmly against the action
of cutting force

4. Tool guiding element & Setting element
Drill-guiding element –drill bush Fixture-setting element setting block

5.Positioning elements-include different types of fastening
devices, which are used in securing the J& F in position

6. Indexing elements: indexed to different position in order to perform machining operations at different locations

Two main types of jigs:
 For machining purposes

Locates the component, holds it firmly in place, and guides the cutting tool.
Locates separate component parts and holds them rigidly in their correct positions while they are being connected.

 For assembly purposes

Northwestern Tools

Types of Drill jig
 Plate jig (also called open jig or drill
template)
 

The simplest type of drill jig Consists of a plate with holes to guide the drills, and may have locating pins that locate the workpiece on the jig

Channel Jig
 C shaped
frame containing the required no of drill bushes.  No of clamps depends on size of the w/p

Box Jig

 Drilling on more than one plane  Legs are provided opposite to
each drilling bush plate for positioning the jig on machine table.  One side is provided with a swinging leaf for loading & unloading  It permits drilling holes in 3 sides of the workpiece with a single clamping and location

Turnover Jig

 It is used when other types

of jigs are unsuitable because of the workpiece shape, obstruction in the place where hole is to be drilled  It has four foot nuts during loading of workpiece  Then Inverted in position during machining operation

Angle jig or post jig
 It is also called as post jig  Jig locators are generally
fixed to the vertical wall of the angular body  The w/p is located by central locator  It is used when holes to be drilled perpendicular to the axis of w/p

Leaf jig

 It has hinged on the jig

body  Can be swung aside to allow for loading and unloading of the w/p from the top  Other end of the plate is clamped by the hand knob in the eye bolt  Screws are used to clamp the w/p

Type of Fixtures-depend on the application
Milling fixture- device which is
firmly clamped to the table of the milling m/c

It consist of-heavy base ,locating
and clamping elements It also consist of setting block that establish a correct relation of the w/p to the cutters Tenons- are provided under the fixture base these tenons enter the T-slot of the table to provide the proper location Fixture is clamped to table by means of nuts & bolts
Standard Parts Co.

Turning Fixture
 It is either held in
chuck or fixed to a face plate  Consist of base, location and clamping devices, arrangement to fasten the fixtures on the lathe.

Degrees of freedom

 When body is free to

move or rotate in any direction ,then it has degree of freedom  Any w/p in free space has 12 degrees of freedom  1.Freedom of Translation  2. Freedom of Rotation

Degrees of freedom
1.Translation- Body can move in three directions
that are mutually perpendicular to each other These three directions are along the three axes XX,YY and ZZ Considering the movements in opposite direction along three axes there are six linear movement of freedom in translation

2.RotationFree w/p in space can rotate along three mutually perpendicular axes These three rotations along the XX,YY,ZZ plane Considering the rotation along clockwise and anticlockwise direction constitutes six rotational movements of the w/p

3-2-1 principle
 It suggest that six locators are sufficient to restrict the
necessary degrees of freedom of any w/p

 The locators are placed as
i.
Three locators are kept at the bottom of the w/p this restricts the movement of w/p in downward direction(-Z).Also the w/p cant rotate about XX and YY axes thus 5 degrees of freedom are arrested

ii)

Two locators are inserted in the fixed body in a plane perpendicular to the earlier one. This has resrticted the movement of w/p in a linear direction(-x).Also the w/p cannot rotate about the vertical axes.Thus 3 degree of freedom are resticted

iii) one locator is inserted in the fixed body in the plane perpendicular to the fixed planes.This has restricted the movements of the w/p in another linear direction(-Y) thus six locators has restricted nine degrees of freedom,three linear movements (-X,-Y,-Z) and all the six rotational movements.The three degrees of freedom in linear direction(+X,+Y,+Z) are still free

Locators
 Locators are pins which are inserted in the
   
body of J&F against which the w/p is forced a proper relationship between w/p & J or F Ends are chamfered to ensure good seating in w/p & J or F body Various sizes, shapes The locating diameter of the pin is made larger than shank to prevent from being forcrd into J or F body

Types Of LOcators
1. Cylindrical Locator
Is a pin with shoulder which prevents it from being pushed into jig body Used when hole is available in w/p It constraints all degrees of freedom except rotation about its own axis Ends Are chafered

Conical Locator
 A conical locator is used for locating the
workpieces having cylindrical hole in the workpiece.  The workpiece is found located by supporting it over the conical locator inserted into the drilled hole of the workpiece.  A conical locator is considered as superior as it has a capacity to accommodate a slight variation in the hole diameter of the component without affecting the accuracy of location.  Degree of freedom along z-axis can also be

restrained by putting a template over the workpiece with the help of screws.

V-location
 In V-location, work pieces having cylindricalor
semicircular profile are located by means of a Vee block. The block should be used accurately so that the variation in the work piece size are not detrimental to location.

The V-Block
V-Blocks can be used to hold cylindrical stock for machining or drilling operations

 Vee can be used for both locating and

clamping purpose for this two Vee can be used, one fixed other sliding one. Fixed Vee is used for locating and sliding one for clamping.

 The sliding Vee block may be actuated by
means of a hand operated screw.

Diamond pin locator
 When two locators are
used to constrain same degrees of freedom then in in such case the cylindrical locator is used as a principle locator  The second locator is used to restricted rotational degree of freedom-it is a diamond pin which is slightly larger than w/p hole

Cee Washer Clamp

Clamping

 Clamping devices

Drill jig components
 Locating devices

Pins, pads, and recesses used to locate the workpiece on the jig.

Drill jig terms
 Drill bushings

Precision tools that guide cutting tools such as drill and reamers into precise locations in a workpiece.
Accurate Bushing Co.

Drill jig components
 Locking pins

Inserted to lock or hold the work piece securely to the jig plate while subsequent holes are being drilled.

The V-Block

Strap clamps affix vblocks to the mill table

V-block setup holding a piece of copper tubing

Driil Bushes

Renewable Bush

Bushings

Designing jigs
 Jigs can also be
designed as per requirement of the workpiece for holding and other machining operations.
Northwestern Tools

Uses of Jig and fixture
 Reduce cost of production.  Increase the production.  To assure high accuracy of parts  Provide for interchangeability  Enable heavy and complex parts to machine  Reduced quality control expenses.  Increased versatility of machine tool.  Less skilled labour.  Saving labour.  Partially automates the machine tools  Use improve the safety, accidents low