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Phases in Product Design and Development …..

Idea generation. Product development begins with idea generation. Ideas can come from a variety of sources. Feasibility analysis. Feasibility analysis entails market analysis (demand), economic analysis (development cost and production cost, profit potential), and technical analysis (capacity requirements and availability, and the skills needed). Also, it is necessary to answer the question, Does it fit with the mission? It requires collaboration among marketing, finance, accounting, engineering, and operations. Product specifications. This involves detailed descriptions of what is needed to meet (or exceed) customer wants, and requires collaboration between legal, marketing, and operations. Process specifications. Once product specifications have been set, attention turns to specifications for the process that will be needed to produce the product. Alternatives must be weighed in terms of cost, availability of resources, profit potential, and quality. This involves collaboration between accounting and operations.


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Phases in Product Design and Development …..2
Prototype development. With product and process specifications complete, one (or a few) units are made to see if there are any problems with the product or process specifications. Design review. Make any necessary changes, or abandon. Involves collaboration among marketing, finance, engineering, design, and operations. Market test. A market test is used to determine the extent of consumer acceptance. If unsuccessful, return to the design review phase. This phase is handled by marketing. Product introduction. Promote the product. This phase is handled by marketing. Follow-up evaluation. Determine if changes are needed, and refine forecasts. This phase is handled by marketing.


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1-Robust Design and Taguchi Loss function
• Goods that are insensitive to external sources of variation are called Robust . • Instead of constantly directing effort toward controlling a process to assure a consistent quality ,design the manufactured good to achieve high quality despite the variations that will occur on the production line .


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1-Taguchi Loss Function 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 4 .

x-.1-The Taguchi Loss Function • Taguchi measured quality as the variation from the target value of a design specification and then translated that variation into an economic ‘’Loss Function ‘’that expresses the cost of variation in monitory terms . • L(X)=k(x-T)(x-T) Where L(x) is the monitory value of the Loss associated with Deviation from the Target .is the actual value of the Dimension . a constant that translates the deviation into Dollars . 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 5 .

2/27/2013 seshasayee m 6 .failure mode analysis and design review. • Value analysis refers to cost reduction of the manufactured good or service process .value analysis .2-Quality Engineering • Quality Engineering refers to a process of designing quality into a manufactured good based on a prediction of potential quality problems prior to production . • Value engineering refers to cost avoidance or cost prevention before the good or service is created . • Tools of quality engineering available are value engineering .

2-Quality Engineering • Design reviews ensures that all important design objectives are taken into account during the design process . 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 7 . • Design for manufacturability (DFM)is a technique for evaluating product designs to ensure they can be built efficiently using available technology .

For e.the cause of failure .g. • • • • Failure –Socket cracked Causes Excess Heat .a typical FMEA for that component might be .the effect or consequence of failure .and how it can be corrected by improving the design . one of the components of a table lamp is the socket .2-Quality Engineering • Failure mode and Effects analysis (FMEA)is a technique in which a product is listed along with the way it may fail .may cause shock Correction –Use improved materials 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 8 .forcing the bulb too hard Effect.

FMEA -Failure mode and Effects analysis 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 9 .

where 1 is extremely unlikely and 10 is inevitable. • Detection is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10. • . or O. This is the severity rating. Severity is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10. where 1 is insignificant and 10 is catastrophic.Ratings • . This rating estimates the probability of failure occurring for that reason during the lifetime of your scope. where 1 means the control is absolutely certain to detect the problem and 10 means the control is certain not to detect the problem (or no control exists). Occurrence is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 10 .Determine how serious each effect is. determine the occurrence rating.For each cause. or S.

• RPN = Severity × Occurrence × Detection. • The smaller the RPN the better. the worse. The high RPNs will assist you in providing a justification for corrective action on each failure mode. have been determined. A pareto analysis should be performed based on the RPNs once all the possible failure modes. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 11 .RPN Risk Priority Number • The RPN is the critical indicator for determining proper corrective action on the failure modes. • The RPN is calculated by multiplying the severity (1–10). occurrence (1–10) and detection ranking (1–10) levels resulting in a scale from 1 to 1000. therefore. the larger. effects and causes.

ATM Example 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 12 .

quality .3-Product and Process Simplification • Product and process simplification is the process of trying to simplify designs to reduce complexity and costs and thus improve productivity .flexibility and customer satisfaction • Modular design entails designing goods using modules that can be configured in many different ways resulting in higher product variety and ease of assembly (Variants ) 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 13 .

• Design for environment is the explicit consideration of environmental concerns during the design of goods services and processes and includes • Such practices as designing for recycling and disassembly .4-Design For environmental Quality • A focus on improving the environment by better good or service design is often called green manufacturing or green practices . 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 14 .

• The probability that the product will function successfully equals the mathematical product of the probabilities of all its subcomponents 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 15 . • The reliability of individual components must be greater than the reliability desired for the final product .5-Product Reliability • Product Reliability is the probability that the product will perform as intended for a prescribed life time under specific operating conditions .

Use backups.Ways to improve reliability Ways to improve reliability • • • • • • Improve component design. Improve user education. Improve testing. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 16 . • Improve system design. Improve preventive maintenance procedures. Improve production and/or assembly techniques.

Series Production System Robot (P1) Turning P2 Milling P3 Grinder P4 Rs= (P1)(P2)(P3)……Pn 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 17 .

Parallel Systems Comp1 Comp 2 Comp3 RP= 1-(12/27/2013 seshasayee m P1)(1.P2)(1.P3)……(1.Pn) 18 .

2/27/2013 seshasayee m 19 .6-Service Delivery System Design • • • • • Facility Location and lay out The servicescape Process and Job Design Technology and Information Support System Organizational Structure .

7-Service Process Design • Service Process Design is the activity of developing an efficient sequences of activities to satisfy both internal and external customer requirements • Technology and Information Systems have enhanced Service Design . 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 20 .

Feasibility. etc • Design • Eco Analysis • Prototype Testing • Final Design Process Design 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 21 .Product Dev Process •Ideas • Screening .

Product Life Cycle 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 22 .

beginning with a low demand during market development .may be decades .Product life cycle Products go through a series of stages. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 23 .and finally decline The time span of the stages vary considerably across industries .maturity .proceeding through growth . For novelty products the span may be few weeks or months For other products the life cycle may span many years .high-volume saturation .

Sequential and concurrent Design 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 24 .

The emphasis can be on problem resolution instead of conflict resolution.Concurrent Engineering Bringing design and manufacturing engineering people together early in the design phase to simultaneously develop the product and the processes for creating the product. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 25 . • • • • Advantages: Manufacturing personnel are able to identify production capabilities and capacities. some of which might have long lead times. Early consideration of the technical feasibility of a particular design or a portion of a design. Early opportunities for design or procurement of critical tooling.

S Industry suffers losses to its competitors mostly to Japanese by adopting sequential approach to new product development .The result is slow non integrated and expensive development .The western approach subdivides the overall development effort into subtasks for technical specialists in diverse depts. • Isolated these specialists focus on their own specialty .Competitive losses from Disintegrated Design Process • U. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 26 .There is a time delay .The competitors have more generalists and willing to clarify design objectives at the early stages of development. The result-the competitors products reach the market very fast .

CIM centers around a shared data base for four primary manufacturing Process viz . Through the integration of computers. It is also known as flexible design and manufacturing.CIM • Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes. and information management 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 27 .manufacturing engineering .factory production. based on real-time input from sensors.Engineering Design . manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone.

CADD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. CADD software. is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. and manufacturing processes. provides the user with inputtools for the purpose of streamlining design processes. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. or environments. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 28 . documentation. also known as computeraided design and drafting (CADD) .CAD • Computer-aided design (CAD). drafting.

The Bathtub Curve 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 29 .

• The second part is a constant failure rate.The Bath tub curve • The bathtub curve consists of three periods: an infant mortality period with a decreasing failure rate followed by a normal life period (also known as "useful life") with a low. known as early failures. known as wear-out failures 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 30 . • The third part is an increasing failure rate. It describes a particular form of the hazard function which comprises three parts: • The first part is a decreasing failure rate. • The bathtub curve is widely used in reliability engineering. known as random failures. relatively constant failure rate and concluding with a wear-out period that exhibits an increasing failure rate.

etc. others (we hope most) will last until wear-out. but describes the relative failure rate of an entire population of products over time. Some individual units will fail relatively early (infant mortality failures). Normal life failures are normally considered to be random cases of "stress exceeding strength 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 31 . does not depict the failure rate of a single item. • Failures during infant mortality are highly undesirable and are always caused by defects and blunders: material defects. design blunders. errors in assembly. and some will fail during the relatively long period typically called normal life.The Bath tub Curve • The bathtub curve.

• Development is technical activity concerned with translating basic or applied research results into products or processes . • Applied Research is for the advancement of scientific Knowledge that has specific commercial uses. Basic research may be in the present or potential interest to the company . • Implementation is activity concerned with designing and building pilot models .equipments and facilities and initiating marketing channels for products or services emerging from research and development 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 32 .Components of Innovation • Basic Research is for the advancement of scientific Knowledge that has no specific commercial uses.

Historical data indicates that if the quality characteristic takes on values larger than 0.20+/.Taguchi Loss Function A quality characteristic understudy has a manufacturing specification (in cm )of 0. a)Determine the Taguchi Loss Function.15 cm .25 cm or smaller than 0. 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 33 .the product fails and a cost of $75 is incurred.05.135 cm. B)Estimate the loss for a quality characteristic of 0.0. Based on these data .

75 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 34 .135)=30000(0.05)² K=30000 The Loss Function is L(x)=30000*(x-T)(x-T) b)L(0.200)² =30000(-0.065)² =30000(0.135-0.Solution a) L(x)=k(x-T)² b) x-T=0.05 $75=k(0.4225) =$126.

98/.Individual parts are transformed from the turning center to the milling center and then to the grinder by a robot .The probability that any one component of the system will fail however does not depend on any other component of the system . what is the reliability of this new configuration ? 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 35 .Turning center milling machine and grinder are . milling and grinding .96 respectively what is the reliability of the complete system ? • B)Suppose the system is redesigned with two grinders that operate in parallel .Thus if one machine or the robot fails the entire production process stops .Reliabilty • An automateted production system shown in next fig with three operations turning.99/.If one grinder fails the other grinder may still work and hence the total system will continue to function .99/.such a system is shown. • A)If we assume that the reliability of the robot .Conceptually we can think of the robot and machines are in series.

Series Production System Robot (P1) Turning P2 Milling P3 Grinder P4 Rsystem= (P1)(P2)(P3)(P4) Where R is Reliability 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 36 .

92 probabilty that the system will be working over a specified period of time . 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 37 . • The probabilty of failure of each operation in the system is independent of the other .92 or 92 % • This means that there is .96) = .99) (.99)(.98)(.Solution • The reliabilty of the system can be computed as • Rsystem = (.

Series Production System Grinder P4 Robot (P1) Turning P2 Milling P3 Rs = (P1) (P2) (P3) (1-(1-P4)(1-P5)) Grinder P5 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 38 .

9984)=.9984 = 99.96)) = .Thus we have Rsystem =(.Essentially we have replaced the parallel grinders with one grinder whose reliability is .96 or 96% 2/27/2013 seshasayee m 39 .9984 .99)(.96)(1-. Total Reliabilty of the system –using .9984 as the reliabilty of the grinders .84% Notice the Total Grinder reliabilty has gone up by adding extra machine .98)(.99)(.Solution • RG of the grinders • • • • = RGrinder = 1-((1-P4)(1-P5)) = 1-((1-.