You are on page 1of 39

Phases in Product Design and Development ..

1
Idea generation. Product development begins with idea generation. Ideas can come from a variety of sources. Feasibility analysis. Feasibility analysis entails market analysis (demand), economic analysis (development cost and production cost, profit potential), and technical analysis (capacity requirements and availability, and the skills needed). Also, it is necessary to answer the question, Does it fit with the mission? It requires collaboration among marketing, finance, accounting, engineering, and operations. Product specifications. This involves detailed descriptions of what is needed to meet (or exceed) customer wants, and requires collaboration between legal, marketing, and operations. Process specifications. Once product specifications have been set, attention turns to specifications for the process that will be needed to produce the product. Alternatives must be weighed in terms of cost, availability of resources, profit potential, and quality. This involves collaboration between accounting and operations.

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

Phases in Product Design and Development ..2


Prototype development. With product and process specifications complete, one (or a few) units are made to see if there are any problems with the product or process specifications. Design review. Make any necessary changes, or abandon. Involves collaboration among marketing, finance, engineering, design, and operations. Market test. A market test is used to determine the extent of consumer acceptance. If unsuccessful, return to the design review phase. This phase is handled by marketing. Product introduction. Promote the product. This phase is handled by marketing. Follow-up evaluation. Determine if changes are needed, and refine forecasts. This phase is handled by marketing.

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

1-Robust Design and Taguchi Loss function


Goods that are insensitive to external sources of variation are called Robust . Instead of constantly directing effort toward controlling a process to assure a consistent quality ,design the manufactured good to achieve high quality despite the variations that will occur on the production line .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

1-Taguchi Loss Function

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

1-The Taguchi Loss Function


Taguchi measured quality as the variation from the target value of a design specification and then translated that variation into an economic Loss Function that expresses the cost of variation in monitory terms . L(X)=k(x-T)(x-T) Where L(x) is the monitory value of the Loss associated with Deviation from the Target ,T, x-- is the actual value of the Dimension , k-- is a constant that translates the deviation into Dollars .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

2-Quality Engineering
Quality Engineering refers to a process of designing quality into a manufactured good based on a prediction of potential quality problems prior to production . Tools of quality engineering available are value engineering ,value analysis ,failure mode analysis and design review. Value engineering refers to cost avoidance or cost prevention before the good or service is created . Value analysis refers to cost reduction of the manufactured good or service process .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

2-Quality Engineering
Design reviews ensures that all important design objectives are taken into account during the design process . Design for manufacturability (DFM)is a technique for evaluating product designs to ensure they can be built efficiently using available technology .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

2-Quality Engineering
Failure mode and Effects analysis (FMEA)is a technique in which a product is listed along with the way it may fail ,the cause of failure ,the effect or consequence of failure ,and how it can be corrected by improving the design .For e.g. one of the components of a table lamp is the socket ,a typical FMEA

for that component might be ,


Failure Socket cracked Causes Excess Heat ,forcing the bulb too hard Effect- may cause shock Correction Use improved materials

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

FMEA -Failure mode and Effects analysis

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

Ratings
.Determine how serious each effect is. This is the severity rating, or S. Severity is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is insignificant and 10 is catastrophic. .For each cause, determine the occurrence rating, or O. This rating estimates the probability of failure occurring for that reason during the lifetime of your scope. Occurrence is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is extremely unlikely and 10 is inevitable. Detection is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 means the control is absolutely certain to detect the problem and 10 means the control is certain not to detect the problem (or no control exists).

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

10

RPN Risk Priority Number


The RPN is the critical indicator for determining proper corrective action on the failure modes. The RPN is calculated by multiplying the severity (110), occurrence (110) and detection ranking (110) levels resulting in a scale from 1 to 1000. RPN = Severity Occurrence Detection. The smaller the RPN the better; therefore, the larger, the worse. A pareto analysis should be performed based on the RPNs once all the possible failure modes, effects and causes, have been determined. The high RPNs will assist you in providing a justification for corrective action on each failure mode.
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 11

ATM Example

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

12

3-Product and Process Simplification


Product and process simplification is the process of trying to simplify designs to reduce complexity and costs and thus improve productivity ,quality ,flexibility and customer satisfaction Modular design entails designing goods using modules that can be configured in many different ways resulting in higher product variety and ease of assembly (Variants )

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

13

4-Design For environmental Quality


A focus on improving the environment by better good or service design is often called green manufacturing or green practices . Design for environment is the explicit consideration of environmental concerns during the design of goods services and processes and includes
Such practices as designing for recycling and disassembly .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

14

5-Product Reliability
Product Reliability is the probability that the product will perform as intended for a prescribed life time under specific operating conditions . The reliability of individual components must be greater than the reliability desired for the final product . The probability that the product will function successfully equals the mathematical product of the probabilities of all its subcomponents

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

15

Ways to improve reliability


Ways to improve reliability

Improve component design. Improve production and/or assembly techniques. Improve testing. Use backups. Improve preventive maintenance procedures. Improve user education.

Improve system design.

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

16

Series Production System

Robot (P1)

Turning P2

Milling P3

Grinder P4

Rs= (P1)(P2)(P3)Pn

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

17

Parallel Systems
Comp1

Comp 2

Comp3

RP= 1-(12/27/2013 seshasayee m

P1)(1- P2)(1- P3)(1- Pn)

18

6-Service Delivery System Design


Facility Location and lay out The servicescape Process and Job Design Technology and Information Support System Organizational Structure .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

19

7-Service Process Design


Service Process Design is the activity of developing an efficient sequences of activities to satisfy both internal and external customer requirements Technology and Information Systems have enhanced Service Design .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

20

Product Dev Process


Ideas Screening - Feasibility, etc Design Eco Analysis Prototype Testing Final Design Process Design

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

21

Product Life Cycle

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

22

Product life cycle

Products go through a series of stages, beginning with a low demand during market development ,proceeding through growth ,maturity ,high-volume saturation ,and finally decline The time span of the stages vary considerably across industries . For novelty products the span may be few weeks or months For other products the life cycle may span many years ,may be decades .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

23

Sequential and concurrent Design

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

24

Concurrent Engineering
Bringing design and manufacturing engineering people together early in the design phase to simultaneously develop the product and the processes for creating the product. Advantages: Manufacturing personnel are able to identify production capabilities and capacities. Early opportunities for design or procurement of critical tooling, some of which might have long lead times. Early consideration of the technical feasibility of a particular design or a portion of a design. The emphasis can be on problem resolution instead of conflict resolution.

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

25

Competitive losses from Disintegrated Design Process


U.S Industry suffers losses to its competitors mostly to Japanese by adopting sequential approach to new product development .The western approach subdivides the overall development effort into subtasks for technical specialists in diverse depts.
Isolated these specialists focus on their own specialty .The result is slow non integrated and expensive development .There is a time delay .The competitors have more generalists and willing to clarify design objectives at the early stages of development. The result-the competitors products reach the market very fast .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

26

CIM
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process. Through the integration of computers, manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes, based on real-time input from sensors. It is also known as flexible design and manufacturing.CIM centers around a shared data base for four primary manufacturing Process viz .Engineering Design ,manufacturing engineering ,factory production, and information management
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 27

CAD
Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computeraided design and drafting (CADD) , is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. CADD software, or environments, provides the user with inputtools for the purpose of streamlining design processes; drafting, documentation, and manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations.
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 28

The Bathtub Curve

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

29

The Bath tub curve


The bathtub curve consists of three periods: an infant mortality period with a decreasing failure rate followed by a normal life period (also known as "useful life") with a low, relatively constant failure rate and concluding with a wear-out period that exhibits an increasing failure rate. The bathtub curve is widely used in reliability engineering. It describes a particular form of the hazard function which comprises three parts: The first part is a decreasing failure rate, known as early failures. The second part is a constant failure rate, known as random failures. The third part is an increasing failure rate, known as wear-out failures

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

30

The Bath tub Curve


The bathtub curve, does not depict the failure rate of a single item, but describes the relative failure rate of an entire population of products over time. Some individual units will fail relatively early (infant mortality failures), others (we hope most) will last until wear-out, and some will fail during the relatively long period typically called normal life. Failures during infant mortality are highly undesirable and are always caused by defects and blunders: material defects, design blunders, errors in assembly, etc. Normal life failures are normally considered to be random cases of "stress exceeding strength
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 31

Components of Innovation
Basic Research is for the advancement of scientific Knowledge that has no specific commercial uses. Basic research may be in the present or potential interest to the company . Applied Research is for the advancement of scientific Knowledge that has specific commercial uses. Development is technical activity concerned with translating basic or applied research results into products or processes .

Implementation is activity concerned with designing and building pilot models ,equipments and facilities and initiating marketing channels for products or services emerging from research and development
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 32

Taguchi Loss Function


A quality characteristic understudy has a manufacturing specification (in cm )of 0.20+/- 0.05.Historical data indicates that if the quality characteristic takes on values larger than 0.25 cm or smaller than 0.15 cm ,the product fails and a cost of $75 is incurred. Based on these data , a)Determine the Taguchi Loss Function. B)Estimate the loss for a quality characteristic of 0.135 cm.
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 33

Solution
a) L(x)=k(x-T) b) x-T=0.05 $75=k(0.05) K=30000 The Loss Function is L(x)=30000*(x-T)(x-T) b)L(0.135)=30000(0.135-0.200) =30000(-0.065) =30000(0.4225) =$126.75
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 34

Reliabilty
An automateted production system shown in next fig with three operations turning, milling and grinding .Individual parts are transformed from the turning center to the milling center and then to the grinder by a robot .Thus if one machine or the robot fails the entire production process stops .The probability that any one component of the system will fail however does not depend on any other component of the system .Conceptually we can think of the robot and machines are in series. A)If we assume that the reliability of the robot ,Turning center milling machine and grinder are .99/.98/.99/.96 respectively what is the reliability of the complete system ? B)Suppose the system is redesigned with two grinders that operate in parallel .If one grinder fails the other grinder may still work and hence the total system will continue to function .such a system is shown. what is the reliability of this new configuration ?
2/27/2013 seshasayee m 35

Series Production System

Robot (P1)

Turning P2

Milling P3

Grinder P4

Rsystem= (P1)(P2)(P3)(P4)

Where R is Reliability

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

36

Solution
The reliabilty of the system can be computed as Rsystem = (.99) (.98)(.99)(.96) = .92 or 92 % This means that there is .92 probabilty that the system will be working over a specified period of time . The probabilty of failure of each operation in the system is independent of the other .

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

37

Series Production System


Grinder P4 Robot (P1) Turning P2 Milling P3

Rs = (P1) (P2) (P3) (1-(1-P4)(1-P5))

Grinder P5

2/27/2013

seshasayee m

38

Solution
RG of the grinders
= RGrinder = 1-((1-P4)(1-P5)) = 1-((1-.96)(1-.96)) = .9984 = 99.84% Notice the Total Grinder reliabilty has gone up by adding extra machine . Total Reliabilty of the system using .9984 as the reliabilty of the grinders .Essentially we have replaced the parallel grinders with one grinder whose reliability is .9984 .Thus we have

Rsystem =(.99)(.98)(.99)(.9984)=.96 or 96%


2/27/2013 seshasayee m 39