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# ECE465 Lecture Notes # 11 Clocking Methodologies

Shantanu Dutt UIC

Acknowledgement: (1) Most slides prepared by Huan Ren from Prof. Dutt’s Lecture Notes (some modifications made by Prof. Dutt); (2) Some slides extracted from Prof. David Pan’s (UT Austin) slides as indicated

Timing Methodologies
• Synchronous Sequential Circuits
External I/P Comb. Logic Memory Clk External O/P TOPP,Logic
(critical path delay In the o/p logic part)

00,11/0 A

01/1

TNSP,Logic
(critical path delay In the NS logic part)

00,01,10/0 B 01/0 11/0 11/0 C 10,00/1 Transition occurs only on positive edge of Clk

• Features Required for Correct Operation
– 1) All State Transitions take place only with respect to a particular event in the clock (e.g., positive or negative edge, etc. )

Timing Methodologies (contd) • Features Required for Correct Operation – 2) Only one state transition should take place in one clock period. ≥ Tsetup ≥ Thold Input Clock Tperiod =TClk i’th state transition (i+1)’th state (i+2)’th state transition transition [could be to the same state] (i+3)’th state transition . – 3) All inputs to all FFs/latches should be correctly available with appropriate setup time (Tsetup or Tsu) and hold time (Thold or Th) around the triggering edge of the clock.

This difference in clock arrival times is called clock skew From: David Pan.Clock Routing • A path from the clock source to clock sinks (FFs) • Different FFs are at different distances from the clock source Clock Source FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF • This leads to the clock ariving at different FFs at slightly different time. UT Austin .

Timing Methodologies: Clock Skew Problem • Real-world problems that can cause the three requirements to be violated – A) Clock Skew: Max(arrival time difference of the ―same‖ clock edge betw all FF pairs). 2 1 Safe: If blue horse wins race & wins it by a margin of at least Th 1 Unsafe: If brown horse wins race Tskew IN 1 D1 D Q FF1 Q1 Clk1 0 1 Logic 0 D2 0 D Q FF2 Q2 Clk2 Clk1 Clk 2 Values before the clock +ve edge Clk2 New value of D2 D1 Current overwrites old value state 00 10 before Q2 changes D2 Correct Incorrect transition transition This causes an incorrect Q1 11 Q2 change when +ve Q2 edge arrives at Clk2 .

the safe Tskew limit is based on minimum propagation delay of FFs and the NS logic . then safe if: Tskew < min (TPHL)+min (TP. delay of the next state (NS) logic portion of the entire comb.Logic • ≥Th Thus we need: Tskew < min (min TPLH.Logic)-Th Similarly for 1 to 0 transition of Q1: TPHL comes into play.FF) + min(TNS P.e.Logic between Q1 & Q2)>Tskew+Th i.IN 1 •Tskew= max (|difference between clock pulses (rising edges) of clock D1 inputs of any two FFs in the system|) ≥Tsu Clk1 D1 Typical or min TPLH ≥Th Clk Safe Value of Tskew D Q FF1 Q1 Clk1 0 Logic 0 D2 0 D Q FF2 Q2 Clk2 Safe if: min (TPLH of FF)+min (TP.Logic)-Th Q1 D2 Clk2 Tskew min TP.Logic is the prop. • Thus.Logic) – Th. where TNSP. if: Tskew < min (TPLH)+min (TP. min TPHL)+min (TNSP.Logic) –Th = min(TP. logic in the system.

latch Positive edge trigg.Logic. TClk-Tskew > TP.FF negative edge trigg. .FF+ TOPP.Logic to mean max(TNSP.e. Clk Tsu T skew TP. Logic FF1 Clk1 FF2 Clk2 TNSP.Logic Memory of FF bank with delay TP.. Clk Comb. we will use the normal convention of using • TP.Logic) Also.Determining Clock Period: Edge Triggered System TOPP. where TOPP.FF TP.Logic Clk1 Clk2 TClk Clk Max(typical TPHLand typical TPLH TClk-Tskew > max(TP.FF to mean max(TP.FF)+ max(TNSP.FF+ TNSP.Logic is the output logic portion of combinational logic.Logic)+Tsetup = TP.Logic Level sens.Logic+Tsetup i.FF) • TNSP.

1max(Tskew+ TP.) ≥ TP. Tskew+ TP.Logic) • Use 10% buffer for safety – TClk=1.FF + TNSP.Logic – Thus TClk> max(Tskew+ TP.Logic +Tsetup.Logic +Tsetup.FF+ TOPP.Logic + Tsetup.Logic +Tsetup AND – TClk> Tskew+ TP.FF+ TOPP. AND ≥ TP.Logic Clk1 • If with skew TClk – TClk> Tskew+ TP.FF+ TNSP.Determining the Clock Period (Contd.Logic) • Tskew= max (|difference between clock pulses (rising edges) of clock inputs of any two FFs in the system|) .FF + TOPP.FF+ TNSP.FF+ TOPP. Tskew+ TP.FF+ TNSP.

UT Austin . This makes the system slower. • Clock skew forces designers to use a large time period between clock pulses. • So. From: David Pan. clock skew should be minimized during clock routing.Clock Skew • Clock skew is the maximum difference in the arrival time of a clock signal at two different components. in addition to other objectives.

1 concern for clock networks – For increased clock frequency. as clock is a major power consumer! – It switches at every clock cycle! – Clock is often a very strong aggressor – May need shielding – Not really important – But slew rate is important (sharp transition) From: David Pan. UT Austin • Power • Noise • Delay .Clock Design Problem • What are the main concerns for clock design? • Skew – No. skew may contribute over 10% of the system cycle time – very important.

• Connect all sinks to the source by an interconnect tree so as to minimize: – Clock Skew = maxi.tj| – Delay = maxi ti – Total wirelength – Noise and coupling effect From: David Pan.The Clock Routing Problem • Given a source and n sinks (FFs). UT Austin .j |ti .

UT Austin .H-Tree Clock Routing Tapping Point 4 Points 16 Points From: David Pan.

UT Austin . • Clock skew is only minimized heuristically. Then. From: David Pan. connect the center of mass of the whole circuit to the centers of mass of the two sub-circuits (mean). • Recursively partition the terminals into two sets of equal size (median). The resulting tree may not have zero-skew. • Follows a strategy very similar to H-Tree.Method of Means and Medians (MMM) • Applicable when the clock terminals are arbitrarily arranged.

UT Austin .An Example of MMM centers of mass From: David Pan.

Another Problem: Race Condition—Reason 1 • A race condition occurs when a FF/latch output changes more than once in a clock cycle (cc). it feeds back to its input via some logic when the latch is still enabled in the same cc. Logic Q D latch Clk 2 changes of state in Q in 1 cc D Q . • This happens when after the O/P of a latch changes. This cause the O/P to change again. ≥Tsu Clk D Other I/Ps Comb.

Clk Logic D Q Only 1 O/P change per cc. • Can be solved using: Other I/Ps – a) Edge-triggered FFs. Logic Q D latch D Narrow Width Clk Tw min (min TPLH. Comb. min .Logic+Tsetup Tw<min (TP.FF+ Comb.FF)+min(TP.Logic) P. Q D FF D Clk – b) Narrow-width clocking.Race Condition: Reason 1 (contd) • Race condition is generally a problem with level sensitive latches. TClk T >T +T Clk skew Other I/Ps TP.

Logic 1 1 CS 0/0 00 10 1/1 1/0 1/0 0/0 11 0 1 NS 2 level sens. Logic 1 0 0 Clk 1 0 1/1 0/1 01 1 Comb.Correct State Transition Using Level-Sensitive Latches 0/1 Transition for the darkened arrow: 1 Comb. Logic 0 0 1 Clk 1 0 . latches 0 Clk 0 Comb.

latches . Logic 0 0 0 Clk 0 1 0 2 level-sens. Logic 1 1 1 Clk 1 0 1 1 0/1 0/0 00 10 1/1 1/0 1/1 0/1 01 1/0 11 0/0 Comb. Logic 1 1 0 Clk 0 1 fast 0 1 Comb. Logic 1 1 slow 0 Clk 1 Comb. Logic 1 0 1 0 1 Clk Comb.Race Condition: Reason 2 (Unequal logic delay for different NS bits) Incorrect State Transition Using Level-Sensitive Latches Required transition for the darkened arrow becomes incorrect transition corresponding to the dashed arrow 1 Comb.

Logic 0 0 1 0 0 2 M-S or edge. Logic 1 1 slow 0 Clk 1 Comb. Logic 1 1 0 Clk 1 0 1 0/0 00 10 1/1 1/0 11 0/0 1/1 0/1 Comb.No Race Condition Using Edge-Triggered FFs 0/1 •Correct transition for the darkened arrow irrespective of the relative speed of different excitation (next state) outputs 1 Comb. Logic 1 1 0 Clk 0 1 fast 0 1 Comb. Logic 1 0 0 1 0 1/0 01 1 Clk Comb.Period Between State 1 triggered FFs Transitions (also clock period) Clk .

Cost(master-slave (MS) LS latches) < Cost(edge-trigg.• Generally. Logic 1 0 0 1 No Race Condition Using 2-phase clocking and MS level sensitive latches 0/1 0/0 00 1/0 01 Comb. Logic 1 0 0 1 10 1/1 11 0/0 Comb. Logic 1 0 Clk2 Clk1 Clk2 1 0 0 1 Comb. Logic 0 1 Clk2 Clk1 0 1 0 1/0 1 slow 1 fast Clk2 Clk1 0 slow 1 fast Clk2 Clk1 Clk1 T2-1 Tgap T1-2 . FF) • Correct transition for the darkened arrow irrespective of the relative speed of different excitation (next state) outputs 1 Comb.

FF+TP. 0< a <1) > TP.1(2TP.a)T1-2 + Tgap2 > TP.Logic+2Tsu+2Tskew) [w/ 10% safety gap] .FF+TP.FF + Tsu + Tskew Tgap1 = Tgap2 (for symmetry requirements) Tclk = 1. Logic O/Ps CS NS TClk Clk2 (1-a)T1-2 aT1-2 Clk2 Clk1 Tgap1>Tskew (to avoid overlap and thus a race condition) T2-1+aT1-2(assuming 0 Tgap1.Two-phase clock period determination I/Ps Comb.Logic+Tsu (Note: Introducing a Tgap1 of at least Tskew also takes care of the reqmt to allow for Tskew in the above sum of the 3 delay components) Tgap2 Clk1 T2-1 T gap1 T1-2 T1-2 = T2-1 (for symmetry requirements) (1.1(T2-1 + T1-2 + Tgap1 + Tgap2 ) = 1.