Sukkur-Institute of Business Administration

Basics of Computer Programming
Course Mentor Irfan Ahmed

About Mentor

Major Projects:
   

Prediction of Terrorist activities Prediction of Number of Causalities after disaster

AATM (Adaptive Automated Teller Machines)
SLIM (Second Life Interactive Mentor) in Progress


MFF (Match Fixer Finder) in Progress
EQMS (Electronic Queue Management System)

About Mentor
 

Name: Ghulam Mujtaba Shaikh Qualification:  Graduation from SZABIST, Karachi, 2004  Post Graduation from FAST, Karachi, 2011, Gold Medalist Certifications:  SCJP, MCSE, MCTS, MCITP

Teaching Experience:  Permanent faculty member at Sukkur IBA, since 2006 to date  Visiting faculty member at NUCES, FAST, Karachi  Visiting faculty member at MAJU, Karachi  Visiting faculty member at BIZTEK, Karachi  Visiting faculty member at NCPE, Karachi
Technical Experience:  2003 to 2006, working as a Software Developer at WAVETECH, Karachi  Consultant at GEMSTECH Solutions, Karachi  Consultant at UJHAA Software Solutions, Karachi

course has been divided into four (04) modules. Excel. Basics of Computers 2. Learning about computers 2. MS Office 2007/2010 (Word. The Internet  . 1. Windows 7 3.Course Objectives  Design for Dummies  Two main objectives 1. Learning through Computers Two achieve objectives. PowerPoint) 4.

Course Distribution  Before Mid Term we will cover (6 Weeks)  Basic Concepts of Computer  Windows 7  MS Word After Mid Term to Final Exam (6 Weeks)  MS Excel  MS PowerPoint  The Internet  .

Grading Criteria Mid Term Final Exam Quizzes Assignments = = = = 30% 50% 10% 10% .

Let’s start First Module Introduction to Computer Systems .

Module I • Basic concept of computer • Introduction and History of computers • Software Technologies • Hardware Technologies • Introduction to Networking .

Recommended Readings Handouts No. 1 Distributed in class .

Topics for Discussion                  Computer Pros and Cons of Computer Parts of Computer Computer Science Information Technology Classification of Computer Types of Micro computers Computers in Society Information Processing Cycle Units of Data and their conversion Elements of computer Types of Software System and Application Software Types of System Software Operating System Utility Programs Language Translators .

Computer  Computer is an electronic machine. Input Process Output  Computer is an electronic machine which converts data into information. then processes and finally gives output.   Data : Information : Before processing After Processing . that first takes input.

Parts of Computer .

Parts of Computer  There are three Parts of computer. .  Input Parts: • Through which data is entered.  Output Parts: • Through which we can see our required output. which are.  Processing Parts: • Through which input is converted into output.

Inside the CPU .

Pros and Cons of Computer Pros of Computer:      Speed Accuracy Diligence Powerful Memory Communication Cons of Computer      IQ (Intelligent Quotient) Feeling Violation of privacy Impact on labor force Health Risks .

Computer Science & IT  Computer Technology   Hardware (Tangible parts of the computer) Software (Intangible parts of the computer) .

MMS.  . voice. Video files and Audio files from on device to another. Pictures.Information Technology  Computer Technology  Hardware  Software Communication Technology  Transferring of SMS.

Classification of Computer  According to Size     Micro Computers Mini Computers Main Frame Computers Super Computers Special Purpose Computers General Purpose Computers  According to Purpose    According to Function    Analog Computers Digital Computers Hybrid Computers .

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Types of Micro Computers Desktop Computers  Workstations  Notebook computers  Tablet Computers  Handheld Computers  Smart Phones  .

Desktop computers    The most common type of computer Sits on the desk or floor Performs a variety of tasks .

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Workstations    Specialized computers Optimized for science or graphics More powerful than a desktop .

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Notebook computers      Small portable computers Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds About 8 ½ by 11 inches Typically as powerful as a desktop Also called Laptop .

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Tablet computers  Tablet computers   Newest development in portable computers Input is through a pen .

Handheld computers     Very small computers Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) contact management Data can synchronize with a desktop .

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e-mail access .Smart phones   Hybrid of cell phone and PDA Web surfing.

A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilities .

Computers in Society Computers are widely used in • Home • Business • Entertainment • Communication • Education • Government organization • Health care institutes etc .

Information Processing Cycle      Steps followed to process data Input Processing Output Storage .

1 8 Bits 1024 Bytes 1024 KB 1024 MB 1024 GB .Units of Data 1 Bit I Byte 1 KB 1 MB 1 GB 1 TB = = = = = = 0.

Summary  Lower Unit To Upper Unit (Division) • Upper Unit to Lower Unit (Multiplication) • .Conversion of different Units If we want to convert the lower unit into upper unit then we have to apply the rule of division. other wise we have to apply the rule of multiplication.

Conversion Examples Example No. 1: How many mega bytes (MB) are there in 2048 kilo Bytes (KB)? Solution: 2048 KB = ? MB 2048 / 1024 = 2 MB .

2: How many kilo bytes are there in 2 mega bytes? Solution: 2 MB = ? KB 2 X 1024 = 2048 KB .Conversion Examples Example No.

System Software Application Software . 2.Elements of Computer   Software Hardware Types of Software 1.

The bridge between the user and computer hardware.  Utility Programs: It provide those services. . which are not provided by the operating system.System Software  Operating System: It’s a resource manager.  Language Translators: It converts high level language into machine language.

1. Operating System  Functions • • • • of Operating System • Booting Provide User Interface Task Management File Management Memory Management  Types • • • • of Operating System Single tasking operating System multi tasking operating system Time sharing operating system Multi-processing operating system .

Language Translators Compiler  Interpreter  Assembler  .2. Utility Programs      Data Recovery Utility Backup Utility Defragmentaion Utility Data Compression Utility Virus Protection Utility 3.

Application Software .

are Word . Excel etc.Application Software  Application softwares are those softwares. to perform a useful work.  Examples of application softwares Processors. which have been developed to solve a particular problem. Spread sheets.

Application Software .

Application Software .

Application Software .

which are very common in application software world. which are. Software Copy Right ©  Software License  Software Piracy  .Application Software  There are three terminological words.

Power Point. The sign of copy right is ©.   .Software Copy Right ®  It is exclusive legal right that prohibits copying of intellectual copy without the permission of copyright holder. Example of softwares. which are copy righted are MS word. Excel. Macro Media Flash. Adobe Photoshop.

Software Copy Right ® .

.Software License  It is a signed contract in which you agree not make the copy of software to giveaway or for resale.

Software Piracy  Software piracy is the illegal distribution of software applications for business or personal use.  It is illegal and punishable by law. .

which are.  On the basis of Copy Right  On the basis of function  .Types of Application Software According to two categories application softwares have been classified.

Types of Application Softwares (1) On the basis of Copy Right (2) On the basis of Function .

A. C. there are four types of application software.(1) On the basis of Copy Right  On the basis of copy right. B. which are. Commercial Softwares Shareware Softwares Freeware Softwares Public Domain Softwares . D.

(1) On the basis of Copy Right
A- Commercial Softwares B- Shareware Softwares C- Freeware Softwares D- Public Domain Softwares

A. Commercial Softwares
 

Copy Righted Softwares
For usage purchase from market.

Example: MS Excel, Flash, Adobe Photoshop etc.

B. Shareware Softwares
 

Copy Righted Softwares
For usage, freely download from Internet, but for limited time you can use it, after time becomes up, software becomes corrupted. Example: MS MSN, Anti Viruses etc.

Freeware Softwares   Copy Righted Softwares For usage. Example: Unix. They never becomes expired.C.  . download freely from Internet.

Tax Softwares. download freely from Internet.D. Public Domain Softwares   Not Copy Righted Softwares For usage.  Example: Govt. .

there are three types of application software. C. B. Productivity Softwares Special Purpose Software Entertainment Softwares . which are.(1) On the basis of Function  On the basis of function. A.

Productivity Softwares B.Entertainment Softwares .(2) On the basis of Function A.Specialty Softwares C.

A. Spread Sheets (Excel) and Databases (MS Access). . Productivity Softwares  These are those softwares whose purpose is to make user more productive at a particular task such as word processing (MS Word).

For Examples after using MS Paint you may wish to use Adobe PhotoShop. Specialty Softwares  After learning of the productivity softwares you may wish to familiar with more specialized programs. . after using MS Power Point you may wish to use Flash etc.B.

Entertainment Software  Those softwares which are being used to entertain the users. Games are the examples of entertainment softwares.C. .

2 Application Software  Examples of Application software  Terms used in Application software  Types of Application software  .Recap of the Lecture No.

Application Software Chapter No. 3 Presented by: Ghulam Mujtaba .

Spread sheets. are Word .Application Software  Application softwares are those softwares. Excel etc.  Examples of application softwares Processors. to perform a useful work. which have been developed to solve a particular problem.

Application Software .

Application Software .

Application Software .

Application Software  There are three terminological words. which are. which are very common in application software world. Software Copy Right ©  Software License  Software Piracy  .

The sign of copy right is ©. which are copy righted are MS word. Adobe Photoshop.Software Copy Right ®  It is exclusive legal right that prohibits copying of intellectual copy without the permission of copyright holder. Excel.   . Macro Media Flash. Power Point. Example of softwares.

Software Copy Right ® .

Software License  It is a signed contract in which you agree not make the copy of software to giveaway or for resale. .

 It is illegal and punishable by law.Software Piracy  Software piracy is the illegal distribution of software applications for business or personal use. .

 On the basis of Copy Right  On the basis of function  .Types of Application Software According to two categories application softwares have been classified. which are.

Types of Application Softwares (1) On the basis of Copy Right (2) On the basis of Function .

which are. C. D.(1) On the basis of Copy Right  On the basis of copy right. there are four types of application software. B. Commercial Softwares Shareware Softwares Freeware Softwares Public Domain Softwares . A.

Public Domain Softwares .Commercial Softwares B.Shareware Softwares C.Freeware Softwares D.(1) On the basis of Copy Right A.

 Example: MS Excel. Adobe Photoshop etc. Flash. Commercial Softwares   Copy Righted Softwares For usage purchase from market. .A.

B. but for limited time you can use it. Anti Viruses etc. software becomes corrupted. Example: MS MSN. freely download from Internet. after time becomes up.  . Shareware Softwares   Copy Righted Softwares For usage.

Example: Unix. They never becomes expired. download freely from Internet.  .C. Freeware Softwares   Copy Righted Softwares For usage.

D. Tax Softwares. download freely from Internet. Public Domain Softwares   Not Copy Righted Softwares For usage. .  Example: Govt.

Productivity Softwares Special Purpose Software Entertainment Softwares .(1) On the basis of Function  On the basis of function. there are three types of application software. C. B. A. which are.

Entertainment Softwares .(2) On the basis of Function A.Productivity Softwares B.Specialty Softwares C.

. Spread Sheets (Excel) and Databases (MS Access). Productivity Softwares  These are those softwares whose purpose is to make user more productive at a particular task such as word processing (MS Word).A.

after using MS Power Point you may wish to use Flash etc. For Examples after using MS Paint you may wish to use Adobe PhotoShop. Specialty Softwares  After learning of the productivity softwares you may wish to familiar with more specialized programs. .B.

C. Entertainment Software  Those softwares which are being used to entertain the users. Games are the examples of entertainment softwares. .

6 Hardware Technologies .Lecture No.

The equipments like keyboard. scanners etc are the examples of hardware. processor. which are. Input parts Output parts Processing Parts Storage Parts . monitor. printers.Introduction to Hardware        The tangible parts of the computer. mouse. The computer hardware fall into four basic categories.

Introduction to Hardware   Input parts  Through which data is entered into the computer. Through which we can see our required output Which converts input into output Output parts    Processing Parts  Storage Parts  Which stores data temporarily or permanently .

Storage Parts .

Storage Parts  Two basic categories  Secondary Storage devices (Permanent)  Primary Storage devices (Temporary) .

Secondary Storage Parts  Three basic categories  Magnetic Storage devices • Use Magnetic Technology  Optical Storage devices • Use LASER Technology  Megno-Optical Storage devices • Use Magnetic + LASER Technology .

Magnetic Storage Devices Use Magnetic Technology  Most common form of storage  Hard drives. tape  All magnetic drives work the same  . floppy drives.

Magnetic Storage Devices .

Magnetic Storage Devices  Data storage and retrieval  Media is covered with iron oxide  Read/write head is a magnet  Magnet writes charges on the media • Positive charge is a 1 • Negative charge is a 0  Magnet reads charges  Drive converts charges into binary .

Magnetic Storage Devices  Data organization  Disks must be formatted before use  Format draws tracks on the disk  Tracks is divided into sectors • Amount of data a drive can read .

Tracks and Sectors .

Magnetic Storage Devices  Finding data on disk  Each track and sector is labeled • Some are reserved  Listing of where files are stored • File Allocation Table (FAT) • FAT32 • NTFS  Data is organized in clusters • Size of data the OS handles .

Magnetic Storage Devices

Diskettes  Also known as floppy disks  Read with a disk drive  Mylar disk  Spin at 300 RPM  Takes .2 second to find data  3 ½ floppy disk holds 1.44 MB

Why the capacity of Floppy Disk is 1.44 MB?

Why the capacity of Floppy Disk is 1.4 MB?
Tracks  Sectors  Total Sectors  Total Sectors  1 Sector  2880 sectors  1474560 bytes  1440 KB

= = =
=

80 18 Per Track 80 * 18 = 1440 sectors one side
1440 + 1440 = 2880 sectors one sides

= = = =

512 bytes 2880 * 512 = 1474560 bytes 1474560 / 1024 = 1440 KB 1440 / 1024 = 1.4 MB

5 ms or less  Drive capacity greater than 40 GB .000 RPM  Data found in 9.Magnetic Storage Devices  Hard disks  Primary storage device in a computer  2 or more aluminum platters  Each platter has 2 sides  Spin between 5.400 to 15.

Illustrated Hard Disk .

Magnetic Storage Devices  Removable high capacity disks  Speed of hard disk  Portability of floppy disk  Several variants have emerged  High capacity floppy disk • Stores up to 750 MB of data  Hot swappable hard disks • Provide GB of data • Connect via USB .

Magnetic Storage Devices  Tape drives  Best used for • Infrequently accessed data • Back-up solutions   Slow sequential access Capacity exceeds 200 GB .

Optical Storage Devices Use the laser beams  Five Categories  CD-ROM  CD-Writer  DVD-ROM  DVD-Writer  Combo Drive  .

500 Kbps  Standard CD holds 650 MB .CD-ROM Compact Disc Read Only Memory (CD-ROM)  Media is CD (Compact Disc)   Most software ships on a CD  Read using a laser  A 10 X will read 1.

CD-Writer  Two Media   CD-R CD-RW Create a data or audio CD Data cannot be changed Can continue adding until full Create a reusable CD Cannot be read in all CD players Can reuse about 100 times  CD Recordable (CD-R)     CD Regrettable (CD-RW)    .

DVD-ROM  DVD-ROM  Digital Video Disk  Use both sides of the disk  Capacities can reach 18 GB  DVD players can read CDs .

DVD-Writer  Two Media   DVD-R DVD-RW Several different formats exist None are standardized Allows home users to create DVDs Cannot be read in all players Allow reusing of DVD media Not standardized Cannot be read in all players  DVD Recordable      DVD-RW    .

Combo Drive Combination of CD-ROM. DVD. CD-R and CD-RW  . CD-Writer and DVD ROM  Media are CD.

Megno-Optical Storage Devices  Combine the characteristics of Magnetic Technology and Optical Technology .

Primary Storage Devices   RAM  Volatile ROM  Non Volatile .

Primary Storage Devices   RAM  DRAM  SRAM  SIMM  DIMM Cache Memory .

SIMM .

DIMM .

Agenda of Today’s Lecture Primary Storage Devices  ROM      PROM EPROM EEPROM flash memory .

Processor .

Processor   Units of Processor  ALU  CU  MU  FPU Machine Cycle  Fetch  Decode  Execute  Store .

Processor  Examples of Processor  MMX  PENTIUM-II  PENTIUM-III  CALERON  PENTIUM-IV  PENTIUM-D  HYPER-THREADING  ITANIUM SERIES .

.Note! We will discuss remaining input and output devices after the discussion of mother board. and some other important components and some commonly used devices.

Mother board. Ports and Cables and other useful devices .

Mother Board .

PS2  PS/2 (IBM Personal System/2) Keyboard Mouse .

BIOS (Basic Input Output System) BIOS is always there used to set up the computer's hardware .

programs that must kept current calendar and time . CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) are powered by battery and thus do not lose their contents when the power is turned off.e.   i.

Types .Ports & Cables .

USB PORTS   USB ports – can connect up to 127 peripheral devices in a daisy chain 12 Mbps .

etc. electronic synthesizers. drum machines. sound cards. and performing music   Connects amplifiers. recording.MIDI PORTS MIDI ports – (musical instrument digital interface)  specialized port  creating. . editing.

IrDA  IrDA ports .(Infrared Data Association)  allows cable less connection with infraredcapable devices .

Bluetooth ports       Bluetooth ports – wireless connections up to 30 feet Keyboard Mouse Printer Mobile Digital Camera .

Ports & Cables - Types
 Ethernet

ports – dedicated for LANs

Input devices
Key board  Mouse  Trackball  Joy Stick  Light Pen  MICR  Scanner  OMR  OCR  OBR  Mice

Keyboard

Mouse Mechanical Mouse Optical Mouse .

Variants of the mouse The trackball  The trackpad  The trackpoint  .

Track Ball .

Track Pad .

Track Point .

Light pen .

Joy Stick .

Scanners .

Touch Sensitive Screen .

Digital Cameras

MICR

OMR

OBR .

OCR .

Output Devices Monitor  Printers  Plotters  Speakers  Head phones & Head sets  Data projectors  .

Monitors CRT  LCD  Plasma  PIXEL  .

CRT LCD PLASMA .

Monitors and Video Cards  Size of monitor  Measured in inches  Measured diagonally  Actual size • Distance from corner to corner .

 VGA (Video graphic Array) 640x480  SVGA (Super VGA) 800x600 .Monitors and Video Cards  Resolution  Number of pixels on the screen  Higher number creates sharper images  Higher number creates smaller images  Resolution set by video controller not by monitor itself.

 .Monitors and Video Cards  Refresh rate  Number of time the screen is redrawn  Modern equipment sets this automatically  Improper settings can cause eyestrain Measures in Hz at some 72Hz or higher is good.

Monitors and Video Cards  Dot pitch  Distance between the two colors  Should be less than .22 mili meter .

Video Cards Device between the CPU and monitor  Better cards result in better output  Removes burden of drawing from CPU  Have their own processor and RAM  Modern cards have up to 512 MB RAM  Capable of rendering 3D images  .

Video Cards .

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Commonly Used Printers   Impact printers  Generate output by striking the paper  Uses an inked ribbon Non-impact printers  Use methods other than force  Tend to be quiet and fast .

Printers   Impact Printers  Dot Matrix Printers Inkjet Laser Thermal Non Impact Printers    .

Plotters  Plotters     Large high quality blueprints Older models draw with pens Operational costs are low Output is very slow .