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The slides in this collection are all related and should be useful in preparing a presentation on SIM PlanetQuest.

Note, however, that there is some redundancy in the collection to allow users to choose slides best suited to their needs.


Presented by

Using materials shamelessly stolen from the SIM PlanetQuest Science Team, the Internet, and some familiar motion pictures

SIM PlanetQuest is part of NASA’s Origins Program


and search for life around other stars set for NASA is the following: – “Conduct advanced telescope searches for Earthlike planets and habitable environments around other stars” “This is not a race …” • Among 20 goals the President • International participation --4 . robotic exploration of solar system.The Presidential Vision • Focus on manned mission to Moon and Mars.

V=20 (italics added) 5 .National Academy of Sciences SIM was prioritized in the 1991 AASC report as the fourth-ranked space program of moderate class Science goals as specified in the 1991 report: “…definitive searches for planets around stars as far away as 500 light-years through the wobbles of the parent star. and the study of the mass distributions of nearby galaxies from stellar orbits." 30 mas. trigonometric determination of distances throughout the galaxy.

. [permitting] astronomers to survey the Milky Way Galaxy 1.000 times more accurately than is possible now. . . Optical. [enabling] the discovery of planets much more similar to Earth in mass and orbit than those detectable now.National Academy of Sciences (2) The scientific capabilities explicitly called for by the 2001 AASC were ". The report of the 2001 AASC's Panel on Ultraviolet. .” (italics added) 6 . and . stressed that "the primary scientific objective of the SIM mission is ultrahigh accuracy astrometry. which contains more detailed and explicit statements about SIM and its scientific goals than those included in the main AASC report. and Infrared Astronomy from Space (UVOIR Panel)." The report emphasized the "particular attraction" of the dual capability of the new SIM.

To understand how stars and planetary systems form and to determine whether lifesustaining planets exist around other stars. To understand how life originated on Earth and to determine if it began and may still exist elsewhere as well. 7 . planetary systems and life.What is NASA‟s Astronomical Search for Origins? To understand how galaxies formed in the early universe and to determine the role of galaxies in the appearance of stars.

How to do that? With SIM! 8 .

Dia. = 1000-2000 mas Hipparcos Positional Error Circle (0.5 mas) Apparent Gravitational Displacement of a Distant Star due to Jupiter 1 degree away 9 .64 mas) HST Positional Error Circle (~1.How Precise is SIM? Microarcsecond precision opens a new window to a multitude of phenomena observable with SIM. SIM Positional Error Circle (4 µas) Reflex Motion of Sun from 100pc (axes 100 µas) Jupiter Parallactic Displacement of Galactic Center Galilean Satellites .

64 mas) .5 mas) Apparent Gravitational Displacement of a Distant Star due to Jupiter 1 degree away 10 . SIM Positional Error Circle (4µas) Reflex Motion of Sun from 100pc (axes 100 µas) Hipparcos Positional Error Circle (0.How Precise is SIM? Microarcsecond precision opens a new window to a multitude of phenomena observable with SIM. Parallactic Displacement of Galactic Center HST Positional Error Circle (~1.

Why go to space ? • Space has no air – Ground interferometers limited by atmosphere to ~1 mas over wide angles – High precision metrology measurements can be made • Space is quiet – Optical Path Difference (OPD) and pointing jitter are easier to control • Space can be made thermally benign – stable thermal environment  stability of optical system 11 .

5 arcsec).Measuring Distances using parallax Parallax is a small effect: James Bradley searched for it in 1725 but discovered Stellar Aberration instead (± 20 arcsec).3 mas 12 . • Nearest star (Proxima Cen) 0.5 kpc) 0.00012 arcsec = 118 mas • Far edge of Galactic disk (~20 kpc) 50 mas • Nearest spiral galaxy (Andromeda Galaxy) 1. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel detected it in 1838 (< 0.77 arcsec • Brightest Star (Sirius) 0.38 arcsec • Galactic Center (8.

26 light-years ~ distance to closest stars SIM 2.SIM Covers the Entire Galaxy SIM 25 kpc (10%) What is a parsec? “Parallax of one arcsecond” At 1 pc Earth-Sun distance subtends 1 arcsec 1 parsec = 3.5 kpc (1%) Hipparcos 100 pc What is a microarcsecond (µas)? 1 µas = 4.8 x 10-12 radians = thickness of a nickel at the distance of the Moon! You are here 13 .

brown dwarfs 14 .Stellar Evolution and the Distance Scale • Distances in the Universe are uncertain because we don‟t know the distances to “standard candle” stars – SIM will measure accurate distances • Masses of most stars are very poorly known – SIM will measure accurate masses (to 1%) by using binary orbits • Stellar evolution models can‟t be further tested without accurate masses for „exotic objects‟ – SIM will measure the masses of OB (massive) stars. supergiants.

Dynamics of Galaxy Groups within 5 Mpc. – SIM can detect the orbital motions of two merging black holes in the centers of massive galaxies. Quasar Astrophysics – SIM can determine if the visible light from quasars originates in hot gas around an accretion disk or from a relativistic plasma jet. 15 • • • . and rotational dynamics of the Milky Way galaxy.Galaxies and Beyond • Study the ‘classical’ problems of size. Replace the current International Celestial Reference Frame.. mass distribution.

SIM PlanetQuest Science Summary • Planet searching: – Search for astrometric signature of terrestrial planets around nearby stars – Statistics and properties of planetary systems • Distances and Luminosities: – Calibration of the cosmic distance „ladder‟ – Ages of globular clusters • Galaxy and star cluster dynamics and structure – Mass distribution in the halo of our Galaxy – Spiral structure of our Galaxy – Internal dynamics of globular clusters – Masses and distances to gravitational lenses – Dynamics of our Local Group of galaxies • Quasars – Origin of light – Binary black holes • Imaging demonstration: – Simple systems within 2 arcsec field of view 16 .

tidal tails • Mass distribution in the halo of our Galaxy • Spiral structure of our Galaxy • Astrometric signatures of MACHO microlensing events 17 .SIM Science Summary (in descending order of size scale) • Proper motions of nearby active galactic nuclei • Dynamics of our Local Group of galaxies • Dwarf spheroidal galaxies .

SIM Science Summary (cont.) • • • • • • • • Internal dynamics of globular clusters Ages of globular clusters Accurate masses for low-mass binary stars Masses and evolution of stars in close binary systems Astrometric search for brown dwarfs and massive planets Astrometric search for planets around nearby stars Test General Relativistic effects in the Solar System Astrometry of minor bodies in the Solar System 18 . for Other Earths http://planetquest.html 19 .nasa.nasa.jpl.html and http://planetquest.

Unique SIM PlanetQuest Science • Obviously. – esp. 20 . high-precision orbits – Many planets and astrophysical phenomena – Link optical to radio reference frame (ICRF) – Origin of radio emissions – Stellar evolution theory – Controversial issues in astronomy and astrophysics – Star spots – Mass of Galactic black holes. when multiple frequencies are present. clustered around 7 M_solar? • Short period signal measurement – Signals with P=days are hard for non-pointed mission to study.

separately) • Are Galactic black holes clustered at masses around 7M⊙? • Is it possible to have a black-hole X-ray binary with distance of 190 pc (Hipparcos)? • What is the upper mass limit of neutron stars? 21 .Controversial Issues in Astronomy • Is it possible to have two perpendicular orbits ? (i= 84º and 82º.

What is SIM PlanetQuest? • SIM is … the “planet scout”: – SIM will help to identify planetary systems of interest to future missions • SIM is … a yardstick to the stars: – SIM will measure precise distances by simple triangulation to stars all over the Galaxy. and even out to the Magellanic Clouds • SIM is … a technical marvel: – SIM engineers have scheduled new inventions for precise measurement of spacecraft mechanical components • SIM is … an odyssey: – SIM scientists and engineers have been dedicated to this mission for more than 15 years 22 .

Proto-type for “SIM for the Masses” • Many open problems in stellar astrophysics are due to lack of knowledge about distances – Our example: X-ray binaries – AGB and post-AGB stars – Extremely luminous stars – Chemically peculiar stars –… • SIM accuracy outperforms GAIA. especially at the fainter end of its sensitivity range 23 .

Attractive Features of SIM • “Galactic reach”: 10μas is 20% luminosity error at 10 kpc – Very precise for nearby stars (1% at 500pc) • Modest projects (of order 10 stars) can be executed with a few hours of mission time • Using SIM wide-angle data is easy – Standard pipeline produces science-grade output 24 .

Comparison of SIM with GAIA Mission Accuracy (Parallax. mas) 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 Each point represents a target requested by a SIM Key Project PI SIM 25 .

parallaxes only as good as global astrometry. (900 sec obs.5 mag K giants. ~4.6 µas parallax. parallaxes. ~2 µas/yr prop motion) – Mag limit to 20mag (18 mag ~2hr/target) – Grid (set of stars ~5 Deg spacing over 4 pi) • ~1300 stars and 25~50 QSO‟s • On average 10. 10 mag) – Mission accuracy for 30 obs/5yrs ~0. But relative positions. much better – Single measurement accuracy 1 µas over 1 deg. 26 .2 µas. down to ~ 12 mag • Narrow angle astrometry (relative astrometry) – Absolution positions and proper motion.SIM Measurement Capabilities • SIM has two primary astrometric observational modes – Wide angle (global) astrometry – Narrow angle (relative) astrometry • Global Astrometry (inertial ref frame tied to Quasars) – 4 µas (position.

– With baseline rotation (synthesis imaging) resolution l/B ~12 µas – Without baseline rotation (multi-color fringe synthesis) ~ 25 µas • Photometry (in 80 spectral channels from 0. (dia of star ~ 6 µas could be measured to ~1%) • Wavelength calibration (of 80 spectral channels) < 0.0 µm) < 1% • Fringe visibility accuracy < 1% in each of 80 spectral channels.Miscellaneous Properties • Crowded field astrometry – This is an active area of study.1 nm 27 . preliminary results presented • Identify two objects as two objects.45 to 1.

K) within 20 pc • Detection limit of ~3 Me at 10 pc • Sensitivity limit of ~1.000 stars within ~50 pc with sensitivity to Neptune mass •Expect to find ~400 planets (from current RV statistics) •Planets around wide variety of stellar types •Multiple planet systems •Coplanarity •Mass distribution 28 •Eccentricity and Orbit radius Evolution of Planets • Survey ~200 1~50Myr stars • How do systems evolve? • Is the evolution conducive to the formation of Earth-like planets in stable orbits? • Do multiple Jupiters form and only a few (or none) survive? . G.0 Me at 6 pc (if limited to 60 stars) • Perhaps 7~8 times as many terrestrial planet as terrestrial planets in the HZ own common? • What is the distribution of planetary masses? – Only astrometry measures planet masses unambiguously • Are there low-mass planets in „habitable zone‟ ? A Broad Survey for Planets • Is our solar system unusual? •Survey ~2.Searching for Planets with SIM What We Don’t Know • Are planetary systems like our A Deep Search for Earths • Focus on 60~250 stars like the Sun (F.

Imaging With Interferometers 29 .

5˝ on “direct” image – For r ≤ 0.4 nm @ 500 nm).25˝ on the “direct subtracted” image – Everywhere inside the 0. 9˝ stop on coronagraphic images Reason for this is the lack of correlation of “zonal errors” on SIM‟s “aperture”.SIM vs.5 m baselines – 2 orientation angle intervals – Bright star V = 10 – 30/3000 min. on-target time • • 30 . SIM observations simulated: – 10 m & 8. then SIM appears to surpass HST/ACS: – For r ≤ 0. HST/ACS Imaging Quality • If   1(1.

HST/ACS detection limits… J. Krist (2004) 31 .

Todd Henry Dr. Guy Worthey Dr. Edward Shaya Dr.S. Naval Observatory Dartmouth College Georgia State University University of Virginia NASA/JPL Planetary Systems Extrasolar Planets Young Planetary Systems and Stars Astrometric Micro-Lensing Dynamic Observations of Galaxies Reference Frame-Tie Objects Population II Distances & Globular Clusters Ages Stellar Mass-Luminosity Relation Measuring the Milky Way Active Galactic Nuclei Washington State University Leiden University JPL California Institute of Technology Space Telescope Science Institute Education & Public Outreach Scientist Data Scientist Instrument Scientist Interdisciplinary Scientist Synthesis Imaging Scientist 32 . Geoffrey Marcy Dr. Brian Chaboyer Dr. Berkeley NASA/JPL NASA/JPL Ohio State University University of Maryland U. Shrinivas Kulkarni Dr. Ann Wehrle Mission Scientists Dr. Andreas Quirrenbach Dr. Michael Shao Dr. Stuart Shaklan Dr. Ronald Allen Institution Area of Interest/Discipline University of California.SIM Science Team Team Member Key Science Projects Dr. Kenneth Johnston Dr. Andrew Gould Dr. Charles Beichman Dr. Steven Majewski Dr.

A universe to study…. 33 .