You are on page 1of 10

Harvard Referencing

Be consistent and precise!

During this session, you’ll learn:
Why we reference our work

How to use in-text references competently
How to compile lists of end references, for books, journal articles and web pages.

Why reference?
To avoid plagiarism To acknowledge direct quotes To provide evidence to support arguments

So that readers can check how much preparation
has gone into your work and can find extra information

In-Text References
 These appear in the main body of the text to indicate the source of your information
 Use in-text references whenever you mention facts written by someone else, or when you include someone else’s ideas  Write the surname of the author and the date of publication, in brackets e.g. (Greaves, 2004)

 Use letters after the date to distinguish between books by the same author published in the same year (Greaves, 2004a)

In-Text References
 Include a reference at the end of a sentence. (Greaves, 2004)
 Greaves (2004) says that references can be written in the middle of a sentence.  “For direct quotes, use speech marks and state the page number of the source in the reference.” (Greaves, 2004, p.72)

 Remember that what you put in the in-text reference must direct the reader to the correct reference in the end list.

End List References / Bibliography
The end list is a list of sources that you have either quoted directly or used arguments from, listed in alphabetical order by author (or editor) surname
Be consistent with formats – capitals & italics should be used in the same way throughout

You should also include a bibliography of items consulted but not cited in your work

End list references - books
MEGGS, P.B. (ed.) (1998) A history of Graphic Design, 3rd ed., Chichester: John Wiley In-text – (Meggs, 1998)  1st & 2nd author / editor surnames (include (ed.) if editors) in capitals  Publication year in brackets  Title in italics  Edition number (where relevant)  Place of publication  Publisher  Also note the punctuation between each piece of information about your sources.

Journal articles:
GERA, T. (2002) “Keep your hair on”, New Scientist, 23 (12), 13 October, p. 28-35 In-text – (Gera, 2002)

 Article author in capitals

 Publication year in brackets
 Article title in speech marks  Journal title in italics  Volume & issue / part number, and publication date  Page numbers

Web Sites
Jazz review. Your complete resource for jazz music reviews. Online. Available from: [Accessed 18 October 2003] In-text – (Jazz review, accessed 2003)

 Title of web site in italics
 Web site address underlined  The date you accessed the site in square brackets (this is important as web pages can change frequently)

Using the book details that you found on the library catalogue, produce an in-text and an end-list reference.

In-text: (Author surname, date of publication) End-list: AUTHOR. (ed.) (Publication year) Title, ed., Place of publication: Publisher.