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Uses of Radioactive materials in Industry

Gamma Radiography

Gamma Source

X-ray film

Gamma radiography ► Gamma vs X-ray ► Smaller instrument ► Don’t need electricity. so good for remote areas ► Discrete energies ► Higher energies .

Gamma radiography Checking for cracks in an aircraft engine A gamma radiograph of pipe…looking for faults Using a pipe crawler to test welds in the field .

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Gamma Radiography ► Common Isotopes ► Safety Issues  Class  2 month on the job  Refresher every 12 months  Iridium-192  Co-60 ► Source  License requirement ► Training shielding from 50 to 500 pounds of DU. ► Monitoring ► Leak tests ► Security of device .

Neutron Methods ► Takes advantage of neutrons interacting with substances and causing them to emit gamma rays which are analyzed. Neutron Source Neutrons Gammas NaI Dector .  Thermal Neutron Capture  Neutron inelastic scattering.

Soil Density Gauge Uses an Am241/Be9 source to generate neutrons and a Bismuth/germanium solid state detector .

Neutron Radiography One of the biggest uses is monitoring conveyers in coal and concrete industry. .

. gauges ► Gauges run over by equipment.  DOT regs. and have to be labeled. not in passenger compartment  Have to have shipping papers. even if transported in a company truck  Radiation and hazmat training required to carry.Neutron Radiography Safety ► Use      Training Monitoring (neutron) Most are self shielding Leak testing Security is a big issue ► Lost ► Transportation  Lots of these are used at remote sites.  Have to be blocked and braced. These are usually yellow II.

flow. usually ► Detect level of material in a hopper ► Detect presence and flow of material in pips  Beta ► Determine thickness of plastic sheets. and thickness gauges  Gamma.Fixed gauges ► Level. .

Gamma irradiators Typically these have Co60 or Cs137…Up to 5 million Curies .

Energy .

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Others include carbon as graphite. Slows down the neutrons without absorbing them. . •Moderator is often water. lots of fast neutrons -get a bomb. For U235 without a moderator takes 50Kg =17 cm sphere. No moderator. Cd and B are the most common. •Control rods limit the fission reaction by absorbing neutrons.Have to assemble a critical mass of fissionable material.

Nuclear Power plants Reactor fuel rods .

2 x 1080 MWe) 1957 Nil Three operators Entombed (filled with concrete) Being demolished.Reactor NRX. USA (commercial. (Decomm. Ukraine (commercial. France (commercial. UK (military plutoniumproducing pile) SL-1. Switzerland (experimental. USA (experimental. in monitored storage stage of decommissioning 1980 Nil Repaired. 3 MWt) Fermi-1 USA (experimental breeder. 1961 Decommissioned Repaired and restarted.5 MWe) Browns Ferry. USA (commercial. 1992) 1986 47 staff and firefighters (32 immediate) Entombed 1989 Nil Nil Decommissioned . 950 MWe) Vandellos-1. Spain (commercial. 450 MWe) Chernobyl-4. 66 MWe) Lucens. 880 MWe) Saint Laurent-A2. Canada (experimental. 7.5 x 1015 Bq released) Very minor radioactive release Potential Catastrophic Problems Windscale-1. then closed in 1972 1966 Nil Nil Very minor radioactive release 1969 Nil Decommissioned Reactor core meltdown  Chernobyl ► Large leak of radioactive material to environment ► 1975 Nil Nil Repaired Three-Mile Island-2. delayed release of 2 x 1014 Bq of Kr85 Minor radiation release (8 x 1010 Bq) Major radiation release across E. 40 MWt) Date Immediate Deaths Environmental effect Follow-up action Repaired (new core) closed 1992 1952 Nil Nil Widespread contamination. Europe and Scandinavia (11 x 1018 Bq) Clean-up program complete. military. Farms affected (c 1. 480 MWe) 1979 Nil Minor short-term radiation dose (within ICRP limits) to public.

Efforts are in progress to correct the condition.7. At 0504 MST Mode 3 was entered. 2.PLANT S/D REQD BY TS Event Number: 43736 Notification Date: 10/22/2007 Notification Time: 09:27 [ET] Event Date: 10/22/2007 Event Time: 03:11 [MST] Last Update Date: 10/22/2007 Person (Organization): CHUCK CAIN (R4) SHUTDOWN DUE TO INOPERABLE STEAM DRIVEN AUXILIARY FEEDWATER PUMP Event Text "The following report is based on information currently available. additional information is identified that is pertinent to this event or alters the information being provided at this time.Real-World day to day problems Power Reactor Facility: PALO VERDE Region: 4 State: AZ Unit: [1] [ ] [ ] RX Type: [1] CE.5 requires that three auxiliary feedwater (AF) pumps be operable in Modes 1. "The event did not result in the release of radioactivity to the environment and did not adversely affect the safe operation of the plant or health and safety of the public.5.[2] CE. at 0904 MST and will not be restored to operable status within the TS required 7 day completion time.[3] CE NRC Notified By: RAY BUZARD HQ OPS Officer: PETE SNYDER Emergency Class: NON EMERGENCY 10 CFR Section: 50.72(b)(2)(i) . at 0311 Mountain Standard Time (MST) Palo Verde Nuclear Station Unit 1 initiated a normal reactor shutdown to comply with condition C of Technical Specifications (TS) Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) 3. "On Monday October 22." . 2007. 2007. "LCO 3. The steam supply had been declared inoperable on October 15. a follow-up notification will be made via the ENS or under the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 50. and 3.73. If through subsequent reviews of this event. The shutdown was necessary due to an inoperable steam supply for the essential steam driven AF pump turbine.7.

.Nuclear fuel preparation – why there are environmental remediation jobs.

The nuclear fuel cycle. .