Partnerships and Training

Units 2 & 3 Prof. dr. Srebren Dizdar

"Love means never having to say you're sorry"
When was the last time you have actually written a letter to someone?  Or, when was the last time youe were in love?  Even, more, have you ever written a love letter to the person you had been in love with?

Do you know how to write Love Letters?
Do you need to learn how to write Love Letters? Not an easy task a list of tips and helpful ideas has been compiled on writing love letters.  Love letters are completely personal and the tone and content of the love letter depends on you and the person to whom you are you are writing a love letter.  Should the letter be highly romantic or should it contain some humour? What type of love letter do you think your loved one would most like to receive?

Inspiration for Love Letters Beautiful Memories
Get yourself in the mood to send a love letter. Think about all of the things that you really like and love about the other person. Think about the time you have spent together and any special memories that you have of your time together.  Make your love letter really personal by reminding your loved one of these occasions. Here's some ideas for starting love letters containing mutual memories:

.Do you remember.  Make a copy of the lyrics of the song and include them in your love letter ... The lyrics reminded me of you... One of the best days we spent together was when:  I was reminded today of the tie when....  Listening to the radio I heard the song.

‖ Born into an affluent family. which included a respected religious leader and university professors.Martha and Sigmund Freud   Martha Freud has been revealed as intensely competent.‖ and appealing to Sigmund as a proven source of calm and security ―beyond the initial romance. despite how she presented herself. ―an avid reader who knew the German classics and some world literature. . was sophisticated. These two were married for more than 50 years. It was Martha who raised the Freuds‘ six children while Sigmund worked as a psychologist as many as 18 hours a day. Martha.

.500 letters and collaborated on a secret diary.The couple‘s fouryear courtship lasted between 1882-1886. when the two exchanged some 1.

 . 1886. ―After marriage we only get laundry letters. Bergmann said the love letters ceased after the two finally were wed: ―We have wonderful courting letters before marriage. It‘s all practical.‗We don‘t have a single love letter after marriage‘ After four years of exchanging hundreds of love letters.‖ he said. Martha and Sigmund were married September 14. We don‘t have a single love letter after marriage‖.  Psychologist analyst Martin S.

.Partners in marriage  It seems that Martha and Sigmund practiced not a conventional marriage after their passionate love courtship. They were not an ordinary married couple. as is customary to label such relationships in the recent decades in the Western world. but more of soul mates or marital partners.

however. quite normal to speak about business partners. it may be a very loose arrangement designed largely to impress customers and competitors with the size of the network the business partners belong to. Alternatively.Partners in business It is.  Business partner is a term used to denote a commercial entity with which another commercial entity has some form of alliance. or partnerships. exclusive bond in which both entities commit not to ally with third parties. This relationship may be a highly contractual.  .

. and it is because of the potential for confusion between the two that widespread use of 'business partner' has been discouraged at times in the past.Business partnership  The meaning of the term busines partner is quite different from that implied in partnership.

Business alliance  A business alliance is an agreement between businesses. Alliances are often bounded by a single agreement with equitable risk and opportunity share for all parties involved and are typically managed by an integrated project team. . usually motivated by cost reduction and improved service for the customer.

This is particularly true in supplier – customer relationship. . which is often best seen in business correspondence. contracts and other binding stipulating documents.Business correspondence  Most problems among partners arise from a lack of proper communication. some partners may not be happy with the actual execution of their partnerships. Despite the legal framework expressed in agreements.

 Bartleby appears to be a boon to the practice. Bartleby answers with what soon becomes his stock response: "I would prefer not to." . as he produces a large volume of high-quality work. though. One day. when asked by the narrator to help proofread a copied document.

cooking or whatever it is you do.  Write poorly constructed letters with unprofessional layout and format and you will look like a rank amateur. It‘s unavoidable if you want to run your business or just stay in touch with your suppliers and clients.A real need to write business letters Everyone in business needs to write letters. How well … or not so well … you write reflects on you and your business.  . no matter how good you are at plumbing.

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 . This does nothing more than create ineffective communication. The writer seems to transform him/herself from the personal to the institutional. standardized and often terse.the Myth The myth about business correspondence is that it must be formal.Business Correspondence .  Letters appear to be written from one ―institution‖ to another rather than from person to person.

Business people at work .

The letter is commonly made for inquiries or correspondence between companies and external parties.Business letter Business letter refers to a form of communication used when writing to corporations or any institution that has a formal structure. formal and impressive business letter.  . clients or customers.  Below are the guidelines that can be used if you want to make an interesting.

do not use a memo format Use black ink only Limit your letter to one page. usually three or four paragraphs Write in your own words. preferably matching your resume paper Use either block style or modified block style.Guidelines for a good business letter      Type all letters on good quality business stationery. using your own style .

use spell check and grammar check  Make the format and layout attractive. Make it easy to read. allow ample margins.More tips . proof read the letter several times to be sure you are saying what you want to say  ... make it appealing to look at and inviting to the reader  Watch your sentence structure. center the letter on the page.

follow it up with a hard copy in the mail. you can create a model letter which can be used many times with slight revisions. applications.  . etc) unless you are specifically asked to do so. letters.Do not e-mail or fax any business correspondence Do not send photocopies or generic letters. Even then.  Do not e-mail or fax any business correspondence (resumes.  Be sure to sign the letter before you mail it.

Failure to observe correct business letter etiquette can result in you adopting an inappropriate tone. You should be considering who the letter is addressed to. . lack of clarity or purpose and hostility or soured relations.‗Think before you write‘.    Writing a business letter is not simply a matter of expressing your ideas clearly. The way you write a letter and the etiquette you employ may have a significant impact on your success or failure in business. causing offense or misunderstandings. The foundation of good business letter etiquette is ‗Think before you write‘. how and why? This will then influence style. content and structure.

to be able to express your self in clear.  . however. concise language so the reader knows exactly why you are writing. but also gives the reader some insight into the personality of the writer.  It is just as important.A good writing style It is important to develop a good writing style that not only reflects good grammar and sentence structure.

Letter of Inquiry).  Letters of Acknowledgment.Types of business letters  Cover Letters (Application Letter. and  Resignation.  Acceptance.  Refusal.  Thank You. .

a traditional or snail mail has been effectively replaced by using an electronic or email. . Since the need for a faster and reliable communication increased in recent decades.

. land mail. It is also known. coined retrospectively after the development of airmail. more neutrally. as paper mail.Snail mail or smail  Snail mail or smail (from snail + mail) is named after the snail with its slow speed — used to refer to letters carried by conventional postal delivery services. or simply mail. e-maill. The phrase refers to the lag-time between dispatch of a letter and its receipt. An earlier term of the same type is surface mail. versus the virtually instantaneous dispatch and delivery of its electronic equivalent. postal mail.

usually text. are sent from one person to another via computer. Messages. .What is E-mail?  Electronic mail (or e-mail) is a way of communication.

Electronic mail .

enabling users to send electronic mail anywhere in the world. and computer networks have an e-mail system. The messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk. Most mainframes. and reliable. flexible. minicomputers. the transmission of messages over communications networks. . Some electronic-mail systems are confined to a single computer system or network. but others have gateways to other computer systems.Definition of an e-mail It is short for electronic mail. Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast.

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000 More than 10.000 I don‘t know .Daily mailing   a) b) c) d) Let me rephrase the initiial question: How many e-mail messages have you written and sent so far? And the answer is: More than 100 More than 1.

How many times a day you check your e-mail? Once...  .  Twice (morning and evening)  More than three times  Who knows .

but also to send a reply or answer within the reasonable amount of time. . It means not only to read it. or mark it as read‘.Check your mail regularly  In business environment it is absolutely essential to develop a habit of checking your mail regularly. preferably within 24 hours after receiving and reading it.

You then send the message to the recipient by specifying the recipient's address. You can also send the same message to several users at once. but many allow you to edit your messages using any editor you want. . This is called broadcasting.Broadcasting  Most e-mail systems include a rudimentary text editor for composing messages.

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To see if you have any mail. it takes only a few seconds or minutes for mail to arrive at its destination. forward it to other users. and most also support gateways so that you can exchange mail with users of other systems. although many systems alert you when mail is received. .Sent messages are stored in electronic mailboxes until the recipient fetches them. After reading your mail. Usually. Copies of memos can be printed out on a printer if you want a paper copy. or delete it. This is a particularly effective way to communicate with a group because you can broadcast a message or documnet to everyone in the group at once. you may have to check your electronic mailbox periodically. you can store it in a text file. All online services and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) offer e-mail.

Letter Writing Difficulties: Why switch to e-mail correspondence We are used top using verbal communication methods rather than written communication!  A letter is more formal!  Spelling might be a concern  What is the correct format to use when writing a letter?  A Blank piece of paper! Where do I start?  .

Usually business letters a formal letter format is described in this presentation – Generally you will not know the recipient personally.Formal and informal letters There are many different types of letters:  Decide what type of letter you need to write and adopt a style to suit  Formal Letters . style and structure is applied in a formal style  Informal Letters .Much easier to write . so the format.

email. The date follows – Then the Customers title.the address  Formal Letters:  – Use Headed Paper. where available – Company or Business address.Letter Heading The style and content starts with the letter headings . name and address . Fax & telephone details on the top left hand side of the page – On the Right hand side of the page include any reference number.

email & telephone details on the top left hand side of the page .Informal letters:  Your Home address.

Date 5. Address Details 3. Letter Heading / Company logo 2. Closing Paragraph 11. Second and Subsequent Paragraphs 10. Salutation: Dear xxxx.Letter Layout 1. Re: 8. First Paragraph 9. Yours sincerely. 7. Customer Address Details 6. (Your name and Surname) . Reference Number: 4.

Dear Mr. basic format! They all start with:  The Salutation  . Dear Susan  – Formal content for someone you don't know and informal for someone you do know! . Smith.Letter Writing Format All letters have a simple. or.

Letter form .

Zip Date of Letter Use complete title and address of your Correspondent: Name and Title Address City. Zip . 2. State. State. Sender’s Address City. 3. 2.  1. 3.General outline for a cover letter 1.

Paragraphs  Three or four Paragraphs – All letters should have a minimum of three paragraphs – Opening Paragraph .reason for writing – Middle Paragraph .Look forward to hearing from you etc. .the Body or the Main Text – Closing Paragraph .

Opening & Middle Paragraph(s):   State why you are writing. be sure to point it out. name the position or type of work for which you are applying and mention how you heard of the opening or organization. . But do not reiterate your entire resume. Explain why you are interested in working for this employer and specify your reasons for Desiring this type of work. Be sure to do this in a confident manner and remember that the reader will view your letter of application as an example of your writing skills. Emphasize skills or abilities you have that relate to the job for which you are applying. If you have had relevant work experience or related education.

you may refer the reader to your enclosed resume (Which gives a summary of your qualifications) or whatever media you are using to illustrate your training. . or perhaps for a job interview. interests and experience. Have an appropriate closing to pave the way for a continuous contact.Closing Paragraph:  If you apply for a job.

friendly style: "Love from.."  . "Yours faithfully" Informal.Closing the Letter  Formal Style: "Yours sincerely"..

‗there‘ and ‗their‘ . Punctuation and Grammar!  Always use the ‗Spell Checker‘ as soon as you have completed your letter to check for spelling or grammatical errors – watch out for words which are spelt similarly but have a different meaning. e.g.Spelling.

Grammar etiquette  Correct punctuation is important in order to create the correct Professional image: – Always start a paragraph with a ‗CAPITAL‘ letter – Always use a ‗capital‘ letter following a ‗full stop‘ – When typing always leave 1 space after a comma and after a full stop – Yours sincerely . should always be in lower case.faithfully. the word ‗Yours‘ starts with a capital letter . sincerely etc.

. Punctuation and Grammar.Review of Letter Writing Tips      Decide the type of letter required whether the letter is to be formal or informal Ensure all relevant and important details are included in the Heading Remember the three (3) Paragraph Format Follow the Layout rules when writing a business letter Always remember to check carefully on Spelling.

Business manners .

Friendly correspondence  You may not always be in a good mood when meeting and talking to your business associates or partners. even if it means to add a few details that can make the correspondence a friendly venture. you can appear polite and with good manners. when writing to them. However. .

Add a Smiley .

Don‘t overdo it!!! .

Use them in a restrained way .

Smileys in E-mail Smileys :-) :-D 8-) Meanings User is smiling. . User is smiling and wearing glasses. User is winking. User is laughing. : -( :-O . User has a cold.-> : -~) User is sad User made a mistake.

=:-o :-/ User is very surprised. User does not believe you.: ' -~( User has a cold and is crying. .

fast. and convenient. Because the exchange of messages can be so fast. e-mail is more conversational than traditional letters. What more could you ask for?― Electronic communication.How is E-mail Different from Other Forms of Communication?  "It's  cheap. because of its speed and broadcasting ability. is different from paper-based communication. .

is not as formal and neat as communications on paper.  In a letter. With e-mail documents. or their native language might the same as your own. the other person can ask questions immediately.E-mail is not as formal and neat as communications on paper. like conversational speech. it is very important to make everything completely clear because your the other person may not have a chance to ask questions. . E-mail thus.

 . Subjects  Give the message a subject/title.E-mail Guidelines Please note and follow the guidelines below concerning the writing of company e-mail messages. Email messages without a subject may not be opened because of a fear of viruses and especially note that it is very easy to forget to type this important information.

‗Hello‘. 2348X Delayed Shipment Laboratory Equipment Order  . These headings are common in messages containing viruses. ‗Message from Mary‘. Example:  Order No. Short but specific headings are needed.Subject contents Keep the subject short and clear but avoid such headings as: ‗Good News‘.

If the receiver is more senior to you. If you have communicated with the receiver previously and he/she is at a similar level to you. Smithson. then the use of the other name would be appropriate.g. .Greetings   Start the message with a greeting so as to help create a friendly but business-like tone. it would be safer (particularly in the first communication) to use the person‘s surname/family name together with a title. e. Dear Ms Stringer. Dear Mr. or if you are in doubt. The choice of using the other name versus the surname will depend on who you are writing to.

g.g. Dear KK . Dear Miss Lawson e. e.It is also becoming quite common to write the greeting without a comma.

 Give full details in the following paragraph(s).  .Purpose Start with a clear indication of what the message is about in the first paragraph. A) I will send a messenger to your office on Tuesday morning to collect the faulty goods. B) Please let me have your order by the beginning of the month. Make sure that the final paragraph indicates what should happen next.

  'Please.... for example.Action Any action that you want the reader to do should be clearly described. .' or ' I would be grateful if..'..  Subordinates should use expressions such as 'Could you. using politeness phrases. Superior staff should also use polite phrases..'.

in the main message. unless you are sending complicated documents. to any attachments you are adding and of course make extra sure that you remember to include the attachment(s). . try not to use them.Attachments  Make sure you refer.  As attachments can transmit viruses.

doc' is good.doc' is bad. but 'QA Report 2011.g. .Copy-and-paste text-only contents  Copy-and-paste text-only contents into the body of the email. make sure the file name describes the content. and is not too general. 'message.  If you use an attachment. e.

Best regards. Regards  .g. Best wishes. Best wishes e.g. Regards. then do not put a comma after the ending either.  If you did not put a comma after the greeting at the beginning of the message.Endings End the message in a polite way. Common endings are: Yours sincerely. e.

Names  Include your name at the end of the message.edu. e. It is most annoying to receive an email which does not include the name of the sender.hk . 0385915d@polyu.  The problem is that often the email address of the sender does not indicate exactly who it is from.g.

com Date: Thursday.Choi@customserv.E-Mail Heading From: S.Civiland Civic.com To: D_Suen@personnel.Civiland Civic. 24 March 2011 Re: Banning smoking .

31 March 2011. If we can. What are other companies like ours doing re. Cheers Sally . smoking? 3. a. what procedure do we need to follow? Could you please get back to me before next week's Senior Management meeting on Thursday. Can we introduce a ban on smoking in this company? b. What are the current regulations regarding smoking in the workplace? 2.David I'd like you to look into the health and safety issues relating to smoking in the company's office. specifically: 1.

.Questions  Do you think Sally is senior. junior or approximately equal to David?  Sally is senior to David.

because longer expressions are more polite..' This is not a request.. A junior or equal would use 'Dear David' or 'Hi David' instead. A junior or equal would have to use a more polite request.' 'Could you please get back to me' is another polite order. so she is probably a senior manager. such as 'I would be grateful if.Words that show that Sally is senior to David include:     'David'. Sally will be attending the Senior Management meeting... it is a polite order.. which is polite) or 'Would you mind _ing. . 'I'd like you to.' ('if' shows tentativity.. It is polite as the deadline is only 7 days away.

Which parts of the text that indicate this?  Although it is not necessary for names to be included in an e-mail (since they are written at the top). Sally has done this.  Why? .

but if you use names in the e-mail message you can select the formality that you think is correct for this situation leaving out the names would make the message too impersonal. the formality of names in e-mail addresses is fixed. Using more descriptive names in the email avoids confusion.Suen' in a big company. which would not be good for Sally and David's inter-personal relationship there may be more than one 'S.Sally has included names in the e-mail because:     Names in e-mail addresses can be hard to understand. .

Why has Sally used numbered points in this e-mail? Sally has used numbered points in the e-mail to:  make the organisation of the email clearer  give David an organisational structure for his report .

 . so at the end Sally wants to be less formal to maintain her less formal relationship with David.an informal version of 'Thank you.' This e-mail and the instructions are quite formal.this is informal because it is a phrasal verb  "Cheers" .What are the examples of informal language in the email? The informal language includes:  "look into" .

Business world environment

Business reports

How to Structure a Business Report
Title Page  This page carries the title of the report along with the writer‘s name, date and other details if required.  Contents  This lists the various sections of the report.

.Synopsis  This is an introduction to the report and includes an executive summary of what is to be expected in the report and what the report explores. You can specify your objectives and planning ideas here.

secondary research or both. For example.  You must specify whether it was primary research.Terms of Reference List down who the report is meant for and what it is about. List the details of your research. questionnaires. Also mention the exact tools that were used to collect the data.  . telephonic interviews etc.

Detailed Findings Detailed Findings This section will typically show pie charts. bar graphs and other statistics found out from your research.  Conclusions  Summarize your findings in detail. The implications of the findings will be discussed in the next stage.  .

Recommendations You will now suggest solutions. ideas or recommendations based on your findings. . Stick to brief paragraphs and crisp pointers.

 .  Bibliography  List all of the references used for the report – websites. journals. This usually appears in alphabetical order.Appendices & Bibliography  Appendices This section is for reference. books. movies etc. sample questionnaires and so on. newspapers. documentaries. You can add additional charts and graphs.

the background problem. It is designed to be read by people who will not have time to read the whole report or are deciding if this is necessary. The executive summary should not just be an outline of the points to be covered in the report with no detail of the analysis that has taken place or conclusions that have been reached. .Executive summary   The executive summary provides the reader with an overview of the report‘s essential information. the important findings arguments and important issues raised in the discussion. in your executive summary you need to say as much as possible in the fewest words (Weaver & Weaver. the method(s) of analysis. 1977). The executive summary should briefly outline the subject matter. therefore. the scope of the investigation. the conclusion and recommendations.

 It is usually written last (so that it accurately reflects the content of the report) and is usually about two hundred to three hundred words long (i. you need to make sure it is self sufficient and can be understood in isolation. not more than a page).  . therefore.Usually written last The executive summary stands as an overview at the front of the report but it is also designed to be read alone without the accompanying report (this would often occur in the workplace).e.

Reports and Executive summary .

depending on the report's length.  . Executive summaries are written literally for an executive who most likely DOES NOT have the time to read the original.Definition of Executive Summary The executive summary is usually no longer than 10% of the original document.  It can be anywhere from 1-10 pages long.

The purpose of executive summary Executive summaries make a recommendation  Accuracy is essential because decisions will be made based on your summary by people who have not read the original  Executive summaries frequently summarize more than one document  .

abstracts are typically 150 to 250 words and follow set patterns. cover the main points of a piece of writing.  .  And unlike general summaries which can be adapted in many ways to meet various readers' and writers' needs. Unlike executive summaries written for nonspecialist audiences.Abstracts Abstracts. like all summaries. abstracts use the same level of technical language and expertise found in the article itself.

try:  Summarizing the major sections of your report. They should not be written until after your report is finished.  Talking aloud or even tape recording yourself summarizing sections of your report. Before writing your summary.Processes for writing an Executive Summary Executive summaries are typically written for longer reports. You might even copy text from your report into the summary and then edit it down.  .

Questions to Ask Yourself as You Write What is your report about? 2. What is included in the report? 4. Why is it important? 3. . What is included in each section? 1.

Instead. . begin with a concise statement of the conclusion you reached after conducting your analysis and/or research is the paper that will be attached.Concise Statement  As a cover sheet to your document. an executive summary need not go into ANY mention of how you conducted your analysis and/or what you are basing your conclusion on.

.Writing Recommendations  After beginning with a summary statement of your findings. the executive summary should go on to provide a specific recommendation for action geared toward your audience.

.More Complex Recommendations  In other cases. In this case. the recommendation might be complicated enough to justify a summary of causes for the recommendation. the recommendation paragraph usually begins with a summary of how the writer reached the recommendation.

this might involve a monetary analysis as in the example to the right. an executive summary provides an analysis and/or justification for the proposed action in terms the audience will consider important. but actions can be justified many ways.Justification Finally.  . depending on the concerns of the audience and the topic of the report.  In many cases.

I hope you shall be able to use the knowledge learned today .

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