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• To have a better understanding of the different models of body composition • To differentiate FAT MASS and FAT FREE MASS • To know about the Essential fat

• To be familiar with the different methods of body size and composition measurement
• To know about the different types of obesity and classification

• The relative % of body weight that is fat and fatfree tissue




and connective tissue. . • Fat mass includes all the body’s fat along with essential fat. FAT-FREE MASS • Fat-free mass is composed of all of the body's nonfat tissue including bone.FAT MASS VS. muscle. organs.

ESSENTIAL FAT • All fat is not bad!! • We need fat for padding of organs. energy source • There is a minimum amount that we need to function daily = essential fat • Gender specific • males ~ 3% • females ~ 7% . insulation.

8% water.900 g/ml • The density of FFM is 1.ASSUMPTIONS OF TWO-COMPONENT MODELS • The density of fat is 0.100 g/ml • The densities of fat and FFM are the same for all individuals • The individual being measured differs from a reference body (73.4% protein. 6.8% mineral) only in the amount of fat . 19.

protein) ..• We can’t distinguish between fat that is essential and fat that is not so in order to have more components in a model: • we break the fat-free mass down further (referred to as a multi-component model) • ie. water. mineral. 3-component model (fat. solids) • ie. 4-component model (fat. water..

and other simple procedures. Indirect estimation by hydrostatic weighing.METHODS TO ASSESS BODY SIZE AND COMPOSITION Two general approaches determine the fat and fat-free components of the human body: • 1. including body stature and mass . anthropometric measurements. Direct measurement by chemical analysis or dissection • 2.

and bone. meticulous attention to detail. and specialized laboratory equipment and pose ethical questions and legal problems in obtaining cadavers for research purposes. • The other direct assessment approach involves physical dissection of fat. fat-free adipose tissue. Such analyses require extensive time. .DIRECT ASSESSMENT Two methods directly assess body composition. a chemical solution literally dissolves the body into its fat and nonfat (fat-free) components. muscle. • In one technique.


Archimedes’ principle applied to hydrostatic weighing. computed tomography (CT). • Other indirect procedures to predict body fat use skinfold thickness and girth measurements. also known as underwater weighing and hydrodensitometry. . total-body electrical conductivity or impedance.INDIRECT ASSESSMENT • Many indirect procedures assess body composition. ultrasonography. x-ray. near- infrared interactance (NIR). magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). computes percentage body fat from body density. air plethysmography. and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

density of 1.HYDRODENSITOMETRY • Used to be considered the most accurate (up for debate now that DEXA is used) • Considered a lab technique (can’t carry your tank with you out into the field) • Fat Component .muscle+bones+ tendons+organs.Fat (adipose)+Neural+ Essential Fat. density of 0.9 g/ml • Fat-Free Component .10 g/ml .

if more fat .will float (fat is less dense than water) • If more muscle .will sink (muscle is more dense than water) • BD = BW/BV • Body weight = measured on a regular scale • Body volume = measured using hydrostatic (underwater) weighing accounting for water density and air trapped in lungs .• Water Density ~ 1.0 g/ml (temperature of the water affects the density) • Thus.

submerge .1 • Determine BV Calculate BD Calculate %fat • If have high BV low BD more fat • If low BV high BD less fat • More simply .HYDRODENSITOMETRY • Body Density = BW÷((BW-UWW)/H20 Density) .fill a bathtub with water .if catch all the water that spills over and weight it = BV .RV-0.


24 x VC • Female = 0.RESIDUAL VOLUME • Cannot blow all of the air out of your lungs (that would be bad!!) • We need to account for the air that is left in the lungs (RV) + the air in the GI (~0.019(Ht cm)+0.24 • Female = 0.023(Ht cm)+0.978 • Nitrogen Analysis (rebreathing apparatus) .28 x VC • Male = 0.021(age)-2.1L) • Prediction equations based on height and/or Vital Capacity • Male = 0.0115(age)-2.

sex. and race affect the density of fat-free mass.414. Age.• Inaccuracies in hydrodensitometry are due to variation in the density of the fat-free mass from one individual to another.142 * 100 • ACSM guidelines: • %fat = 457÷BD . • % fat = 4.2 .4.57÷BD .



WHOLE BODY PETHYSMOGRAPHY • Measures body volume by air displacement actually measures pressure changes with injection of known volume of air into closed chamber • Large body volume displaces air volume in chamber results in bigger increase in pressure with injection of known volume of air .


. • Air volume in the box can be measured. • Easier than underwater weighing for people uncomfortable in water. • Based on Boyle’s Law: • Pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume. • When person enters box. • Very high correlation with underwater weighing. pressure changes and can measure new volume in box.• Body plethysmograph or body box.


Subscapular: Oblique fold just below the bottom tip of the scapula • 3. elbow remains in an extended. Thigh: Vertical fold at the midline of the thigh. Suprailiac (iliac crest): Slightly oblique fold just above the hip bone (crest of ileum). two-thirds of the distance from the middle of the patella (knee cap) to the hip • Two other sites include: • Chest (males): Diagonal fold (with its long axis directed toward the nipple) on the anterior axillary fold as high as possible • Biceps: Vertical fold at the posterior midline of the upper arm . halfway between the tip of the shoulder and tip of the elbow. the fold follows the natural diagonal line • 4. relaxed position • 2. Abdomen: Vertical fold 1 inch to the right of the umbilicus • 5.• 1. Triceps: Vertical fold at the posterior midline of the upper arm.







and right forearm girths with a cloth tape to the nearest 0. • Step 3. • Step 2. constant B corresponding to 31. abdomen =31.1 kg: • Step 1. Compute percentage body fat by substituting the appropriate constants in the formula for young men . and constant C corresponding to 10.25 in (0.68. fat mass.37. Determine the three constants A. right forearm =10. Constant A corresponding to 11.30 cm).0 in = 40.74 cm).5 in (29.6 cm): Upper arm =11.0 in (78. and FFM for a 21-year-old man who weighs 79.56. abdomen. B.21 cm). Measure the upper arm. and C corresponding to the three girths.5 in =42.75 in = 58.• The following five-step example shows how to compute percentage fat.75 in (27.


Girth Measurement: Conversion Constants to Calculate Body Density for Women .

BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS • BIA measures impedance by body tissues to the flow of a small (<1mA) alternating electrical current (50kHz) • Impedance is a function of: • electrical resistance of tissue • electrical capacitance (storage) of tissue (reactance) .

BIA: BASIC THEORY • The body can be considered to be a series of cylinders. • Resistance is proportional to the length of the cylinder • Resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area .

then the volume determined is that of body water.• Volume is equal to length of the cylinder times its area • Therefore. . • Assuming that the current flows thru the path of least resistance (water) . knowing the resistance and the length. one can calculate volume.

BIA ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES • No diuretic medications with a week of test • Avoid alcohol within 2 days of test • Avoid exercise within 12 hours of test • Avoid eating or drinking within 4 hours of test • Urinate within 30 minutes of test .

4.((BW * Resistance) ÷ Ht2)) .57 ÷ (1.• Assume fat free mass has a constant proportion of water (about 73%) • Then calculate fat free mass from body water • Assume BW = FFM + FM • Then calculate fat mass and %body fat • %fat = 4.1411 .142 * 100 ht = length of the conductor .

65H2/R + 0.17W + 0.53 + 0.02R Females FFM = -9.69H2/R + 0.26W + 0.Males FFM = -10.68 + 0.02R Where FFM = fat free mass (kg) H = height (cm) W = body weight (kg) R – resistance (ohms) % BF = 100 x (BW-FFM)/BW .

26W+0.26(77.3)+0.68+(0.02(520) FFM = -10.DATA R = 520 ohms BW = 170 lbs = 77.3 – 59.5 kg FM = W – FFM = 77.3)x100 = 23% .8/77.65H2/R)+0.8 kg %BF = (17.4 = 59.02R FFM = -10.65x1782/520)+0.68+(0.5 = 17.6 + 39.3 kg H = 70” = 178 cm CALCULATIONS FFM = -10.1 + 10.6 + 20.




and bone mass each reduce (attenuate) the X-ray signal in unique ways • Computer analyzes scan point by point to determine body composition Method • Low dose radiation • 20-30 minutes • Applicable to young and old . fat.DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY • Two different energy level X-rays • Lean.

• Body composition is a better indicator of fitness than body weight/height. Being overfat (not necessarily overweight) has a negative impact on exercise/athletic performance. Standard height-weight tables do not provide accurate estimates of what you should weigh because they do not take into account the composition of the weight. A subject can be overweight according to these tables yet have very little body fat.

• Made with a tape measure • Waist - at the narrowest part of the waist between the umbilicus and xiphoid process • Hips - biggest part of the gluteals • Divide the hip measurement into the waist measurement to obtain the WHR • Risks increase with increasing ratios • very high risk >0.94 young men and 0.82 young women

• very high risk >1.03 older (60-69 years) men and 0.90 for older women

0 .9 kg/m2 .BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) • Ratio of a person’s weight (kg) to the height squared (m2) • Used to categorize people with respect to their degree of obesity • Not used to determine % fat • 20-25 kg/m2 .obesity .desirable • 25-29.overweight • >30.


biceps) and measures the intensity of the re-emitted light • More specific equations/machines are necessary. .NEAR INFRARED INTERACTANCE • Based on the premise that the degree of infrared light absorption is related to the composition of the substance through which light passes • Fat and Fat-Free Mass absorb and reflect light differently • Emit infrared light at wavelengths of 940-950 nm into a body part (ie. researchers does not support NIR as a valid method to assess human body composition..

ULTRASOUND • Based on reflection of sound • Fat content increases the time is required for sound to reflect off of bone and muscle. • Ultrasound exhibits high reliability for repeat measurements and subcutaneous fat thickness at multiple sites in the lying and standing positions on the same day and different days. • It shows validity for assessing FFM of high school wrestlers which may prove useful as a field based body composition assessment method. .

• Very precise measure of body composition • Expensive and not practical measure for most uses .IMAGING TECHNIQUES • Based on imaging of body tissues • Based on cross sectional area measures calculated at different levels of the body.


DEFINITIONS • Overweight: Body mass index (BMI) 25 .m-2 • Obese: BMI > 30 kg.m-2 • Percent Body Fat: Proportion of total weight that is fat.29. .9 kg.

Increased WHR indicative of android obesity Android obesity = higher risk of heart attack  Gynoid Obesity – excess fat deposited in hips and thighs (pear-shaped).TYPES OF OBESITY  Android Obesity – central or upper body adiposity (apple-shaped). Gynoid obesity = lower risk of heart attack  The accumulation of visceral body fat is typical of the android (male) fat pattern males: visceral accounts for 10-35% of total fat females: visceral accounts for 8-13%of total fat .

5 – 24.0 – 39.9 30.9 • Overweight • Obese Class I • Obese Class II • Obese Class III 25.0 – 34.5 18.0 – 29.9 > 40 .9 35.WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION CRITERIA FOR OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY BY BMI • Category • Underweight • Normal Weight BMI < 18.

• A combination of stature and bony widths adequately defines BFS. . • Bitrochanteric diameter(cm) measured as the distance between the most lateral projection of the greater trochanters. • MEASUREMENTS • Stature(height [HT]) measured in cm • Biacromial diameter (cm) measured as the distance between the most lateral projections of the acromial processes. because BFS relates to the fat free body mass and not body fat.DETERMINING BODY FRAME SIZE AND STRATURE • Body frame size becomes a useful measure for evaluating normalcy of body weight with standardized charts that categorize weight by frae size.

(∑ Bia + Bitroc) – sum the average biacromial and bitrochanteric diameter measurement .DETERMINING BODY FRAME SIZE AND STRATURE • CALCULATIONS FEMALE : BFS x Ht + 10.357+ ∑Bia + Bitroc Regression analyses determine BFS values for women and men from Ht and sum of the biacromial and bitrochanteric bone diameters (∑ Bia + Bitroc).239 + (∑Bia + Bitroc) BFS MALE= Ht ×8.239+ ∑Bia + Bitroc BFS FEMALE= Ht ×10.375 + (∑Bia + Bitroc) MALE : BFS x Ht + 8.