Datoya Brown ZOOL 410-02 Principles of Genetics 28 November 2012

but they renew themselves during each division .e. they can give rise to multiple different cell types  Are capable of long-term self-renewal. they are able to proliferate. Stem cells are cells that:  Are not committed to a specific fate  Are pluripotent. i.

or differentiate into. uncommitted state either (“de-differentiation”) .  They can give rise to. all other cells are committed to a specific fate –they can’t convert to a different cell fate (“transdifferentiation”) or revert back to a more stem-cell like. multiple cell types This trait is unique to stem cells.

• Are capable of long-term self-renewal ▪ They are highly proliferative ▪ Each division produces one cell that will go on to differentiate and one cell that remains a stem cell (selfrenewal): .

but some are capable of giving rise to more cell types than others ▪ Adult stem cell populations include: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Intestinal stem cells Adipose stem cells Bone marrow stem cells Hematopoietic stem cells Cord blood stem cells . Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) ▪ Derived from very early embryos ▪ The only truly TOTIpotent cells (can give rise to ANY cell type in the body)  Adult (somatic) stem cells ▪ These cells reside in adults ▪ All are pluripotent.

.Studying the process of differentiation Providing a model for testing drugs and treatments  Generating cells and tissues for replacement therapies in diseases that are caused by or result from cell death in tissues that cannot regenerate themselves:        heart disease stroke diabetes burns Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative disorders  spinal cord injuries  arthritis  etc….

to some extent:  Ethical considerations  ES cell-derived tissues would be recognized as foreign by your immune system. and could be attacked as a result (host-vs-graft)  Some concern that ES cell-derived tissues could be tumorigenic if their differentiation is incomplete (might retain highly proliferative capability) . Significant drawbacks to ES cells have limited their development as a clinical tool.

Stem Cells. Beltran. Breastmilk Is a Novel Source of Stem Cells with Multilineage Differentiation Potential.(2012). (30):2164–2174 Hypothesis  The presence of these cells in breastmilk highlights it as a novel and noninvasive source of multipotent patient-specific stem cells. with the potential for application in regenerative medicine and in studies of molecular determinants of cancer Purpose  In this study. we sought to examine regulators of the self- renewal of hBSCs and their plasticity and potential to differentiate toward cell types outside the mammary lineage . Chetwynd et al.Hassiotou.

M. Breastmilk Is a Novel Source of Stem Cells with Multilineage Differentiation Potential.H. Chetwynd et al. Kaufman.. 292:154-156. Hassiotou.J.(2012). M.Evans. Beltran. Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos. 1983. (30):2164–2174 . Nature. Stem Cells.