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UNIT 4 NAVIGATION

NAVIGATION AIDS

 Navigation aids are means designed

to assist a navigator to determine safe course or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation.

 Navigation aids include lighthouses,

lightships, buoys, beacons etc.

 IALA (International Association of

Lighthouse Authorities) endorsed two buoyage systems in 1977.  Region A (IALA A) covers all of Europe and most of the rest of the world whereas region B (IALA B) covers only the America, Japan, the Philippines and Korea.

All marks within the IALA system are distinguished by

shape,

colour,
top mark  light

 Identification of navigation aids is

accomplished by observing their location, shape, colour scheme, auxiliary features (sound signals, RACON etc.) and markings (name, number, etc) during daytime

At night, light is only way of identification and has three features:

colour,

period
phase characteristic

 Phase characteristics are the distinctive

sequences of light and dark intervals in the variations of the intensity of light.

 The common types are fixed, flashing,

quick flashing, very quick flashing, interrupted quick flashing, isophase, occulting, alternating, group and long flashing.

BEACONS

 Beacons are fixed aids to navigation

attached to the bottom of the waterway or ashore.  Lighted beacons are called lights; unlighted beacons are daybeacons.

LIGHTHOUSES
 Lighthouses are major structures with

distinctive colour, light sequences and sound signals.  Lighthouses help navigators determine location and warn of potential hazards.  The necessary information about lighthouses can be found on charts.

LIGHTSHIPS

 Lightships are vessels which carry the

entire equipment standard to a lighthouse.

BUOYS
Buoys are floating aids to warn navigators against potential dangers. Buoy types are:  Lateral  Cardinal  Isolated danger  Safe water  Special

 The location of lateral buoys

defines the borders of channels and indicates the direction.

 Cardinal buoys indicate the safe side

of a danger with an approximate bearing.

Basic buoy shapes are  can  cone  sphere  pillar  spar.

 Buoys can be lighted or unlighted.  The information about buoys can

be found on charts.

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS

 1-What are the purposes of

navigational aids?

 2-What are the differences between

lighthouses and lightships?

3-What is the coverage of region B?

4-What are the basic features of lights?

5-What are the types of buoys?

6- Do lighthouses have sound signals?

7- What are the main buoy shapes?

8-Are buoys and beacons fixed?

SOME WORDS

 Cardinal System (n)- The aids are

assigned shape, colour, and number distinction in accordance with location relative to obstructions.

 Daybeacon (n) - An unlighted fixed

structure equipped with dayboards.

 Isophase (adj.)- Referring to a light

having a characteristic of equal intervals of light and darkness.

 Lateral System (n)- A system of aids in

which the shape, colour and number are assigned in accordance with navigable waters.

 RACON (n)- A device that, on receiving

radar signals, transmits coded signals in response to help navigators determine their position

Explain the difference between two words

a) Coast b) Shore

a) Radio navigation b) Satellite navigation

a) Lighthouse b) Lightship

‘ Means to assist a navigator to determine safe course or warn of dangers to navigation’ defines

a. navigation instruments b. celestial navigation c. deduced reckoning d. compasses e. navigation aids

‘ Means to assist a navigator to determine safe course or warn of dangers to navigation’ defines

e. navigation aids

Which is not a mark distinguishing way in IALA system?

a. shape b. colour c. top mark d. gravity e. light

Which is not a mark distinguishing way in IALA system?

d. gravity

Mooring buoy is a …… buoy.
a. lateral b. cardinal c. isolated danger d. safe water e. special

Mooring buoy is a …… buoy.

e. special

Who endorses the light and buoyage for navigation?

a. IALA b. ITU c. WMO d. INMARSAT e. ILO

Who endorses the light and buoyage for navigation?

a. IALA