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PRESSURE SENSOR Sensing Principles

Sensing Elements
Since pressure is defined as the force per unit area, the most direct way of measuring pressure is to isolate an area on an elastic mechanical element for the force to act on. The deformation of the sensing element produces displacements and strains that can be precisely sensed to give a calibrated measurement of the pressure. This forms the basis for essentially commercially available pressure sensors today. all

Can be grouped as diaphragms, capsules, bellows, and tubes as Figure

Pressure-sensing elements: (a) flat diaphragm; (b) corrugated diaphragm; (c) capsule;

and tubes as Figure Pressure-sensing elements: (d) bellows. . capsules. bellows.PRESSURE SENSOR Can be grouped as diaphragms. (f) C-shaped Bourdon tube. (e) straight tube.

(1) spiral Bourdon tube. and tubes as Figure Pressure-sensing elements: (g) twisted Bourdon tube. capsules. bellows. (h) helical Bourdon tube.PRESSURE SENSOR Can be grouped as diaphragms. .

Deflection type 2.PRESSURE SENSOR Can be divided into three types: 1. Strain gauge type 3. Piezoelectric type .

Typical Pressure Detector System .

stainless steel. inductance or capacitance.g. bellow or diaphragm. The main element used is in the shape of Bourdon tube. Suitable to be used in an automatic control system. The secondary element is the element that will convert the displacement to electrical signals where the displacement can be detected through resistivity change.1. DEFLECTION TYPE PRESSURE SENSOR • • • • • This sensor uses an elastic material to convert pressure to displacement e. The displacement will be proportionate to the value of pressure exerted. . brass.

The Main Typical Element Used In A Deflection Type Pressure Sensor .

Basic Form of Mechanical Pressure Sensors .

Bellows Calibrated spring Sliding contact Resistance Output Signal . • • The resistance change is detected by displacement of sliding contact in the resistance element. Bellow-resistance pressure sensor The pressure is proportionate to the resistivity.Example : i.

The core movement will produce AC signal output which will give the value and direction of inductance. LVDT (linear variable differential transformer) demodulator is used to convert the AC output to DC. • • • Bellows Core Output Signal .Example : ii. Bellow-inductance pressure sensor The pressure is proportionate to the inductance change which is detected from the displacement of the core in the wire coil.

iii. Diaphragm-capacitance pressure sensor • • The pressure is proportionate to the capacitance change at the output through dielectric change. Pressure from the sensor element causes the diaphragm to move towards the plate and produces dielectric change. .

Resistance Type Capacitance Type .

Capacitance Type .

Wheatstone Bridge circuit is used to detect the change in pressure and an amplifier is used to amplify the small output signals. • . Pressure is measured through force that is exerted on the diaphragm where the force will be detected by the strain gauge and resistance change will be produced. STRAIN GAUGE PRESSURE SENSOR • • • Strain gauge is a type of resistive transduction. Pressure measurement is obtained from displacement of elastic element.2.

Strain Gauge Pressure Sensor .

This sensor is suitable for fast changing pressure measurement.3. Pressure exerted on the crystal surface is proportionate to the voltage produced by the crystal. This sensor does not require any voltage supply. PIZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSOR • This sensor consists of a piezoelectric crystal (made from quartz) which functions as a forcesensitive voltage source where the piezoelectric will be in between two plates. • • • .

Mechanical Stress Piezoelectric Material Output Voltage Plate Mechanical Stress Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor .

Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor .

Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor .

Units of Pressure and Conversion .