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Apparel Finish and Care

UNIT – I
GARMENT DYEING
 GARMENT DYEING  FABRIC SELECTION

 SEWING THREAD SELECTION
 ACCESSORIES SELECTION  DYE SELECTION  GARMENT DYEING MACHINERY

Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore. KCT, of Fashion Technology,

Apparel Finish and Care

GARMENT DYEING
What is garment dyeing?
 Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully fashioned garments. (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans, sweaters, dresses, bathrobes, casual jackets, shirts, skirts, hosieries)  As opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics.  Most garments are made of cotton knit goods and/or cotton woven fabrics.  Although several other fabrics can be found in the whole or in part such as wool, nylon, silk, acrylic, polyester and others.  Due to cost savings and fashion trends, garment dyeing has been gaining importance and popularity in the past years and will continue to do so in the future.

Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore. KCT, of Fashion Technology,

of Fashion Tech KCT.  The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors. garments are constructed from fabrics that are pre dyed (piece dyed) before the actual cutting and sewing. KCT. casual look  Ability to create special effects such as tie dyed. Dept. pigment dyed and washed down in a single process etc.)  Ability to supply a wide range of colorations to the retailer. . Coimbatore.  A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market...Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING Need of garment dyeing Traditionally. but only in the shades that are selling  Reduced discounted sales at inventory  Best way to achieved relaxed. of Fashion Technology. Dept.  Quick Response to the market (bar coding etc.

KCT. . Dept. Pre dyed threads may be used Corespun threads with a strength or stretch yam in the core and the desired fiber on the outside Covered threads may be used "Tacking" of sleeves and pant legs to prevent tangling - - Dept.Apparel Finish and Care Special considerations to garment dyer Very good communications between all parties involved Preparation . of Fashion Technology. etc.of Fashion Tech KCT. which are clear or predyed tie dyed splatter dyed weathered pigment dye and wash down in a single process nickel plated brass zippers are acceptable Velcro .may be done on piece goods or on garments clean substrate for dyeing reduced shrinkage (preferably squared) for wovens should be less than 5% for knits should be less than 8% Metal components should be non-ferrous pewter buttons are acceptable Non-metal components that are not sensitive to dye chemistry or temperatures at a boil are acceptable polyester zippers.clear or predyed special polyamide buttons which are dyeable Threads must be of same fiber as the fabric in the garment or "grinning" will occur. buttons. Coimbatore.

Dyeing of 100% cotton goods for boutique trade suitable for hand washing. over dyeing and highlighting effects. Washing. of Fashion Technology. and 1. Fully fashioned garment dyeing carried out by major dyers and finishers 2. • The entire garment dyeing activities may be broken down in to four categories: 1. . leading to stone wash. This is due to the fact that processing of garments involves value added goods. Cut and sewn garment covering woven and knitted fabrics. Dept. though there is very little difference in the dyeing procedures. 1.of Fashion Tech KCT. desizing.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING Categories of Garment Dyeing • The dyeing of the garments requires more care than the dyeing of the fabric. Dept. Coimbatore. bleaching denim goods. KCT. snow wash.

Disadvantages of Garment Dyeing  Labour intensive process and requires thorough checking of every piece  Higher “seconds” rate  Poor appearance  Poor reproducibility of shades  Special care in the selection of fittings  More material handling . KCT. of Fashion Technology.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING Advantages of Garment Dyeing  Flexibility towards fast changing market trends  Quick response and rapid turnaround  Flexibility towards dye shades and finishes  Flexibility of lot size  Flexibility of items to be dyed  Comparatively less rejection  Low inventory  Less capital investments  Fancy effects Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT. Coimbatore.

Dept. .  Loom state fabric must be converted into RFD (ready for Dyeing) Stage. the elasticized areas.of Fashion Tech KCT. .Desized. and seams should not be too tight or bulky. Scoured and bleached for light colours To get the best-looking garments. bleached and Mercerized  For heavily swelling fibres such as cotton.Desized. Coimbatore. . must be fairly slack. waist bands and cuffs.Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF FABRIC  Lots or batches of greige fabric must be selected that will dye up identical in shade. Scoured for dark colours. .Desized. of Fashion Technology. Scoured. KCT. Dept.

.Dyes to be taken as same as the outer fabric. .Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF FABRIC  Shrinking behavior of the fabric must be uniform before garment dyeing.  Fabrics should be free from foreign materials (Contamination)  The interlinings used are to be checked for their performance to satisfy the requirement.The gum should not be removed off from the surface .of Fashion Tech KCT. of Fashion Technology. .  Articles which are prone to Crease marks or Pilling effects should be turned inside out and dyed with the addition of a non-foaming lubricant while adopting the shortest possible dyeing process. Dept. Dept. KCT. Coimbatore.The resin in the interlinings should not make adverse effect on the dyeing color.

Coimbatore.of Fashion Tech KCT.  Nylon preferred  Wooden to be verified before usage.  Studs and Buttons may be used after dyeing of the garment most of the cases to avoid breakages and damages to the fabric. Dept. KCT.  Brass. antiq brass.  If the effect is required. golden zippers can be used and to be checked before the bulk process.  Care Labels& Embroideries  Care labels to be used are to be good in fastness properties. Dept.  Embroidery threads are used as polyester threads for pre confirmed colors. silver.  A pouch may be used to avoid dye penetration on the care labels. Studs and Zippers:  Free from Nickel  Polyester buttons for pre determined colors. then RFD cotton yarn is used for the embroidery as like sewing threads.Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF ACCESSORIES  Buttons.  It should not absorb the dyes from the bath.  Polyester care labels are mostly used. . of Fashion Technology. gun metal.

 Should be free from hairiness.  Sewing threads to be of high strength to withstand the required seam strength. Dept. of Fashion Technology. Coimbatore. Dept.  Mostly heavy threads than normal polyester threads are used. the thread numbers can be used.  Depending upon the requirement.  They should be of same lot. Proper care should be taken in maintaining consistency.Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF SEWING THREAD  Cotton thread is preferred in most of the garment dyeing. .  Polyester threads can be used only in pre determined colors.  Threads with low tension to be applied while sewing to balance the shrinkage of threads.of Fashion Tech KCT. KCT.  Core spun yarn also be used for better performance of seams.  Nylon threads can be used.

of Fashion Tech KCT. Coimbatore.Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF SEWING Sewing Recommendations:     Stitch density Thread Tension Stitch and Seam type Needle size Dept. KCT. of Fashion Technology. . Dept.

Dept. which require gentler handling. Paddle machines  A high liquor ratio is required for paddle machines.  Many machinery companies have developed sophisticated rotary dyeing machines. such as sweaters. Dept. Coimbatore. which incorporate state-of-the-art technology. which is less economical and may limit shade reproducibility. 2. KCT. 1.of Fashion Tech KCT. .Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Garment dyeing machines There are two types of equipment regularly used for garment dyeing. of Fashion Technology. Rotary drums  Rotary drum machines are sometimes preferred for garments.

Dept. The Gyrobox 6. Toroid Dyeing Machine 4. B.of Fashion Tech KCT. Horizontal Paddle Machine Lateral / oval paddle HT Paddle Machines 2. Coimbatore. C. The MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine 7. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine Tumbler Dyeing Machine 3.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Types of Machines 1. KCT. Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine 5. . Rotary drums A. Leemetals epicyclic Paddle dyeing machine Dept. B. of Fashion Technology. Paddle machines: A.

Coimbatore. PADDLE DYEING MACHINE Working Principle:  A process of dyeing textiles in a machine that gently move the goods using paddles similar to a paddle wheel on a boat. of Fashion Technology. Dept. KCT. Dept.  This is a slow process. .of Fashion Tech KCT.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1. but there is extremely little abrasion on the goods.

Paddle Wheel Drain Dept. which extends across the width of the machine.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1A.  Half immersed paddles cause the material to move upwards and downwards through out the liquor.of Fashion Tech KCT. KCT. Coimbatore.  The temperature can be raised to 98o C in such system. Dept.  The goods are moved by a rotating paddle. Horizontal Paddle Machines  (over head paddle machine) consist of a curved beck like lower suction to contain the materials and the dye liquor. . of Fashion Technology.

. KCT. Dept. of Fashion Technology. Dye Bath  The temperature can be increased up to 98o C. Coimbatore.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1B. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT.  In the middle of this tank is a closed oval island. Island Circulation  The paddle moves in a lateral direction and is not half submerged in the liquor. Lateral / oval paddle Peddle  This machines consist of oval tank to enhance the fluid flow and the processing the goods.

of Fashion Tech KCT. Coimbatore.  PES articles are preferably dyed on HT paddles. Drainage controller  It works according to the principle of horizontal paddle machine.  however. . of Fashion Technology.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1C. the temperature can be raised up to 140o C. Dept. Cooling drainage valve 11. Dept. KCT. HT Paddle Machines 1.Trough body 2.Slurry disk 3.Door 4.Charging bucket 5.Thermometer 6.Indirect heating valve 7.Direct heating valve 8.Trough body water supply valve 9.Trough body drainage valve 10.

of Fashion Tech KCT. crease formation.5 to 40 rpm. the blades of the paddle are either curved or have rounded edges. KCT.  The dyeing can be carried out with 30:1 to 40:1 Liquor to Material Ratio.  The rotating speed of the paddle can be regulated from 1.  Paddle machines are suitable for dyeing articles of all substrates in all forms of make ups. Dept. of Fashion Technology. Dept.  For gentleness.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES General Parameters & Features In paddle machines.  Circulation of the liquor should be strong enough to prevent goods from sinking to the bottom.  Lower ratios reduces optimum movement of the goods. lead to unleveled dyeing. .  The goods are normally dyed using PP/PET bags. Coimbatore.

.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 2A.  The outer vessel holds the required quantity of dye liquor.of Fashion Tech KCT. Dept.  High temperature drum machines are capable of processing the garments up to 140o C.  The internal drum is divided into compartments to ensure rotation of goods with the drum rotation. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine Door  “Movement of textile material and a stationary liquor”. KCT. Coimbatore. Dept. of Fashion Technology. Steam Pipe  The rotary drum dyeing machine consists of rotating perforated cylindrical drum . which rotates slowly inside a vessel of slightly bigger in size.

6.of Fashion Tech KCT. Centrifugal extraction Variable drum speed with reversal capability (adaptable to a wide variety of goods) Continuous circulation of goods (improves migration control) Ease of sampling Variable water levels with overflow rinsing capabilities Large diameter feed and discharge lines (minimizes filling and draining time) 10. KCT. Coimbatore. Dept. 5. 2.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Features of modern rotary-dyeing Machine 1. 9. Auto-balancing drums Dept. of Fashion Technology. 7. Lint filters 12. Pressure dyeing 13. 8. Microprocessor controls 11. . 3. Lower liquor ratio Gentle movement of goods and liquor (minimizes surface abrasion) Rapid heating and cooling 4.

“multipurpose drum machines” or .  The rotary drum machines are very simple to operate and are quite compact in size.  Drum dyeing-centrifuging machines are also called .“multi-rapid dyeing centrifuging machines”  since these machines can perform scouring. dyeing. . centrifuging and conditioning successively with automated controls. KCT.of Fashion Tech KCT.  The cost of unit is also not high . of Fashion Technology. Dept. Dept. Coimbatore.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES General Parameters & Features of Rotary Machine One feature that can be used to reduce abrasion on delicate garments or to minimize tangling is a compartmental chamber. sometimes referred to as a "Y" pocket.

 These machines can operate at very low liquor ratios and can dye the goods up to 98 -140o C.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Working Features of Rotary Machine  The goods are treated in a perforated inner drum housed within an outer drum (dyeing tank). Coimbatore.   This is suitable for knits as well as other garments.  Inner drums without dividing walls are provided with ribs that carry the goods along for a certain time.  Drums can be rotated in both the directions. Dept. partially lifting them up out of the liquor. KCT. .of Fashion Tech KCT.  Liquor circulation can be intensified using additional jets. Dept. of Fashion Technology.

of Fashion Tech KCT.  The principle of operation is to load the material into perforated inner SS tanks . Coimbatore. KCT. Dept. .Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 2B. Tumbler Dyeing Machine  These machines are being used for small garments either in loose form or in open mesh bags.  The drum is divided into compartments for moving the goods with rotation of drum. which rotates round a horizontal shaft fixed at the back of the drum. Dept. of Fashion Technology.  Design wise the tumbler dyeing machines are similar to the commercial laundering machines.

   Dept. Dept.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES General Parameters & Features of Tumbler Dyeing Machine  A variety of tumbling machines have higher rotation speeds and can spin dry at the end of the cycle. The more vigorous mechanical action often promotes more shrinkage and bulking.of Fashion Tech KCT. KCT. In order to handle higher quantities and large production of similar pieces the latest machines are provided with several automatic features and sophistications. Coimbatore. of Fashion Technology. . which may be desirable for some articles. Rotating drum machines are more efficient and cleaner to operate than paddle machines. These are similar to dry-cleaning machines.

Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 3.  High-temperature versions of this machine operating at 120 to 130°C were developed in the 1970s for dyeing fully-fashioned polyester or triacetate garments.  Movement of the goods depends completely on the pumped action of the liquor. Dept. Coimbatore. . of Fashion Technology. Dept. Toroid Dyeing Machine  In these machines the garments circulate in the liquor in a toroidal path with the aid of an impeller situated below the perforated false bottom of the vessel. KCT.  The liquor ratio of such machines is about 30:1.of Fashion Tech KCT.

speed and performance is simplified to make the machine more versatile and free from operating problems. the additional features are: The machine is suitable for both atmospheric and pressure dyeing.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 4. The design features. . KCT. Coimbatore. of Fashion Technology. Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine  This is an improved version of Toroid machines . Full automation upto hydroextraction.of Fashion Tech KCT.    Dept. Dept.

. The main advantage of this machine are.Fully automatic operation. Coimbatore.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 5. 3. KCT. Dept.    Dept.Reduced M:L 2.Flexible loading 4. which is divided into 12 independent non radial compartments.The Gyrobox  The machine has support in the form of a large wheel. The wheel runs at a moderate speed of 2-6 rpm. 1.Different types of garments can be dyed simulteneously . of Fashion Technology.of Fashion Tech KCT. The goods are placed in these compartments .

bath rugs and accessories .  The MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine The rotodye machines are suitable for dyeing pure cotton. epicyclic Paddle dyeing Dept. of Fashion Technology. Coimbatore. polyester.of Fashion Tech KCT. 7. Leemetals machine. socks and stockings. wool. . Dept. sweaters. cotton blends in the form of T shirts. KCT.Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 6.