Biomimetics Smart Fabrications

Usman Zubair & Muhammad Irfan

What are Biomematics?
Bio inspired, Bio mimic, Nature inspired, Biomimicry, Bionics Why nature is the best Teacher? – design complex – efficient structures – Structures evolved through strict phases to fit the environment Bio-inspired and bio-enabled materials Bio-inspired nanomaterials, fibers, composites, functionally graded materials, multifunctional materials, organic-inorganic hybrid composites, adaptive fabrics, biomedical materials; Biological materials vs synthetic bioinspired materials Bio-inspired and bio-enabled manufacturing Biomimetic processing, bioclastic processing, self- healing, selfassembly, biomineralization, templating, patterning, hierarchical structures, etc. Functional bio-inspired surfaces Sticking, anti-adhesive, self-cleaning, thermo- and hydro-regulating, anti friction, drag reduction, sound generation, defense surfaces


superoleophobicity in water Reversible adhesive. self-cleaning Superhydrophobicity. anti-fogging Nacre Peacock feather Mechanical property. high adhesion Drag reduction. superhydrophobicity Polar bear fur Rice leaf Rose petal Shark skin Spicule Optical property. anti-biofouling Mechanical and fibre-optical properties . anisotropic wettability Superhydrophobicity. structural color Structural color. chemical sensing capability. superoleophilicity in air. low adhesion. structural color. thermal insulation Superhydrophobicity. anti-reflection. superhydrophobicity.Biological materials Butterfly wing Functions Superhydrophobicity. superhydrophobicity Fish scale Gecko foot Lotus leaf Mosquito compound eye Drag reduction. structural color. fluorescence emission Brittlestar Cicada wing Mechanical and optical functions Anti-reflection. self-cleaning Superhydrophobicity. selfcleaning. directional adhesion.

self cleaning Solar energy conversion and conservation Comuflauge Extra ordinary ideas for fabrics under rotational torsions bioluminescence Strong adhesiveness Hydrophillicity Mechanical property. sensitivities Anti reflection Hygroscopic movements birds Plants chloroplasts Chameleon skin Spider web Fire fly Velcro Namib Desert beetle Spider dragline silk Spider capture silk Insulation. elasticity. mechanical property. stickiness . light sensitivity. reflectance. torsional shape memory Water collection ability. response to light touch-me-not Mammalian skin moth-eye effect Pine cone Touch and warmth sensitivity Self healing. supercontraction.Biological materials Water strider leg algae eyespotstigmata Functions Durable and robust superhydrophobicity Light reception.

e. Water Repellent. co-hydrolysis and polycondensation of different silanes and silicates. anti-dust and water repellent properties without detergent or spending energy Special surface topography with super hydrophobicity Plant‘s cuticle soluble lipids. embedded in a polyester matrix – wax Microtopography of the lotus leaf exhibit extensive folding (i. Self Cleaning Fabrics • • • • • • • Glassy Lotus Leaf .Anti-dust.clean. papillose epidermal cells) and epicuticular wax crystals jutting out from the plant‘s surface. resulting in a roughened microtexture Modern nanoscience and microfabrication techniques superhydrophobic poly-lactic acid (PLA) fabrics via UVphotografting of hydrophobic silica particles functionalized with vinyl surface group over silica microstructure Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics include different techniques modified silica sols. treatment with densely packed aligned carbon nanotubes and PAN nanofibers .

Lotus Leaf Microfabrication Model .

This methacrylate core-clad doped with benzyl methacrylate comonomer (with strong UV absorption) containing a photoinitiator benzophenone and trans-4-stilbenemethanol (a molecule which undergoes photoisomerization). Chlamydomonas sps. responding to changing directions of lights. swims forward as well as backward in response to harmful UV radiation. This hierarchical assembly exhibits stigmata like sensitivity and can be applied to block UV rays from light. stereo and locomotion. protecting skin and soft tissues • • • • .Light Sensitive Apparel • Light reception and reflectance in plants provides a novel strategy of photosensing at higher level of sophistication to perform shape recognition. equipped with a flagellate engine called eyespot or stigmata photosensitive optical polymers fibers that can be successfully integrated into textiles Strategy involves making gratings of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cladding and methyl methacrylate copolymer cores.

Algae Eyespot or stigmata Design .

actuated by changes in turgor pressure and rapid growth expansion across leaf epidermis involving ion transport Micro analogous of extension and flexion movement in human and animals – triggering of these cells make by uptake of K+ ions design fabrics which shrink and de-shrink in response to external stimuli such as touch. so-called pulvinus which performs touch sensitive hydraulic actuation. autonomous organ. housing mechano. sound and/or light wearable fabrics equipped with actuators and sensors perform artificial massaging and aromatizing functions while walking haptic fabrics by knitted smart materials with touch therapy features Electrotherapy and neurotherapy garments • • • • • • • .Touch Sensitive Apparel • Touch sensitive plant Mimosa pudica shows human muscle‘s actin–myosin like quick sensing and actuation with its leafmoving muscle.and photoreceptors specialized cells undergo visible swelling and shrinking.

Touch-me-not Pulvinus Design .

the spikes automatically close up again Second layer protects the wearer from the rain taking dry air in while closing the fabric pores and moist air out while opening Such fabric could adapt to changing temperatures by opening up when warm and shutting tight when cold • • • • • • • . scales close up cones reveal two types of scale growing from the main body of the cone— the ovuliferous scale (sclerenchymatous (cellulose) fibers) and the bract scale Designing humid sensitive adaptive cloth The fabric design utilizes two layers: one of thin spikes of wool. like ovuliferous scale in pine the layer dries out.Smart Breathing Fabrics • • The scales of seed-bearing pine cones move in response to changes in relative humidity hygroscopic movement is motivated by a structural–functional mechanism at the base of each seed petal or scale When dries. automatically opens up by moving away the scales gape. another water absorbent material which opens up when gets wet by the wearer‘s sweat. facilitating release of the cone‘s seed when kept in moist (damp) environment.

Pine Cone Inspired Hygroscopic Movements Design .

use of spatial light modulators to steer light beams like holographic designs in three dimensional hologram of background scenery • • • • . guanine crystals A layer of dark melanin housed in melanophores is situated in deeper skin layers and contains reflective iridophores. CLCs color can be changed with temperature sensitive thermocouples. and their beauty of the color changing lies in the efficient dispersion of the pigment granules as per changing intensity of incident light This nature‘s cryptic phenomenon inspired to design choleric liquid crystals (CLCs) to alter the visible color of an object to create the thermal and visual camouflage in fabrics.specialized layer of cells under their transparent outer skin filled with chromatophores or alternating layers of xanthophore. which exhibits phenomenal camouflage Specialized cells filled with pigment granules are located in cytoplasm.Cryptic Coloration • • Fish and Chameleon skin . Heating–cooling ability of thermocouples used to adjust the color of CLC to match the object‘s background color Optical camouflage in fabric design to develop and impregnate optical phased array (OPA) .Camouflage Apparel . iridophores.

Fish Scale Derived Material Design .Chameleon Skin.

Self Healing Fabrics • Healing process in mammals -complex and involves hemostasis (arrest of bleeding). • • • • . monomer is drawn along the fissure where it comes in contact with a dispersed particulate catalyst (ruthenium based ‗Grubbs‘ catalyst). Microencapsulation of self-healing components involves the use of a monomer. dicyclopentadiene (DCPD). high stiffness and superior elastic. Microcapsules ruptured by a progressing crack. in urea– formaldehyde microcapsules dispersed within a polymer matrix. polymer composites .lightweight. initiating polymerization. and remodeling (retaining tissue shape like before injury) spontaneously and autonomously An important aspect is rapid hemostatic response to arrest the bleeding and remainder very complex and lengthy process nature‘s healing machinery inspired different healing concepts offer the ability to restore mechanical performance of materials via fusion of the failed surfaces Microcapsules reinforced with hollow fibers. inflammation (recruiting immune cells to clear of any microbial population and cell debris). thus repair the crack. proliferation (growth of new tissue).

Nature‘s Healing Mechanism In Mammalian Tissue .

Designing E-circuited Luminescent Fabrics • • Light production (glow) in fireflies arises on account of an enzyme catalyzed bio-chemical reaction called bioluminescence The enzyme luciferase acts on luciferin. adenosene triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen to produce light Chemical process incites motivation to design glowing clothes in dark to add valuable assets to fabrics and textile industry e-fabric design Researchers able to produce the light-emitting devices with fabric printed circuit boards (PCBs) and successfully connect them with wearable display format using socket buttons Small light-emitting sources (LESs) are attached randomly to the fabric with Velcro brushes at their ends. without compromising the softness or flexibility of the cloth • • • • • . in the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+). When both ends of the LESs are brushed against the power and ground planes Philips‘ Lumalive fabrics with flexible arrays of colored lightemitting diodes (LEDs) fully integrated into the fabric.

Firefly Glowing Model .

an opportunity to synthesize and conjugate polymer nanocomposites in fabrics to potentially rival the most advanced materials in nature. extensibility and toughness. New solvent-exchange approach that is amenable with current textile industry. or a billionth of a meter thick and 25 nm in diameter). This reinforced molecular nanocomposite is that it can be easily tuned to make fibers similar to stretchy compounds such as nylon or Lycra for traditional textile industry • • .Anti-tear Fabrics: Apparel With Spiderman‘s Suit Mechano-elasticity • • • Proteinaceous spider silk .natural silk with unique material properties with unparalleled combinations of stiffness. strength. exploiting hierarchical structures Nanoscale crystalline reinforcement – stiff nanometer sized crystallites embedded and dispersed in softer protein matrices Synthetic nanoreinforced structure from natural spider silk . engineers reinforce the hard microdomains of commercial polyurethane elastomer with tiny clay discs (about 1 nm.

Spider Silk Inspired Design .

tooth-like scales. microtextured fabric called Sharklet to explore the ‗‗surface topography‘‘ which repels the germ .high efficiency swimming and buoyancy due to special ingenious anti-drag design of their skin which reduces drag by 5– 10% move swiftly in water at the cost of low energy expenditure SEM . keeping the water closer to the shark‘s body.High Efficiency Swimsuits Design With Antibacterial Effect • • • • • • Shark . next to the skin designing antimicrobial fabrics without the chemical treatments. covering a large area of the body are made up of fabrics which are designed to mimic the properties of a shark‘s skin by superimposing vertical resin stripes. Riblet effect Swimsuits with the new fibers and weaving techniques mimicking shark scales microfeatures. produced to cling tightly to the swimmer‘s body give the wearer a 6-m equivalent head start in swimming competition by dampening turbulence in the immediate layer of water. ribbed with longitudinal grooves vertical vortices or spirals of water. (dermal denticles or riblets). reducing the surface drag unique shark scale featured microtopography that acts as antibacterial fouling surfaces and microorganisms find it inhospitable to attach on such grooved surface tightly fitting suits.

Shark Skin Inspired Low Hydrodynamic Surface Drag Design .

using polyimide sheets and an UV curable epoxy . a substrate of copper-clad polyimide sheets arranged in a layer-by-layer format. self-healing and damage sensing smart sensors can be designed and coupled with fabrics in array format Patch antenna printed on a flexible semiconducting substrate which acts as engineered sensor skins. • • • • .Thermo.provide protection (epidermis) and regulate • Mammalian • • • thermomechanical and emotional (pain) environment of the body surface via multiple sensing capabilities sensors . For direct health monitoring and data mining-transmission for personalized medical care an analogous skin like sensor exhibits flexibility. estimated to have 50 receptors per 100 square mm giving fine spatial resolution and high sensitivity artificial stimuli responsive smart fabrics Developments in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) .structural adhesive and self-healing fill material LC circuits senses the damage site self healing polymer loaded with drug.and Pressure Sensitive Fabric skins . sense of pain via strain measurement of form of arrays. Using microfabrication techniques.

Mammal Skin Inspired Design .

S. Aditi.2(2) • Biggins PD. Singh. Galluzzi. Parazzoli ―Bio-inspired approaches to design smart fabrics‖ J Mater Design (2011). S. May-Plumlee T. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications. M.S. Barozzi. Bovio. Sudhir Kumar. Analyst 2008 . • Meoli D.Source • Ajay V. Montani.V. Anisur Rahman. E. JTATM 2002. D.G. Hiltz JA. N. Interactive electronic textile development: a review of technologies. Kusterbeck A. A.

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