ERIKSON THEORY

REVATHI KERISHNAN VANITHA NAIR ZITA DEWI STEPHARIES RENUHA MUNIANDY

INTRODUCTION
o Erik Erikson was born in Frankfrut, Germany, to Danish parents. o He became the first child Psychoanalyst in Boston. o In 1936,erikson accepted a position at Yale University, where he worked at the Institute of Human Relations. o In 1950 he joined the staff of the Austen Riggs Center, a prominent psychiatric treatment where he worked with emotionally troubled young people. o In the 1960s, Erikson returned to Harvard as a professor of human development and remained at the University till his retirement in 1970.

INTRODUCTION
o Erikson is also noted for the illumination of his concept of the adolescent “identity crisis”, a term which he coined. o Erikson theory of personality covers the entire human life span, which he divide into eight distinct stages.

INFANCY (BIRTH-18 MONTHS)
 BASIC TRUST vs MISTRUST o Developing trust is the first task of the ego, and it is never complete. o The child will let mother out of sight without anxiety and rage because she has become an inner certainty as well as an outer predictability. o The balance of trust with mistrust depends largely on the quality of maternal relationship.

YOUNGER YEARS (1 ½ - 3 YEARS)
 AUTONOMY vs SHAME & DOUBT o If denied autonomy, the child will turn against him/herself urges to manipulate and discriminate. o Shame develops with the child's selfconsciousness. o Doubt has to do with having a front and back "behind" subject to its own rules. Left over doubt may become paranoia. o The sense of autonomy fostered in the

 INITIATIVE vs GUILT

EARLY CHILDHOOD (3-6 YEARS)

o Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of undertaking, planning, and attacking a task for the sake of being active and on the move. o The child feels guilt over the goals contemplated and the acts initiated in exuberant enjoyment of new locomotor's and mental powers.

EARLY CHILDHOOD (3-6 YEARS)
o A residual conflict over initiative may be expressed as hysterical denial, which may cause the repression of the wish or the abrogation of the child's ego: paralysis and inhibition, or overcompensation and showing off. o The Oedipal stage results not only in oppressive establishment of a moral sense restricting the horizon of the permissible, but also sets the direction towards the possible and the tangible which permits dreams of early

MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (7-12 YEARS)
 INDUSTRY vs INFERIORITY o To bring a productive situation to completion is an aim which gradually supersedes the whims and wishes of play. o The fundamentals of technology are developed o To lose the hope of such "industrious" association may pull the child back to the more isolated, less conscious familial rivalry of the Oedipal time o The child can become a conformist and thoughtless slave whom others exploit.

ADOLESCENCE

(12-18 YEARS)
 IDENTITY vs ROLE CONFUSION o The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others. o Ego identity is the accrued confidence that the inner sameness and continuity prepared in the past are matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others, as evidenced in the promise of a career. o The inability to settle on a school or occupational identity is disturbing.

 INTIMACY vs ISOLATION

EARLY ADULTHOOD (19-34 YEARS)

o Body and ego must be masters of organ modes and of the other nuclear conflicts in order to face the fear of ego loss in situations which call for self-abandon. o The avoidance of these experiences leads to isolation and self-absorption. o The counterpart of intimacy is distantiation, which is the readiness to isolate and destroy forces and people whose essence seems dangerous to one's own. o Now true geniality can fully develop. o The danger at this stage is isolation

MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (35-60 YEARS)
 GENERATIVITY vs STAGNATION
o Generativity is the concern in establishing and guiding the next generation. o Simply having or wanting children doesn't achieve generativity. o Socially-valued work and disciples are also expressions of generativity

LATER ADULTHOOD (60 YEARS- DEATH)
 EGO INTEGRITY vs DESPAIR o Ego integrity is the ego's accumulated assurance of its capacity for order and meaning. o Despair is signified by a fear of one's own death, as well as the loss of selfsufficiency, and of loved partners and friends. o Healthy children, Erickson tells us, won't fear life if their elders have integrity

Stage
Oral Sensory Muscular Anal

Ages

Birth to 12 to 18 Mistrust months 18 months- 3 years

Basic Import Summa Conflict ant ry Trust vs Feeding event The infant
Autonomy Toilet vs shame training & doubt Initiative vs Guilt Industry vs inferiority Intimacy must form a first loving. The child's physical activities.

Locomotor 3 to 6 years Latency Young adulthood Middle adulthood Maturity 6 to 12 years 19 to 40 years 40- 65 years 65-death

independe The child nce become more assersetiv School Deal with e. demand Intimate relationshi p Satisfy & support Fulfillment

Love vs relationshi isolation Generativi p parenting ty vs stagnation Acceptanc Ego

CONCLUSION
o Based on Erickson's theory we will be able to do the right thing or to fulfill the right desire at the right age group in order to have a better living standard. It helps us to have less complication in our life.

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