Organizational Behavior

13th Edition
Stephen P. Robbins I Timothy A. Judge I Seema Sanghi

Iffat Sabir Chaudhry, PhD. Scholar, Lecturer
Management Sciences Dept, Preston University, Islamabad Email: ch.iffat@yahoo.com

Ch 9: Foundations of Group Behavior
1. Definition & Types of Groups 2. Stages of Group Development
2.1 The Five Stage Model 2.2 Punctuated-Equilibrium Model

3. Group Properties
3.1 Roles 3.2 Norms 3.3 Status 3.4 Size 3.5 Cohesiveness

4. Group Decision Making
4.1 Group vs. Individual 4.2 Group Thinking & Group Shift 4.3 Group Decision Making Techniques

1. Groups
1.1 Definition: Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

1.2 Types of Groups: a. Formal group b. Informal group c. Command group d. Task group e. Interest group f. Friendship group

2. Stages of Group Development
2.1 The Five Stage Model: a. Pre-stage 1 c. Stage II: Storming e. Stage IV: Performing b. d. f. Stage 1: Forming Stage III: Norming Stage V: Adjourning

Pre-stage I

Stage I: Forming

Stage II: Storming

Stage III: Norming

Stage IV: Performing

Stage V: Adjourning

2. Stages of Group Development
2.2 The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity.

a. First meeting sets group direction

b. First phase generates inertia c. At about half-time, sudden transition takes place d. The transition initiates major changes e. Second phase of inertia follows f. Last meeting shows markedly accelerated activity
(High)

Performance

First Meeting Transition Phase 1

Phase 2

Completion

(Low)

A

(A+B)/2

B

Time

3. Group Properties
3.1 Roles: Several types of roles are involved i. ii. Role: A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role Identity: Certain attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with a role. Role Perception: An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act on a given situation. Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Psychological Contract: An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee, and vice versa. Role Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.

iii.
iv. v. vi.

3. Group Properties
3.2 Norms: Acceptable standards of behavior within a group shared by the group’s members. a.
Common Classes of Norms:

i. Performance Norms ii. Appearance Norms iii. Social Arrangement Norms iv. Allocation of Resources Norms

b.

Conformity: Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of

the group. Reference Group: Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
Deviant Workplace Behavior: Antisocial actions by

c.

organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.

3. Group Properties
3.3 Status: A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.
a. b. c. Status Characteristics Theory: Differences in status

d.

e.

characteristics create status hierarchies within groups. Status and Norms: Status has effect on norms. High-status tends to dilute conformity to norms. Status and Group Interaction: Status influences interaction among group members. Status differences inhibit diversity of ideas and creativity in groups. Status Inequity: The status hierarchy should be equitable, that is, people expect rewards proportionate to their inputs. Inequity creates disequilibrium and results in various types of corrective behavior. Status and Culture: Status is affected by cross-cultural differences. Status may be important in some cultures and not in others.

3. Group Properties
3.4 Size: The size of the group affects group behavior in relation to the dependent variable being considered. Small groups are more efficient in completing tasks; large groups are better at problem solving. Social Loafing: The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. 3.5 Cohesiveness: The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. The relationship between group cohesiveness, performance norms and group productivity is shown in the Groups-Norms-Productivity Matrix. Exhibit: 9

Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity

Cohesiveness
High Low
Moderate productivity

Performance Norm

High

High productivity

Low

Low productivity

Moderate to low productivity

4. Group Decision Making
4.1 Group Versus Individual: a. Strengths of Group Decision Making: Groups generate better information, more quantity of information, and provide more inputs to the decision process. b. Weaknesses of Group Decision Making: Group decisions are time-consuming, conformity pressures reduce effectiveness, group processes may be dominated by a few members, group decisions have ambiguous responsibility. c. Effectiveness and Efficiency: Group decisions tend to be more accurate, creative and acceptable; while group decisions are poor in terms of speed and consume more resources and time.

4. Group Decision Making
4.2 Groupthink and Groupshift: a. Groupthink: Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. b. Groupshift: A change in decision risk between the group’s decisions and the individual decision that members within the group would make; can be either towards conservatism or greater risk.

4. Group Decision Making
4.3 Group Decision-Making Techniques

a. Interacting Groups: Typical groups in which members interact with each other face-to-face. This is the most common form of group decision making.
b. Brainstorming: An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. c. Nominal Group Technique: A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. d. Electronic Meeting: A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.

Assignment- 6
Q 1. Discuss the stages of group development.

Submission Deadline: Next class Submit in Handwritten or Printed Form

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