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BASIC RF Components

OBJECTIVES:

Review the Basic Units, terminology and RF components


Applications

COURSE OUTLINE:
I.

Basics of Telecom
a. Transmitter b. Receiver c. Information

II .

Terms and Units


a. Relative and Absolute i. Ratios ii. Logarithmic

b. Amplitude and Signal Level


i. Watt ii. dBm

iii. 3 dB point iv. Losses and Gains v. C/I or S/N c. Frequency i. Hertz ii.Center Frequency iii. Bandwidth
d. SPECTRUM ANALYZER

e. Newtons Law f. Law of Conservation of Energy


III. RF Components a. active b. passive c. basic RF Components

i. antenna 1. types 2. practical requirements 3. diversity

ii. filter 1. Low Pass Filter 2. High Pass Filter

3. Band Pass Filter 4. Band Stop/Notch Filter


iii. Amplifier iv. Attenuator v. Circulator vi. Coupler vii. Splitter/Divider

viii. Resistive Load


ix. Cable x. Connectors xi. Leaky Cables e. Complex RF Component

i. Combiner - Nokia RF Components AFE & RTC ii. Duplexer


iii. Diplexer

IV. Implementation a. BTS b. Repeater

c. DAS V. Link Budget


VI. Practical Limitation

a. Hopping b. Losses c. Size d. Cost


e. O&M

f. Reliability

I. Basic of Telecom a. Transmitter the equipment that generates and amplifies a RF carrier signal, modulating the carrier signal with intelligence, and feeding the modulated carrier to an antenna for radiation into space as electromagnetic wave. b. Receiver an equipment used for receiving radio waves and converting them into the original intelligence c. Information/Intelligence the actual message that is being sent in a communication system.

Hi! Good Morning.

Rx
Hi! Good Morning too.

Tx

II. Terms and Units a. Relative and Absolute i. Ratios units which are in absolute form and represent division of values. Ex. C/I, S/N, etc. ii. Logarithmic units which are converted into its equivalent logarithmic values. Ex. decibel b. Amplitude or Signal Level - signifies the strength of the given signal i. Watts - the SI unit of electric power that in one second gives rise to energy to one joule. - it is named after the Scottish inventor James Watt

Amplitude

Amplitude the value of a varying signal at a specific period in time

ii. Decibel a power measurement unit referred to another unit. dBm the power level of a certain signal taking 1 milliwatt as the reference iii. Losses and Gains -energies that are either added/absorbed and subtracted/released in a system iv. C/I or S/N the ratio of the desired signal to the undesired signal or interference/noise - this is a measure of the strength of a signal compared to any unwanted signal.

c. Frequency - the number of complete cycle per unit of time for a periodic quantity such as alternating current, sound waves and radiowaves.
i. Hertz the SI unit of frequency equal to cycle per second

T
Frequency =

1
Period ( T )

Vel of Propagation = Frequency

v. 3 dB points Half power points - points on the waveform where of the maximum signal is located

- this is the reference when we take the bandwidth of a certain waveform


amplitude

Max pt. 3dB pt Bandwidth


frequency

ii. Center Frequency - the average frequency of the emitted wave when modulated by a symmetrical signal
iii. Bandwidth the range of frequencies which have been specified as performance limits for a filter, amplifier or attenuator, defined as the 3dB points at the high pass and low pass ends of the frequency response curve

CF Bandwidth

d. SPECTRUM ANALYZER

Spectrum Analyzer - an instrument that measures the amplitudes of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform.

Spectrum analyzer

e. Newtons Laws

i. First Law LAW OF INERTIA - there is no change in motion of a body unless acted upon by a resultant force. ii. Second Law LAW OF ACCELERATION
-

- a body being subject to a resultant force experiences an acceleration in the direction of the resultant force. iii. Third Law LAW OF INTERACTION - for every force acted on a body there is a force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction

f. Law of Conservation of Energy - this states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, instead it will just transform from one form to another.

IV. RF COMPONENTS

a. Active - components that introduces additional energy and reprocess the received signal b. Passive components that do not introduce any additional energy on the signal.

c. Basic RF Components
i. ANTENNA - a device that radiates and receives radio waves - they transition point in the communication chain, where the signal changes from a wireline signal to a radio wave propagating signal and vice versa. - British term is AERIAL - sometimes called RADIATOR

Types

Omnidirectional antennas : radiate with the same intensity to all directions (in azimuth) Directional antennas : main radiation energy is concentrated to certain directions

antennas
yagi

panel pico radiation pattern

a. Practical Requirements
i. Number of Antenna - reduce the required number of antenna relative to the number of radios. One to one ratio of antenna to radio is impractical. ii. Antenna isolation the separation between two antennas that is usually considered when employing a space diversity technique. The distance should be multiple of the half wavelength.

Antenna Isolation: Vertical


The following is valid for 900 Mhz., 1800,1900Mhz and co-located 900 + 1800/1900 Mhz.

Requirements:

Tx -Rx and Rx- Tx: 30 dB

Pre-condition: No influence from tower structures More than 2m bet Ant and tower.
( A in figure)

Vertical Separation: Tx - Rx and Rx - Tx Minimum 0.2 m ( K in figure)

Antenna Isolation: Horizontal

Requirements:

Tx -Rx and Rx- Tx: 30 dB

Vertical Separation:

See Table Below

Table:

Horizontal Separation

Gain dBi

900 Mhz

1800/1900

900+1800/1900

<10 >10

3m 5m

1.5m 2.5 m

1m 1m

DIVERSITY
There is a need for receiver diversity in cellular systems to improve the uplink.

Space Diversity
dd
Common TX/RX Antenna

Horizontal Separation, dd for diversity = 12-18 (wavelength) for isolation = 30 dB = 2 (wavelength) [antennas with 65 degrees beamwidth, all gain values]
TX1/RXA TX1/RXA
BTS Equipment

DIVERSITY
Polarization Diversity using dual-polarized antennas
horizontal array +45 degrees antenna housing - 45 degrees

vertical array

connectors feeders

vertical + horizontal polarization

+/- 45 degrees polarization

DIVERSITY
Polarization Diversity using dual-polarized antennas

Required isolation >30 dB between the two antenna parts...

1.5 dB downlink loss

TX1/RXA TX1/RXA

ii. Filters - a selective device that allows a desired range of energy to pass through and substantially attenuating all other ranges. - they are used to separate, combine or suppress microwave frequencies. - they are used to ensure that no harmonics are transmitted

1. Low Pass Filter a filter that attenuates frequencies higher than the cut-off frequency

Amplitude

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency

Input

Output

fc

2. High Pass Filter -a filter that permits frequencies higher than the cut-off frequency.

Amplitude

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency

Input

Output

fc

3. Band pass Filter - a filter that accepts a band of frequencies and considerably attenuates higher and lower frequencies than the desired band.
Amplitude Amplitude

Frequency

fc
Output

fc

Frequency

Input

4. Band stop/Notch Filter - a filter that prohibits the passage of a certain band of frequencies and allows other frequencies.

Amplitude

Amplitude

Frequency

fc
Output

fc

Frequency

Input

iii. Amplifier - a device that increases the strength of a signal without appreciably altering its characteristic waveform.

Amplitude

Amplitude

Time

Time

Input

Output

iv. Circulator - a waveguide component that has a number of terminals so arranged that energy entering one terminal is transmitted to the next in a particular direction. This can be used as a duplexer

v. Directional Coupler - a device that couples a secondary system only to a wave traveling in a particular direction while completely ignoring the wave traveling into the opposite direction

vi. Splitter/Divider - a device that has the capability to distribute one input signal to two or more output without introducing distortion to the signal.

vii. Resistive Load - component that can absorb the transmitted energy and behaves like an actual load such as an antenna.

viii. Attenuator - a device that uses resistive components to reduce the strength of a signal without introducing considerable distortion.
Amplitude Amplitude

Time

Time

attenuator

ix. Isolator - allows a signal to pass through in one direction and attenuates it in the other direction. This is usually used to prevent a very high SWR.

Incident Wave

Reflected Wave

x. Connectors - device that joins two or more circuit

Connectors

xi. Cables - a transmission line where energy can pass through without considerable decrease on the energy

Cables

xii. Leaky Cables - a cable which has a leak where energy escapes out continuously

d. Complex RF Components

i. Combiners are needed to enable more than one transmitter to be connected to one common transmitting antenna.
In GSM, two different TX combiners can be used FILTER COMBINER HYBRID COMBINER

Transceiver 1 Transceiver 2

Transceiver 3
Transceiver 4

NOKIA Combiners
AFE - Antenna Filter Extension Unit
- can combine 2 TRX per AFE but 2 AFE can be used for every sector, this configuration is called Dual Duplex Operation - this combiner can support both RF and BASEBAND Hopping - sometimes called WIDEBAND Combiner

RTC - Remote Tune Combiner - one RTC can combine up to 6 TRX


- can ONLY support BASEBAND Hopping

Wideband Combiner Block Diagram (AFE)

Tx 1 Isolator

50
termination

Tx out

Tx 2 Isolator

Remote Tune Combiner Block Diagram

REMOTE TUNE COMBINER


TX1 Test Out TX2

Combiner
Part

TX3
TX4

Duplex Filter

ANTENNA

Rx Out Rx Out Rx Out Pf Pr M

D-bus In

CONTROLLER PART

D-bus out

POWER

Main Functional Part of the RTCA (900)

ii. Duplexer - a switching device that permits alternate use of the same antenna for both transmit and receive.

Tx Rx

Duplexer Block Diagram

Tx Filter Antenna

Tx
LNA

Rx Filter

Rx

iii. Diplexer - a coupling system that allows two different transmitters to operate simultaneously or separately from the same antenna.

Tx1

Tx 2

Diplexer Block Diagram

Port 900

Dual Band Antenna

Port 1800

vi. RECEIVER MULTICOUPLER UNIT (RMU) - amplifies the received signals and divides them to the receivers (Rx) of the Transceiver units (TRXs).
RX 1 RX 2 ANT

Test Module
TEST

RX Filter

Amplifier Module

RX 3

RX 4

RX 5

RX 6

Main Functional Part of the RMUA (1800)

IV. Implementation a. BTS Base Transceiver Station - this is the outer most part of the network and it interfaces the mobile subscriber to the network

BSC

MS

BTS

MSC

Base Transceiver Station

Antenna
Rx

Transceiver Transceiver

Tx

RMU
Rx Tx Rx

Duplexer Combiner

Transceiver
Transceiver

Tx Rx Tx

b. Repeater - an amplifier that processes weak signals and retransmits stronger signal without reshaping their waveform

REPEATER
LNA

ATT

BSF

LNA

BPF

PA

Downlink
BPF BPF

To BTS

PSU

Alarms

To MS

BPF

BPF

Uplink
PA BPF
LNA

BSF

ATT

LNA

c. DAS Distributed Antenna System - a system employed wherein several antennas can be used to cover several areas with only one transmitter Splitter/divider

amplifier

Splitter/divider

D.A.S.

V. Link Budget - this is a calculation of the signal strength seen at the receiver considering the output power of the transmitter and the possible gains and losses that might be incurred within the system.

Downlink Link Budget


Mobile sensitivity = Bts transmit power - Combiner loss duplexer loss - Cable/feeder loss + Bts antenna gain - Maximum path loss - fading margin - Building/Car penetration loss - body loss + Mobile antenna gain

Uplink Link Budget


Bts sensitivity = Mobile transmit power + mobile antenna gain body loss - Maximum path loss - fading margin - building/car penetration loss + Bts antenna gain + - Duplexer loss - cable/feeder loss + Low Noise Amplifier

Given:
Mobile sensitivity = -104 {GSM} / -100 {DCS} BTS sensitivity = -107 {GSM} / -104 {DCS} Sensitivity refers to the receivers ability to receive the weakest signal. Combiner loss = 3 dB {Filter combiner} / 5 dB {Hybrid combiner} Main Cable/Feeder cable = 1.2 dB loss per 100 ft Jumper Cable = 2.1 dB loss per 100 ft Connector loss = 0.1 dB Lightning arrestor loss = 0.1 dB Duplexer loss = 0.5 dB BTS Antenna gain = 16 dBd / 18 dBi Mobile Antenna gain = 0 dB

Car penetration loss = 6 dB {ETSI} Building penetration loss = 20 dB {dense urban} 18 dB {urban} 12 dB {suburban} Body Loss = 3 dB {ETSI} / 5 dB {Ericsson} LNA Gain = 5 dB

Down Link
MS Sensitivity = Pobts Lcomb - Ldup Lcab + Gant Lpath Lcar Lbody + Gant

MS Sensitivity = 43 dBm 3 dB 0.5 dB 3 dB + 8 dB 120 dB - 6 dB 3 dB + 0 dB = - 84.5 dBm * The received power is within the MS sensitivity
BTS Sensitivity = Poms + Gant Lbody Lcar Lpath+ Gant Lcab Ldup+ LNA -Lcoupler

BTS Sensitivity = 30 dBm + 0 dB 3 dB 120 dB 6 dB + 8 dB 3 dB +5 dB 0.5 dB = - 89.5 dBm * The received power is within the BTS sensitivity

Antenna Navigation

Antenna Gain

Antenna Gain Combiner Loss Duplexer Loss Cables Loss

Path Loss
Trigger

Car Loss

BTS

Body Loss

Mobile Sensitivity

Power level Pout

Power Level Diagram

VI. Practical Limitation a. Hopping - is a form of CDMA where a digital code is used to continually change the frequency of the carrier. b. Losses - this are the energy released within a system which must be given due attention when making a design to achieve the objective being set. c. Size - this must be considered when there is a limitation in the space for the equipment

d. Cost - good engineering is maximum performance with minimum cost

e. O&M - maintenance of certain equipment must be given utmost attention because this makes the system perform well in the long run.

f. Reliability - a good design must have a reliability of 99.99% to avoid any failure of service whenever there is a breakdown of equipment and this can be maintained by employing diversity techniques.