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INTELLECTUAL MORAL / PERSONALITY
LGA 3103 – Week 7
THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
This aspect of development enables the child to move further in the process towards independence. As he/she grows through environmental stimulations, his motives will be to adapt to the environment. Hence, he/she will develop intellectually and morally. Intellectual stimulation is done formally, whereas moral development is informal and very subtle. The moral sensibility of a person is initiated during infancy, constructed and consolidated through experiences during childhood and adolescence. This will reflect in the personality of the adult.
DEFINING MORAL DEVELOPMENT
“Morality” (moralis in Latin), which means, “customs, manners, or patterns of behaviour that conform to the standards of the group”. At every age, the individual is judged by how closely he conforms to the groups‟ standards, and he is labelled “moral” or “immoral”, accordingly.
DEFINING MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Moral development is related to the rules that people have for their interaction with others. It is concerned with the acceptance of morality which brings along certain forms of behaviour, attitudes and values in an individual. In the early stages, the child simply tries to avoid punishment as he cannot distinguish “right” from “wrong”.
a child develops a greater concern for being “good” and doing what is socially acceptable.DEFINING MORAL DEVELOPMENT Over time children‟s values are influenced by parents and educators as role models. as well as behaviour in situations in which morality . Children‟s moral development is linked to their intellectual development. In the later stages. It includes both the reasoning process by which people decide what is right and what is wrong. An older pre-schooler proceeds through a very selfcentred stage with decisions based on selfsatisfaction.
. let‟s have an overview on some aspects of the theories of two eminent psychologists on moral development. They are Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg.DEFINING MORAL DEVELOPMENT At this stage.
Interest in how children think about moral issues was stimulated by Piaget.JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY Jean Piaget (1896–1980) is among the first psychologists whose work remains directly relevant to contemporary theories of moral development. In his studies. he focused specifically on the moral lives of children. . studying the way children play games in order to learn about children‟s beliefs about right and wrong.
depending on their developmental maturity.JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY He watched children play marbles to learn how they used and thought about the game‟s rules. lies. think in two distinct ways about morality: Heteronomous and Autonomous morality . He also asked children questions about moral issues like: theft. Through his studies. justice. punishment. Piaget concluded that children.
justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world and removed from the control of people. . Here.JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY Heteronomous Morality This is the first stage of moral development in Piaget‟s theory. It occurs from 4 to 7 years of age.
JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY Autonomous Morality This type of morality constitutes the second stage of moral development according to Piaget. His explanations complement our understanding on the process through which the child proceeds to understand the world and how he integrates rules and values and takes moral decisions. in judging an action. The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that. . one should consider the actor‟s intentions as well as the consequences. This is displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older).
. in their basis for ethical behaviour). through a series of stages. He believed that there were six identifiable stages of moral reasoning.e. .LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Lawrence Kohlberg started as a developmental psychologist and then moved on to the field of moral education. Kohlberg showed that people progressed in their moral reasoning (i. Through his studies.
Conventional Reasoning Level 3 . They are: Level I .Post-Conventional Reasoning .Pre-Conventional Reasoning Level 2 .LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY These stages can be grouped into three levels of complexity.
. Children obey because adults tell them to obey. Whatever is rewarded is good. whatever is punished is bad. Moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments. the child cannot understand the concept of moral values. Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Moral thinking is based on punishment.LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Level I .Pre-Conventional Reasoning At this level.
What is right is what feels good and what is rewarding. Children obey when they want to obey and when it is in their best interests to obey. “I’ll do something good for you if you do .LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Stage 2: Individualism and Purpose Moral thinking is based on rewards and selfinterest.
However. these are the standards of others (external) such as parents or the laws of society Stage 3: Interpersonal Norms Children value trust.LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Level 2 . Good is conformity to a stereotype of “good” people or to . Children often adopt their parents‟ moral standards at this stage. caring and loyalty to others as the basis of moral judgment. The child abides by certain standards (internal). internalisation is intermediate.Conventional Reasoning At this level. seeking to be considered by parents as a “good boy” or a “good girl” is rewarding.
Good is defined by laws of society. law. justice and duty. by doing one’s duty. a child might say that it is always wrong to steal because laws that have been developed are for the good of society. . A law should be obeyed even if it is not fair.LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Stage 4: Social System Morality Moral judgments are based on understanding the social order. For example.
The adolescent recognises alternative moral courses. .Post-Conventional Reasoning Morality is completely internalised and is not based on others‟ standards.LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Level 3 . explores the options and then decides on personal moral codes.
He believes that some values.LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Stage 5: Community Rights versus Individual Rights The adolescent understands that values and laws are relative and that standards may vary from one person to another. are more important than the law. such as liberty. Values and laws are relative and standards may vary from one person to another. Good is understood in terms of abstract . The person recognises that laws are important for society but knows that laws can be changed.
Good is understood in terms of abstract principles. . even though the decision might involve personal risks. the person will follow conscience. When faced with a conflict between law and conscience. whether or not societies agree with them – the emphasis is on human rights.LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles One has developed a moral standard based on universal human rights.
but it is important for you to understand the whole process of moral development according to the perspective of Lawrence Kohlberg.LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY Which stages are particularly relevant to you as an educator? Kohlberg‟s theory shows us that moral reasoning is a complex process and the child needs to be guided throughout. you will be dealing with children of the first two stages and eventually the third stage. . In the pre-school age.
PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Storytelling and story-listening can contribute to children's intellectual. It is good to keep in mind that telling stories to children can be just the first step in an interactive process. emotional. and social development. .
relating to the story. . and props. 4) The listeners can act-out the story as a skit. 2) The listeners can draw/paint the story. 1) The storyteller can lead a discussion about the story. 6) The listeners can be invited to tell additional stories that might come to mind -. change the story.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES After any story is told.including real-life experiences. and in any other way. traditional stories. puppets. masks. 3) The listeners can make costumes. and made-up stories. 5) The listeners can be invited to add to.
etc -.all stories are about situations. The listeners can consider if they might do things the same or differently from how the characters do things. aliens. . Story listeners can project themselves into these characters. animals.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Regardless of whether a story's characters are humans. and imagine themselves in these situations. This gives the listeners practice for living.
A story can be defined as a series of events. Adults may take it for granted that in stories -. One way we humans make sense out of experience is to organise pieces of experience into stories.one thing may lead to another.and one way they can learn it is through storytelling and story-listening. But children have to learn this -. . Through storying. and occurrences may be connected.as well as in everyday life -. children can develop a sense of story.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Making Sense Out of Experience Storying is the process of constructing and considering stories.
of events. to an end -and hold together cohesively as a unit. of progressions. . in story and in life. This helps them to recognise patterns of behaviours and actions. This helps children to put things together -.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Storying enables children to think in term of sequences. It gets them in the habit of organising data into sequences that progress from a beginning.to make sense out of experience. to a middle.
and Morality and Ethics Usually a story's series of events. moral. taken as a whole. It is usually more valuable to them to lead a discussion in which the children are asked such questions as. or meaning. can be thought of as having a point -. It may be of limited value to children to announce the point of a story to them.a message.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Considering Behaviour. "What did you get out of the story? What did you learn from the story? What did you like about the story?" .
and others‟ -.thoughts and feelings. In these ways. Doing so can help them to think about characters' motives. The children are then in a position to be able to apply this kind of thinking to their decision-making about how they might behave in their own real lives. This can help children to develop understandings of characters' personalities and actions -. and principles of morality. .PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Answering and discussing such questions can help children in a number of ways. and they can become more articulate in talking about all of this.and can enable children to think about values. children can become more aware of their own -. ethics.
and to increase their vocabulary. and brings out the vivid imagination and the creativity of children. Creativity and Reasoning Storytelling and story-listening gives children practice in creating mental imagery (visualising images).can help children to develop their understanding of grammar. .PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Vocabulary and Grammar Storytelling and story-listening -. children's reasoning abilities are activated when they describe and discuss these images (and any other aspect of a story). Also.along with discussing and re-telling stories -.
children can develop their public-speaking abilities. and telling stories. By telling stories.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Involvement and Engagement By discussing. and how to listen to others. excited.and with their story-play partners and guides -. Social Skills Storytelling and story-listening utilize the social element of language. and they can also learn how to take turns speaking. This personal emotional involvement and engagement with story -. creating. and enthusiastic about their use of language.tends to make children optimistic. children can explore and express their feelings. . and by participating in group conversations about stories and storytelling.
PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Storytelling and story-listening -. at the literal. . inferential. and critical levels. recognising causal links. and being able to predict what might come next. from all angles. Inferential refers to becoming aware of patterns. and other aspects of a story. understanding that there are consequences to actions.along with discussion -enhances children's comprehension skills. Critical refers to considering characters' behaviors.
Reading habit should start at home and by the children's bed side. . Parents can bring home great books and read their content to their children.reading is the greatest habit.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES It is a universal axiom that everyone knows and understands . Reading to younger children is still more effective. A child who inculcates the habit of reading at an early age will be the wisest and intelligent person in the later stages of his/her life. especially when they go to sleep.
PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Teachers can put up „Reading Corners‟. the moral of the story will sink in their minds very quickly. . take children to the school library or ask the children to bring books from home to share with their friends The DEAR programme is a good way of encouraging children to read. As you read stories to children or as children read books by themselves.
PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Some examples are: Reading story books that contain morals and principles. Reading books that enhance imagination and visualisation. Reading books that ask children many questions and pose queries. Reading books that promote thinking and deductive skills .
One of the frog sisters deems it a chicken‟s egg because she „just knows‟ these things. Jessica. The story follows the little „chicken‟ through a rescue of the frog sister. the frog sisters never concede in their conviction that the little creature is most definitely a chicken. they reunite the baby alligator with her mother. A baby alligator hatches from the egg yet the sisters continue to call the little gator a chicken. By Leo Lionni Three frog sisters living on a pebbly island discover an extraordinary pebble.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES To enhance: Children’s intellectual development An Extraordinary Egg. . It turns out to be an egg. They become inseparable buddies and one day. However.
2009). .PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Literature for Young Children identifies this book as an appropriate literature choice to support the goal of the development of logical thinking (Giorgis & Glazer. An obvious error in logical reasoning among the characters in the story gives children an opportunity “to feel superior to the book characters because they know what is going on” (Giogis & Glzer. 2009. Expanding logical reasoning in this way enhances selfesteem and teaches children to study the evidence instead of taking the word of someone who “just knows” as truth. 156). pg.
. He doesn‟t appear to be doing anything at all! As winter falls upon the small pack. He cogitates quietly in the meadow gathering nothing more than thoughts and memories for winter. As winter wears on. The supplies that Frederick offers are as endless as his imagination and he replenishes the little family‟s spirits with colours.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES To enhance: Children’s personality development Frederick. food and supplies dwindle to nothing and everyone becomes quite low in spirit. By Leo Lionni Frederick is a story about an especially thoughtful mouse. the supplies are plentiful and everyone is satisfied. feelings and more. This behaviour is not appreciated by his very busy friends.
. The story reminds the audience that everyone has a gift to give and it may not be recognizable while it is being created. especially for the child playing Frederick. This story lends itself to lots of questions: What if Frederick had just been sleeping while his family gathered the supplies for winter? Is thinking working? What are some other things the mice could do after all of the food was gone and they only had the gray room to be in? Would you like to have Frederick in your family when it was time to get ready to going camping? Why or why not? Role playing these scenarios would lend itself to numerous responses.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES Frederick‟s gift to his fellow mice is unexpectedly needed in a very dark time for them all.
The illustration in this book is absolutely eye-catching for young children. it is hard not to laugh about the boundaries he is breaking.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES To enhance: Children’s social development No David by David Shannon Perhaps one of the least favourite words for a child to hear is “no”. playing with his food. The story ends with redemption in the warmth and love of his mom‟s arms. splashing all water and more from the bath tub. when the character of David is experiencing reaching for the cookie jar while standing on his tilted chair. He eventually gets into trouble and is sent to the corner for a time-out. picking his nose and running out of the house naked. and they will connect to the little fellow who is always being told not to do what he is doing. . However. a little tear rolling down his cheek.
this supports their development of weighing evidence and to make appropriate choices (Giorgis & Glazer. .PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES This is an important book because children will come to know that they are not the only ones being told not to do what they are doing – David is in the same boat. 2009). David is not a bad boy – he just makes some unacceptable choices. He will continue to be loved and accepted after making poor choices. These social behaviour conversations take the pressure off of the child or children and let them put David on the spot. A fun conversation to initiate while looking at the adorable David and his antics is why he shouldn‟t do some of the things he is doing. 2009). The premise of this story is important for children to understand. For personality development. This is supportive of the social goal to see things from another person‟s perspective (Giorgis & Glazer.
about a bunny named Leo who looks different from the rest of the bunnies. long ears to be like all of the other bunnies whose ears stand straight up on their heads. He is made to feel that looking different is not okay. he comes to the conclusion that the he is the normal one and all of the others must not be since they are different from him! An especially wise possum vicariously informs all of them of the moral of the tale which is: “Normal is whatever I am and whoever you are!” . He attempts to change his gorgeous. loppy.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES To enhance: Children’s social moral development Leo The Lop by Stephen Cosgrove This story. takes place in the imaginary land of Serendipity. In a wonderful twist.
big ears. A follow up activity: Write or draw a picture of one thing that makes you different from anyone else you can think of and why is it good. Normal physical differences could be emphasized and celebrated such as a large nose. . or any other costume that is available that shows an exaggerated physical difference. What makes you the same as other people you know? Post the stories and pictures in a collective book for classroom sharing. This is especially applicable when working with children with disabilities (if there are physical differences) in the same classroom or anywhere. oversized hands. a pot belly.PROMOTING INTELLECTUAL & MORAL VALUES THROUGH STORIES This book lends itself to role play and is a good example of the importance of not treating others differently because of the way they look. large mouth. Differences are normal and natural.
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