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Media Planning Concepts

Preeti Jog

Making a Media Plan

MEDIA PLAN - CONCEPTS The place to start is, understanding media language. Some terms apply to all media; some apply only to broadcast some apply only to only print.

What is???


Target Market Coverage

Population excluding target market Target market Media coverage Media overexposure
Target Market
Full Coverage Partial Coverage Coverage Exceeding Market


Comparing the Cost of Media

Cost per rating point (CPM)


Cost of commercial time

1000 viewers

CPT(Cost Per Thousand)

The cost to reach 1,000 things, whether households or women or children. CPT reduces a variety of different audiences, costs and delivery to one common denominator. Always ask Cost per thousand what?

COST PER THOUSAND (CPM) = Cost Per Spot Number HH Watching 1000

CPT(Cost Per Thousand)

If a TV spot costs Rs.30,00,000 and reaches 3 lac homes, CPT is Rs. 1000. The CPT allows cross comparison across different media types and media vehicles. They represent the total number of messages delivered by a media plan, Multiplied by the number of times they see it. The gross sum of all media exposures without regard to duplication.

The percentage of target audience who are exposed to the message at least once during the relevant time period. If your media plan gets to four out of five homes, it is said to have an 80% reach.

Media Reach In Metros

All Media 4 mega metros 93.8 Press 67.2 TV 85.6 Cable 35.2 Radio 30.1

8 Mini metros 11 Other

metros 23 Metros (overall)

93.2 91.9

67.6 67.6

85.1 81.8

32.6 37.7

18.5 20.4

Overall Media Reach

TV Press
All India Urban Rural 45 76 33 34 59 24

TV (C&S)
21 23 20

12 31 05

The number of times the member of the target audience is exposed to a media vehicle. Factors determining the need for frequency Complex messages need more frequency More demanding advertising objectives need more frequency Highly effective advertising generally requires lower frequency When theory calls for exposure close to the purchase, higher frequency is needed

Coverage refers to the size of a potential audience that might be exposed to a particular media vehicle. For media planers, coverage (the size of the target audience) is very important. Reach will always be lower than coverage., as it is impossible to reach 100% of the target audience. For example, 5 lakhs is the coverage and 3.5 lakhs is the reach of the media vehicle.

Impacts refer more to TV than to the press. Impact =the total number of people who see the ad multiplied by the number of times they saw it. Opportunity to see (OTSs): OTSs are the number of exposures or opportunities that a particular audience has to see a particular advertisement.

Two Philosophies of Media Planning

Assume a fixed budget, with a forced trade-off between reach and frequency. Traditional philosophy is to determine frequency needs, and let that drive reach. Current movement is toward maximizing reach and frequency.

Print Medium


The number of distributed copies of a publication.

Sr. Newspaper Language City, State Cir.

2 3

The Times of India

Dainik Bhaskar Dainik Jagran

Hindi Hindi

Various Various

2.547 2.168

4 5
6 7 8 9

Malayala Manorama The Hindu

Eenadu Deccan Chronicle Ananda Bazar Patrika Amar Ujala

Malayalam English
Telugu English Bengali Hindi

cities in Kerala Various

cities in A P Various Kolkata,West Bengal Various

1.514 1.360
1.350 1.349 1.277 1.230


Hindustan Times





Gujarat Samachar
Punjab Kesari


Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Punjab, Harayana


Primary audience: The number of users who get a magazine at a newsstand or in the mail as subscribers. Secondary audience (Pass-along readers): Readers who obtain the publication second hand, (i.e. from a reception room, from a friend/neighbour, etc.) in other words those who do not pay for the publication they are reading. Total audience: It is the total o primary as well as secondary audiences.

The percentage of a population group reached by a publication.

Total number of individuals in a selected group (e.g., adults, males, females 18-34) that are estimated to recognize, or to have read or looked into a particular publication within an issues life cycle. The technical definition varies, depending on the method used to measure it. Readership is a more useful tool for advertisers than is circulation.

Study the given Media Vehicle on above headings: Business World. Business Today. Femina. Times Of India. Maharashtra Times Navbharat Times Advertising & Marketing. India Today. Business India. Indian Express. Samna Any Regional/National Print Media vehicle

Test the efficiency of Vehicle.

S.N. 1. 2. 3. Media Vehicle Times of India Indian Express Hindustan Times Full page Rate 3200 2400 2700 Readership 950000 460000 530000


Economic Times



Broadcast Media

Audience Potential
The total number of people within a demographic group / market

Target Audience Rating Point = The audience viewing a specific program (expressed as a % of the potential) Target Rating Points = Total target market exposures

________________________________ Target market population

Cost Per TARP Way of comparing the costs of different TV Program relative to audience

An estimate of the number or percentage of different people exposed to one or more vehicles in a media schedule within a given period of time. Different individuals or homes exposed "Opportunity to see"

Provide an indication of the percentage of people that have an opportunity to be exposed to your message

Used to determine cost of the placement of an ad.

RATING = Households Viewing Program 100 TVHH


Market Mumbai Chennai Tamil nadu

TVHH 6,000,000 1,300,000 381,200

Rating 5 5 5

Number of

300,000 65,000 19,060

The number of times people are exposed to or reached by a message the average number of times
Ex: 10 X 1 + 10 X 2 = 30/20 = 1.5

# of exposures divided by # reach = avg. freq.

1. Three exposures are best. 2. More exposures work, but at a decreasing rate.

3. These principles are consistent across media.

4. Wearout may depend on the message.

Frequency: Creative Factors

Message complexity Message uniqueness New vs. continuing campaigns Image versus product sell

Message variation

Frequency: Media Factors

Editorial environment Attentiveness Scheduling Number of media used Repeat Exposures

Used to assess a market share or percent of people tuned to particular program. (ex: share of audience) Indicates the percentage of the total viewing/listening audience a program, or station, has.

Gross Rating Points & Impressions * This is the sum of rating points for a selected group of programs which an advertiser may wish to sponsor. Used to analyze relationships of various media plans and schedules Often used to "pitch" and win new business. Ex: 100 gross rating points means that almost 100% of the population will and could be exposed to your message at least one time.

. The following schedule would give the advertiser exactly 14 "points" at a cost of 250,000 Cost Per Spot Program Rating Program A Program B Program C Gross Totals: Points (in 000s) 3.4 5.8 4.8 14.0 40.00 150.00 60.00 250.00

how many people you are targeting will be exposed to the message --Reach how many times the person will have an opportunity to see your message The gross rating points of the target audience GRPS = Reach X Frequency

Effective Reach
Percent or number of people reached by a media schedule at a frequency deemed "effective." You define the level that you feel is the right level to get your message across to the consumer.

Reach and frequency tell a planner nothing about the effectiveness of the media plan. For example, Will the plan result in sales? Analyze alternative media plans and combinations
Select the combination that delivers the most reach among people.

Maximizing Effectiveness
25% 20% 15%

Ineffective Reach Effective Reach Ineffective Reach

10% 5% 0% 0 5 10




portion of marketer's audience that are not in the target market

Message Performance
Number of exposures each advertisement generates and how long it remains available to the audience; outdoor ads, many exposures/message, magazines retained for a long period of time.

clutter, # of advertisements contained in a single program/issue of a medium. TV ads moving to 15 secs. each is increasing clutter. Some moving to 2 minutes...or even 5, especially if there is a complex message... Find the Primetime ad. Clutter of :
Zee TV Aj Tak Star Plus CNBC Colours Dicovery

Evaluating The Media Plan

The Process Assembling Elements of a Media Plan:
1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

State the marketing problem State the most significant marketing objectives and strategies Write media objectives Write media strategies Write rationales Show numerical data in table form

Evaluating The Media Plan

The Process Assembling Elements of a Media Plan: 7. Present an Overview of Competitive Activity and the effects on your strategies 8. Explain how decisions were made for spot TV 9. Do not confuse creative strategies with media strategies. 10. Provide a flow chart or a media calendar 11. Make the plan interesting

Media Timing & Allocation

The macro scheduling problem : Scheduling to seasons and the business cycle. Follow or oppose the seasonal pattern, To be constant throughout the year. Off-season may boost sales and consumption without hurting seasonal consumption.

Media Timing & Allocation

The micro scheduling problem : Allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain maximum impact. Over a given period, Concentrated (burst advertising), dispersed continuously, or dispersed intermittently. Decide whether to leave ad messages level, increase them, decrease them, or alternate them in the aschedule.

Media Timing & Allocation

The advertiser can choose Allocation as 1. Continuity 2. Concentration 3. Flighting 4. Pulsing.

Media Timing & Allocation

Continuity : scheduling exposures evenly throughout a given period. expanding market situations, frequently purchased items, buyer categories.

Concentration : spending in a single period. one selling season or holiday.

Media Timing & Allocation

Flighting : advertising for some period, followed by a period with no advertising, followed by a second period of advertising activity. When funding is limited, the purchase cycle is relatively infrequent, and with seasonal items. Pulsing is continuous advertising at low-weight levels reinforced periodically by waves of heavier activity.

Scheduling Options

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Media Terminology
Reach - The number of audience members
reached at least once (per week). Frequency - The number of times a receiver is

exposed to the message per time period


Managerial Approaches to Budget

Factors Influencing the Budget Decision

1. Market Size
2. Market Potential

3. Market Share Goals

4. Economies of Scale in Advertising 5. IMC Tools

Ad Spending and Share of Voice

Competitors Share of Voice

Decreasefind a Defensible Niche Attack With Large SOV Premium



Increase to Defend


Maintain Modest Spending Premium


Your Share of Market

Bottom line
The main GOAL of Media Planning
is to find the most EFFICIENT

means to reach the target audience

Not always the lowest $!