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BEC 3324: PROJECT MANAGEMENT YEAR III – SEMESTER II SESSION 8
FMSC - USJ
By: H K Amarasinghe
Project Human Resource Management
Lecture Outline Develop Human Resource Plan— The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan. Acquire Project Team— The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments. Develop Project Team— The process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance. Manage Project Team— The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.
executive. typically assisting with matters such as project funding. This group can also be referred to as the core. monitoring. the project management responsibilities can be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager. planning. For smaller projects. The project sponsor works with the project management team. and closing the various project phases. clarifying scope. controlling. and influencing others in . executing. or leadership team.Introduction 3 The project management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for the project management and leadership activities such as initiating. monitoring progress.
This includes team environment. organizational uniqueness. and other such people factors that may alter the project performance. internal and external politics. those human resource factors that may impact the project.Teams… 4 Managing and leading the project team also includes. and influencing when possible. but is not limited to: Influencing the project team. and ensure that all team members follow . subscribe to. The project management team should be aware of. Professional and ethical behavior. geographical locations of team members. Being aware of. communications among stakeholders. cultural issues.
and the staffing management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and release. team-building strategies. plans for recognition and rewards programs. and creating a staffing management plan. The human resource plan documents project roles and responsibilities. safety issues. responsibilities. reporting relationships. Human resource planning is used to determine and identify human resources with the necessary skills required for project success. and the impact of the staffing management . It may also include identification of training needs.Develop Human Resource Plan 5 Develop Human Resource Plan is the process of identifying and documenting project roles. compliance considerations. project organization charts. and required skills.
Develop Human Resource Plan – Inputs/ Outputs 6 .
staffed. provides guidance on how project human resources should be defined. controlled. the following: Roles and Responsibilities Project organization charts. and eventually released. managed. Staffing management plan . a part of the project management plan. but not be limited to.Human Resource Plan 7 The human resource plan. The human resource plan should include.
Acquire Project Team 8 Acquire Project Team is the process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments. internal or external reporting relationships. . use of subcontractor personnel. The project management team may or may not have direct control over team member selection because of collective bargaining agreements. matrix project environment. or other various reasons.
If the human resources are not available due to constraints. quality. economic factors.Important to Consider… 9 The project manager or project management team should effectively negotiate and influence others who are in a position to provide the required human resources for the project. It could decrease the probability of success and ultimately result in project cancellation. or previous assignments to other projects. . Failure to acquire the necessary human resources for the project may affect project schedules. provided there is no violation of legal. and risks. perhaps with lower competencies. or other specific criteria. budgets. regulatory. mandatory. customer satisfaction. the project manager or project team may be required to assign alternative resources.
Acquire Project Team 10 .
if the project is dependent upon the expertise of particular persons. or if some staff assignments are defined within the project charter. .Pre-Assignment 11 When project team members are selected in advance they are considered pre-assigned. This situation can occur if the project is the result of specific people being promised as part of a competitive proposal.
Special consideration should be given to external negotiating policies. legal. processes. Other project management teams within the performing organization to appropriately assign scarce or specialized human resources. . contractors. specialized. etc. and External organizations. vendors. practices. or other such specified human resources. For example. for appropriate.Negotiation 12 Staff assignments are negotiated on many projects. guidelines. and other such criteria. scarce.. willing. qualified. the project management team may need to negotiate with: Functional managers to ensure that the project receives appropriately competent staff in the required time frame. and that the project team members will be able. suppliers. certified. and authorized to work on the project until their responsibilities are completed.
the required services may be acquired from outside sources. . This can involve hiring individual consultants or subcontracting work to another organization.Acquisition 13 When the performing organization lacks the inhouse staff needed to complete a project.
and Move forward with projects that would have been ignored due to travel expenses. audio conferencing. Virtual teams can be defined as groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face. .Virtual Teams 14 The use of virtual teams creates new possibilities when acquiring project team members. The virtual team format makes it possible to: Form teams of people from the same company who live in widespread geographic areas. Include people with mobility limitations or disabilities. Form teams of people who work different shifts or hours. web-based meetings and video conferencing has made such teams feasible. Incorporate employees who work from home offices. Add special expertise to a project team even though the expert is not in the same geographic area. The availability of electronic communication such as e-mail.
Outputs… 15 Project Staff Assignments The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned through the previously described methods. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory. Resource Calendars Resource calendars document the time periods that each project team member can work on the project. memos to team members. Creating a reliable schedule depends on having a good understanding of each person’s schedule conflicts. including vacation time and commitments to . such as project organization charts and schedules. and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan.
Develop Project Team 16 Develop Project Team is the process of improving the competencies. and developing effective project teams is one of the primary responsibilities of the project manager. Project managers should acquire skills to identify. motivate. team interaction. build. and the overall team environment to enhance project performance. maintain. Project managers should continually motivate their team by providing challenges and opportunities. and by recognizing and rewarding good performance. by providing timely feedback and support as needed. lead. Project managers should create an environment that facilitates teamwork. Teamwork is a critical factor for project success. . and inspire project teams to achieve high team performance and to meet the project’s objectives.
Cont… 17 High team performance can be achieved by using open and effective communication. managing conflicts in a constructive manner. developing trust among team members. The project manager should request management support and/or influence the appropriate stakeholders to acquire the resources needed to develop effective project teams . and encouraging collaborative problem-solving and decision-making.
Objectives of Developing a Project Team 18 Improve knowledge and skills of team members in order to increase their ability to complete project deliverables. team spirit. reducing schedules. and cooperation. and to allow crosstraining and mentoring between team members to share knowledge and expertise . and increase team work Create a dynamic and cohesive team culture to improve both individual and team productivity. lower conflict. while lowering costs. and improving quality Improve feelings of trust and agreement among team members in order to raise morale.
Develop Project Team – Inputs/ Outputs 19 .
Training Training includes all activities designed to enhance the competencies of the project team members.Tools and Techniques 20 Interpersonal Skills These are sometimes known as “soft skills.” and are particularly important to team development. One theory states that there are five stages of development that teams may go through. professionally facilitated experience designed to improve interpersonal relationships. Team-Building Activities Team-building activities can vary from a five-minute agenda item in a status review meeting to an off-site. The objective of team-building activities is to help individual team members work together effectively. Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning .
Cont… 21 Ground Rules Ground rules establish clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members. or for the entire project. Co-location can be temporary. . Recognition and Rewards Part of the team development process involves recognizing and rewarding desirable behavior. Co-location Co-location involves placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team. such as at strategically important times during the project.
The evaluation of a team’s effectiveness may include indicators such as: Improvements in skills that allow individuals to perform assignments more effectively. Improvements in competencies that help the team perform better as a team. Reduced staff turnover rate. and Increased team cohesiveness where team members share information and experiences openly and help each other to . performance on project schedule (finished on time). and performance on budget (finished within financial constraints). High-performance teams are characterized by these taskoriented and results-oriented outcomes. They also exhibit specific job-related and people-related qualities that represent indirect measures of project performance.Team Performance Assessment 22 The performance of a successful team is measured in terms of technical success according to agreed-upon project objectives.
Manage Project Teams 23 Manage Project Team is the process of tracking team member performance. The project management team observes team behavior. As a result of managing the project team. manages conflict. input is provided for performance appraisals. and appraises team member performance. change requests are submitted. the human resource plan is updated. and lessons learned are added to the . resolving issues. issues are resolved. resolves issues. and managing changes to optimize project performance. providing feedback.
Manage Project Teams 24 .
Sources of conflict include scarce resources. Team ground rules. and solid project management practices like communication planning and role definition. Position taken by players involved. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. scheduling priorities. Time pressure for resolving the conflict. reduce the amount of conflict.Conflict Management 25 Conflict is inevitable in a project environment. group norms. and . and personal work styles. Factors that influence conflict resolution methods include: Relative importance and intensity of the conflict.
Compromising. . Emphasizing areas of agreement rather than areas of difference. leads to consensus and commitment. Treating conflict as a problem to be solved by examining alternatives. Smoothing/Accommodating. Pushing one’s viewpoint at the expense of others. As each one has its place and use. Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties. Collaborating. Confronting/Problem Solving. these are not given in any particular order: Withdrawing/Avoiding. Forcing. Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives.General Techniques to Resolve Conflicts 26 There are six general techniques for resolving conflict. offers only win-lose solutions. requires a give-and-take attitude and open dialogue. Retreating from an actual or potential conflict situation.
A written log documents and helps monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date. . Issue resolution addresses obstacles that can block the team from achieving its goals.Issue Log 27 Issues arise in the course of managing the project team.
28 End of Session 08 Thank You… .