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BY Vedaprakash M S Click to edit Master subtitle style 1sk09ec057
INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY :
By definition, nanotechnology is the science of microengineering. Micro-engineering is the science of engineering that deals with particle manipulation if those particles are smaller than 100 nanometers. Some of the earliest instances of nanotechnology include the manipulation of materials to make new materials. Rubber and the atomic bomb are considered by many to be the early rudimentary stages of nanotechnology. Sunscreen is a product of nanotechnology. The zinc or titanium oxide found has been recently created by nanotechnology.
picking out one single red blood cell is a significant challenge. biologists need to take several comprehensive courses in nanotechnology in order to understand some of the smallest particles that keep life going.500 nanometers. this is a rather large particle since it measures 2. This pin head is equal to 1 million nanometers. For instance. 2/28/13 . However.33 One millimeter is about the size of a pin head. for the nanotechnologists. For most of us.
2/28/13 . This is the science that can figure out how to power our lives with nothing more than molecules and atoms. The smallest of wiring materials is engineered by the nanotechnology. The 1980s and early 1990s saw a significant increase in the popularity of nanotechnology.44 The tiniest of computers need to have the smallest of processors in order to make light and small computers more accessible. This will require smaller and smaller wiring capabilities.
. no matter how high-tech the laboratory. Humans are able to perform one nano-function at a time. an internal processor and a fuel unit of some kind that enables it to function. The ideal nanobot consists of a transporting mechanism.HOW NANOBOTS ARE MADE : 2/28/13 55 The ultimate goal and essential definition of a nanorobot is to have the microscopic entity made entirely out of electromechanical components. but the thousands of varied applications required to construct an autonomous robot would be exceedingly tedious for us to execute by hand.
Metal that might be used for the robot’s construction behaves one way in relatively large quantities and a completely different way on the nanoscale. As the particles decay and release energy the nanobot would be able to harness this power source.66 The main difficulty arises around this fuel unit. Microscopic silicon components called transducers have so far been successfully built 2/28/13 . One possible solution is to adhere a fine film of radioactive particles to the nanobot’s body. The other problem is with the construction of a nanorobot.
Very few researchers support the humanoid design.77 Scientists are hard at work on designing a body built out of transducers. they are encountering slight problems in agreeing on what the final shape of the standard nanobot should be. they can create a quick. efficient machine that would also be suitably shaped for introduction into human blood vessels to perform functions such as clearing away built2/28/13 . They hope that by equipping the nanobot with several sets of fast-moving legs and keeping its body low to the ground.
or rebuild the walls of veins and arteries to stop bleeding and save lives. cancer research.88 A robot this small can actually interact with materials on their molecular and atomic level. They could make their way through the bloodstream to the heart and perform heart surgery molecule by molecule without many of the risks. researchers hope that nanorobots will have many miraculous effects on brain research. Likewise. and finding cures for difficult 2/28/13 . They could rebuild tissue molecules in order to close a wound.
99 REPAIRING OF DAMAGED TISSUE BY NANOBOTS : The medical science wants to create nanobots that can repair damaged tissue without pain and trauma. 2/28/13 . and so they are capable of building with the very particles of our bodies: atoms and molecules. Nanorobots are so small that they actually interact on the same level as bacteria and viruses do. Many of the medical procedures we employ today are very traumatic to the human body and do not work in harmony with our natural systems.
2/28/13 . even a few microscopic missed cells can constitute complete failure to battle the cancer. will typically measure only about six atoms wide. And in the case of a tumor operation. leading to death.10 10 Patients may be allergic to anesthetics. on the other hand. It is anticipated that they could be equipped with all sorts of tools and cameras in order to furnish more extensive information about the human body. Nanorobots. The drug which is supposed to cure you may actually leave many parts of your body in worse shape than they were before. during an organ transplant their body may mysteriously reject the new organ.
nanorobots are perfect for eradicating malignant cells.11 11 Nanorobots could be used to clear built-up cholesterol from your arteries. Regardless of the individual details. thereby saving you from a heart attack. 2/28/13 . Scientists are already hard at work on nanobots that can identify and destroy cancer at its growth site so that no trauma is inflicted anywhere else in the body. it seems clear that the advent of the nanobot is destined to change the face of medicine forever. When it comes to major unsolved diseases like cancer. They could also perform delicate surgical functions such as closing a split vein.
This fuel technology is easily scaled down to nano-size. even one as tiny as a few hundred nanometers. the answer may lie in nuclear technology. However. nanobots will be able to fuel themselves on particles released by decaying atoms. Silicon has always been the first choice for delicate electronics and has the right qualities to make a successful scaled-down robot.WHAT NANOBOTS ARE MADE OF : 12 12 Traditionally. most robots have a solar cell or some kind of battery pack. It is strong enough to last 2/28/13 . Researchers consider it highly likely that when equipped with a thin film of radioactive material. but obviously these are many times too large for a nanobot.
Berkeley affiliate Kris Pister invented a solarpowered robot that measures only 8. one of which is that they are not biodegradable.C. Pister composed his robot primarily of tiny silicon pieces called transducers which are capable of taking the energy generated by the robot’s solar cell and turning it into mechanical power.13 13 However. constructing nanobots out of silicon would subject them to the same issues that other silicon electronics face. 2/28/13 .5 millimeters and can walk slowly on two “legs” like humans do. U. They would still be another small drain on our natural resources.
fans of the ideal nanorobot may have to wait. So. which can then in turn produce an ultimate nanorobot: a fully mechanical.14 14 Prototypes have been built using biological components. But eventually we will have this ultimate technology and 2/28/13 . but the ultimate goal is to achieve a purely electromechanical model. Scientists consider this the end goal in all nanotechnological research. and expect that it will take several stages to get there. In the middle stage of our nanobot development we will probably see high-production nano-factories emerge. voice-programmed microscopic machine capable of performing a wide array of useful functions. in other words.
The neocortex is the largest and most complex part of . providing a complete readout of the connection. It can take decision. Nanobots could carefully scan the structure of our brain.APPLICATIONS OF NANOBOTS : 1. That means a machine that can function as human brain. It can respond. It can keep things in memory. 2/28/13 A machine that can function as brain .The name of the world’s first virtual brain. BLUE BRAIN : 15 15 “BLUE BRAIN”. The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the BLUE BRAIN.
learning. memory capacity. The main aim of blue brain is to build an software replica or template which could reveal many exisiting aspects of the brain circuits. The simulated neurons will be interconnected with rules the team has worked out about how the brain functions. This result would develop a simulated model known as “Bluebrain”.16 16 The neocortex is thought to be responsible for the cognitive functions of language. The Blue Brain simulation uses one microprocessor for 2/28/13 . and how memories are lost. memory and complex thought.
capable of swimming in the human bloodstream. While the team is still devising ways to remote control the new robots. they feel that they have a solid solution for an autonomous motor design in the form of piezoelectricity. BLOODSTREAM : 2/28/13 17 17 Scientists at Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory at Australia’s Monash University have developed tiny nanobot micromotors that are a mere quarter of a millimeter. 2. the flow of blood provides abundant kinetic . powered by tiny piezoelectric motors. In the human body.
18 18 While a nanobot is too small to likely have a useful battery. it could exploit this kinetic energy to power tiny micromotors. 2/28/13 . the goal of the Australian researchers.
. to some extent. move. repair or even replicate themselves. surface textures. More virtual Reality. light. and chemicals.CONCLUSION : 2/28/13 19 19 Nanobots will be the next generation of nanomachines. and work together. Advanced nanobots will be able to sense and adapt to environmental stimuli such as heat. perform complex calculations. and televisions. The field of nanotechnology and holotechnology will overlap in the design of projection screens and user interfaces of the next generations of the holographic cell phones. conduct molecular assembly. and. communicate. sounds.
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