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Understand . . .  two premises on which sampling theory is based  accuracy and precision for measuring sample validity  five questions that must be answered to develop a sampling plan

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Understand . . .  two categories of sampling techniques and the variety of sampling techniques within each category  various sampling techniques and when each is used

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15-4      Sampling Population Element Population Census Sampling frame .

155 .

Feasible Necessary 156 .

Accurate Precise 157 .

158 .

Element Selection Unrestricted Restricted Probability Simple random Complex random Systematic Cluster Stratified Double Nonprobability Convenience Purposive Judgment Quota Snowball 159 .

What is the target population? What are the parameters of interest? What is the sampling frame? What is the appropriate sampling method? What size sample is needed? 1510 .

When 1511 .

1512 .

1513 .

1514 .

Advantages  Provides an unbiased estimate of population parameters if properly done  Economically more efficient than simple random  Lowest cost per sample  Easy to do without list Disadvantages  Often lower statistical efficiency due to subgroups being homogeneous rather than heterogeneous  Moderate cost 1515 .

Stratified  Population divided into few subgroups  Homogeneity within subgroups  Heterogeneity between subgroups  Choice of elements from within each subgroup Cluster  Population divided into many subgroups  Heterogeneity within subgroups  Homogeneity between subgroups  Random choice of subgroups 1516 .

1517 .

Advantages  May reduce costs if first stage results in enough data to stratify or cluster the population Disadvantages  Increased costs if discriminately used 1518 .

No need to generalize Limited objectives Feasibility Issues Time Cost 1519 .

Convenience Judgment Quota Snowball 1520 .

Determining Sample Size 1521 .

15-22 .

Reducing the Standard Deviation by 50% Quadrupling the Sample 1523 .

1524 .

10 95.65 1.Standard Error (Z score) % of Area Approximate Degree of Confidence 1.00 99.00 68.00 1.96 3.73 68% 90% 95% 99% 1525 .27 90.

1526 .

98-11.44-11.00 1.27 90.14-10.86 8.96 3.Confidence Z score % of Area Interval Range (visits per month) 68% 90% 95% 99% 1.00 99.02 8.73 9.00 68.56 1527 .52 9.48-10.10 95.65 1.

Precision Confidence level Size of interval estimate Population Dispersion Need for FPA 1528 .

255)2 = 259 1529 .5 meals per month 0 to 30 meals 10 4.1)2/ (.Steps Desired confidence level Size of the interval estimate Expected range in population Sample mean Standard deviation Need for finite population adjustment Standard error of the mean Sample size Information 95% (z = 1.5/1.96)  .96 = .1 No .255 (4.

   Previous research on the topic Pilot test or pretest Rule-of-thumb calculation ◦ 1/6 of the range 1530 .

96)  .051)2 = 81 1531 .30) = .10 (10%) 0 to 100% 30% Pq = .96 = .30(1-.10/1.21 No .Steps Desired confidence level Size of the interval estimate Expected range in population Sample proportion with given attribute Sample dispersion Finite population adjustment Standard error of the proportion Sample size Information 95% (z = 1.051 .21/ (.