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Converting Parole-Simple-Clips into RDF using the LEMON model

Riccardo Del Gratta, Francesca Frontini, Fahad Khan, Monica Monachini

Linked Data • Aim of the linked data movement to facilitate the sharing of distributed data • Uses Resource Description Framework (RDF) • Data structured in the form of subjectpredicate-object triples • Data items referred to by their Unique Resource Identifiers (URI’s) .

linking and reusability of Lexical Resources • We look at the conversion of a subset of a large scale. multilayered Italian language lexicon .Linked Data • Language Resources and Technology community increasing active within the linked data movement • Linked data enables the standardisation.

Lemon • A descriptive model that supports the linking up of a computational lexical resource with the semantic information in an ontology • Defines a set of core modules for describing the basic aspects of the entries in a lexicon using RDF • Maps a lexical entry l to a concept c in an ontology via a mediating lexical sense object s .

where c in the ontology O – A hypothetical concept capturing the full lexical meaning of an entry. “dependent on the meaning distinctions made in the ontology”) • Semantics by Reference .Lemon lexical senses • Can be seen as: – The reification of the pairing (l. c) of a lexical entry l with the concept c in an ontology O – A subset of the uses of the term l where it has the meaning c. when interpreted as c • Ensures that the meaning of a lexical item is contextual to the lexicon-ontology mapping (i.e..

independently of any application or domain. but that the meaning of a lexical entry is specified with respect to the vocabulary defined by the given ontologoy”.Semantics by Reference • “*T+he meaning of a word cannot be specified universally..e. i. .

and semantic levels .Parole-Simple-Clips • Parole-Simple-Clips (PSC) is a multi layered Italian lexicon • The outcome of three different lexical resource projects • Encodes lexical information at the phonetic. syntactic. morphological.

Parole-Simple-Clips • PSC Semantic Layer – Consists of a language independent ontology of 153 Semantic types. and around 60k semantic units. representing the meaning of items in the other layers • Semantics of PSC based on Generative Lexicon theory . or Usems.

and all the relations between them. along with other relevant semantic information contained within PSC.Parole-Simple-Clips • Simple-OWL (Toral & Monachini 09) – Extraction of all the semantic types from the PSC semantic layer. in order to create an OWL ontology .

Conversion from PSC into Lemon and the link to Simple-OWL • Challenge of how to model the link between semantic and other layers in PSC using Lemon • Not always possible to identify PSC Usems with Lemon lexical sense objects – Some relations that hold between USems should hold in Lemon only between Lemon lexical sense objects – Other relations that hold between USems shouldn’t hold at all between Lemon lexical senses .

and the sense relation. “gladiolo”.Example • The lexical entry gladiolo_N represents the italian noun. 1616 and 1617 – 1617 represents the gladiolo as a flower. – 1616 represents the gladiolo as a plant • Between 1616 and 1617 there is the conceptual relation that 1616 “produces” 1617. that there is a systematic polysemy relation between them . (“gladiolus” in English) points to two different USems.

Link the lexical entry to this lexical sense. .Our solution • Use the PSC USems twice: – Convert the PSC USems into corresponding objects in the Simple OWL ontology and transfer the relations between them also into Simple OWL – Create Lemon Lexical Sense objects also corresponding to each USem and link it to the corresponding USem in the Simple OWL ontology using the reference relation (we don’t transfer the relations between the PSC USems to the Lexical Sense objects).

Our Solution .

Conclusions and Further Work • We have converted 31232 USems corresponding to 18610 lexical entries • There still remains the problem that we have what are supposed to be relations between lexical senses in Lemon that hold between objects in our Ontology • Want to convert the whole of PSC into Lemon .