275 views

Uploaded by Logeswaran Raji

Fatigue

- Fatigue Testing
- IIW-Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components[1]
- FEA_CAE_Engineer_MS
- IIW Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components 2006
- FKM
- Atlas of Fatigue Curves
- Fe-safe User Guide
- Fatigue Analysis of Welded Joints
- fatigue failure of welded joints
- Very Nice Paper on Fatigue
- IIW-1823-07-FatigueRecomm2
- Fatigue of Weldments
- A Load History Generation Approach for Full-scale Accelerated Fatigue Tests
- FE-SAFE
- FatLifeCalc
- Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components
- Tank FEA
- Fatigue Thesis
- Compare FEA Codes
- ASME Fatigue Life Curves

You are on page 1of 32

**

Weld Joints Using ANSYS,

Verity & FE-Safe

Zhichao Wang

Aditya Sakhalkar

5/8/2007

** Verity is a weld fatigue assessment software

developed by Battelle based on Structural

Stress & Fracture Mechanics theory proposed

by Dr. Dong et al, Battelle

Part I: Key Points on Equivalent SS Method

Part II: Example Application

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 2

Part I: Key Points on SS & Weld Assessments

Zhichao Wang

Sr. Lead Engineer

Emerson Climate Technology Inc.

Background

Why The Battelle’s Structure Stress Is Not Sensitive To FE Mesh

Size?

How Could Multiple Joint S~N Curves Be Reduced to A Single S~N

Curve, the Master S~N Curve?

Example Application (Part ii, Aditya)

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 3

Background

Fatigue Assessment – Unwelded Structures

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 4

Fatigue Assessment – Welded Structures

It’s been commonly recognized that the fatigue life of the polished

specimen is dominated by fatigue crack initiation, whereas that of

welded structures is dominated by small crack propagation from some

pre-existing discontinuity.

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 5

(i). Nominal Stress Method (BS,IIW)

The nominal stress range is used to develop the S~N curves using

samples with actual weld joint geometry. The life curves refer to

particular weld details, there is no need for the user to attempt to quantify

the local stress concentration effect of the weld detail itself.

(ii). Hotspot Stress Approach (structural stress, geometric stress,

BS, IIW, CEN,DNV)

This procedure uses hot-spot stress range as a parameter. The S–N

curves are obtained from tests of actual welded joints based on the hot-

spot stress range rather than the nominal stress range.

(iii). Local Notch Stress Method (ASME, BS, IIW).

The notch stress approach attempts to include all sources of stress

concentration in the stress used with the design S–N curve. Thus a single

S–N curve may be sufficient for a given type of material. The problem is

that the local geometry of the toe or root of a weld is highly variable. It

may be hard to achieve consistent results.

Fatigue Assessment – Welded Structures

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 6

Fatigue Assessment – Welded Structures

(iv). The Fracture Mechanics Approach (For crack propagation life)

The parameter widely used is SIF, K. The fatigue resistance is represented by

fatigue crack growth rate da/dN. Many crack propagation laws are available. The

simplest one is Paris Law in which the crack growth law approximates to a linear

relationship:

For a flaw size starts from a

0

to a critical fatigue crack size a

f

, the remaining

fatigue life N under stress range S is obtained by integrating Eq (1):

(v) Verity Equivalent Structural Stress Method (Battelle)

Equivalent Structural Stress + Single Master S~N Curve

n

da

C ( K) (1)

dN

= A

f

0

a

n

a

da

C N (2)

( K)

=

A

}

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 7

Structural Stress & Mesh Sensitivity

(b) Comparison of SCF predicted by various modeling

procedures and extrapolation based HSS at the weld toe [12].

(b) Comparison of SCF predicted by various modeling

procedures and extrapolation based HSS at the weld toe [12].

(c) Structural Stress Using Verity Method (c) Structural Stress Using Verity Method

Hot Spot Nomina

Nominal

l

FE

(Human Factor)

~

0 ·

o

o

< o <

o

x

o

X

~0.4 t

Hot Spot

o

FE

o

Nominal

o

(a) Normal Stress at the sharp corner

(Structural Stress)

t

σ

x

σ s

p

A

A

P

Y

X

0.4 t

A

A

t

Hot Spot Nomina

Nominal

l

FE

(Human Factor)

~

0 ·

o

o

< o <

o

x

o

X

~0.4 t

Hot Spot

o

FE

o

Nominal

o

(a) Normal Stress at the sharp corner

x

o

X

~0.4 t

Hot Spot

o

FE

o

Nominal

o

(a) Normal Stress at the sharp corner

(Structural Stress)

t

σ

x

σ s

p

A

A

(Structural Stress)

t

σ

x

σ s

p

(Structural Stress)

t

σ

x

σ s

p

A

A

P

Y

X

0.4 t

A

A

t

P

Y

X

0.4 t

A

A

A

A

t

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 8

Why Structure Stress

Is Not Sensitive To FE Mesh?

(a)

(b)

(c) Structural Stress Using Verity Method (c) Structural Stress Using Verity Method

N

P

1

P

2

Q

m

P

1

P

2

P

1

P

2

N

/

Q

/

m

/

P

1

P

2

t

X

Y

F

x

P

1

P

2

F

y

Neutral axis

t

σ

t

m

σ

t

b

σ

)'

t

(σ

)'

t

m

(σ )'

t

b

(σ

N

P

1

P

2

Q

m

N

P

1

P

2

Q

m

P

1

P

2

P

1

P

2

P

1

P

2

N

/

Q

/

m

/

P

1

P

2

N

/

Q

/

m

/

P

1

P

2

t

X

Y

P

1

P

2

P

1

P

2

t

X

Y

F

x

P

1

P

2

F

y

Neutral axis

F

x

P

1

P

2

F

y

F

x

P

1

P

2

F

y

Neutral axis

t

σ

t

m

σ

t

b

σ

t

σ

t

m

σ

t

b

σ

)'

t

(σ

)'

t

m

(σ )'

t

b

(σ

)'

t

(σ

)'

t

m

(σ )'

t

b

(σ

Calculation of Structure Stress

3-D Solid Element:

i. Calculate nodal force

ii. Transformation of nodal force to neutral

axis to obtain resultant forces (N, m).

iii.Calculation of structural stress

Shell Element:

i. Calculate nodal force ( N

/

, m

/,

Q

/

)

ii. Calculation of structural stress

Because equilibrium has to be satisfied

Thus: m

/

=m

Q

/

=Q And

N

/

=N

t

m

N

(σ )=

A

t

b

m

(σ)=

W

( ) ( )

,

/ /

t t t t

m m b b

σ = σ σ = σ

The equations in the calculation of

structural stress are the same. Hence, the

structural stress is mesh independent

Calculation of Structure Stress

3-D Solid Element:

i. Calculate nodal force

ii. Transformation of nodal force to neutral

axis to obtain resultant forces (N, m).

iii.Calculation of structural stress

Shell Element:

i. Calculate nodal force ( N

/

, m

/,

Q

/

)

ii. Calculation of structural stress

Because equilibrium has to be satisfied

Thus: m

/

=m

Q

/

=Q And

N

/

=N

t

m

N

(σ )=

A

t

b

m

(σ)=

W

( ) ( )

,

/ /

t t t t

m m b b

σ = σ σ = σ

The equations in the calculation of

structural stress are the same. Hence, the

structural stress is mesh independent

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 9

Master S~N Curve

Most codes divide weld joints into different types

Categorization of Weld Joints (BS 7608) Weld Joints (IIW)

Weld Joint Categorization

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 10

Multiple S~N Curves Due to Weld Joint Categorization

Example Design S~N curves for

welded joints: (a) Steel weld joint S~N

curves (BS 7608); (b) Weld joint type

and S~N curves (IIW

recommendations); (c) Aluminum weld

joint S~N curves (IIW

recommendations)

(a)

(b)

(c)

Multiple S~N curves provide flexibility

for the selection of life curves and

increase difficulty to select the proper

one due to the variation of actual

joints

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 11

How Could multiple joint S~N curves be

merged into one - Master S~N curve?

Nominal Stress Method (BS) Hot Spot Stress Method (IIW)

Equivalent SS Method

Weld Joints (IIW)

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 12

Small Crack Propagation Behavior

The data does not fall into one curve for the same specimen;

Multiple da/dN curves obtained for the same or different

specimens, which tells that the Paris Law does not hold for

small crack growth. This is called anomalous crack growth

behavior.

(g) AK-correlated small

crack vs. large crack

growth, 7075-T6 AI [13]

The curves show that

small crack growth faster

than corresponding large

cracks at the same value

of the driving force AK.

Specimens for notch induced short crack growth test. (a)

Compact tension (CT) with keyhole by Ramulu; (b) single edged

notched (SEN) by Shin and Smith; (c) double edged notched

(DEN) by Shin and Smith; (d) center notched (CB) by Tanaka and

Nakai; (e) for CT specimen; (f) for three different

specimens

da

K

dN

A

da

K

dN

A

Specimens for notch induced short crack growth test. (a)

Compact tension (CT) with keyhole by Ramulu; (b) single edged

notched (SEN) by Shin and Smith; (c) double edged notched

(DEN) by Shin and Smith; (d) center notched (CB) by Tanaka and

Nakai; (e) for CT specimen; (f) for three different

specimens

da

K

dN

A

da

K

dN

A

Different factors may attribute to short crack anomalous growth such as the effect of crack

closure, micro structure interaction and that of notch details.

A unified SIF formulation for both short and long crack and a two stage crack propagation model

were proposed by Dr. Dong & his coworkers, Battelle, to use Equivalent Structural Stress as a

parameter for weldments fatigue life assessment.

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 13

A Unified Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) Formulation

(a) Weld geometry with a hypothetical crack l ; (b) Actual normal stress distribution; (c)

Simplification; (d) Decomposition; (e) Equilibrium-equivalent structural stress or far-field

stress; (f) Self-equilibrating stress (notch stress) with respect to a reference depth t

1

.

( b )

t

A

A

x

σ

l 0

( b )

t

A

A

x

σ

l 0

( a )

A

A

t

l

( a )

A

A

t

l

( c )

t

1

t

1

2

3

1

σ

2

σ

3

σ

A

A

R

1

R

2

'

x

σ

( c )

t

1

t

1

2

3

1

σ

2

σ

3

σ

1

2

3

1

σ

2

σ

3

σ

A

A

R

1

R

2

'

x

σ

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

( d )

( e )

( f )

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

t

σ

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

( d )

( e )

( f )

/ t

x

= - o A o o

/ t

x

= o o + Ao

/ t

x

= - o A o o

/ t

x

= o o + Ao

t

1

/t=0.1

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 14

A Unified Stress Intensity Factor

t

( ) ( ) (0 l t) A o + < < o

s n

K K = K

Notch Stress

Structural Stress, Far field stress

Notch Stress

Structural Stress, Far field stress

The drive force for crack to start and grow is the crack tip stress, introduce crack

surface traction p

s

called self equilibrating surface traction due to Ao (notch effect)

x

t /

s

( ) (p , (0 l t ) ) ( ) Ao ~ = o o < <

s s s

K K K

t

l

t

l

( a ) ( b )

A

A

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

t

1

t

1

2

3

A

A

Aσ

( c )

t

s

p

l

( d )

t

s

p

l

tt

s

p

l

( d )

'

x

σ

t

1

t

3

A

A

l

/

s x

t

p = f( Δσ)= σ f( , σ )

( e )

'

x

σ

t

1

t

3

A

A

l

/

s x

t

p = f( Δσ)= σ f( , σ )

( e )

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 15

A Unified Stress Intensity Factor

t

s

(p ( ) (0 l t ) ) o + < <

n s

K = K K

Notch Effect

Structural Stress, Far field stress

t

s

(p ( ) (0 l t ) ) o + < <

n s

K = K K

Notch Effect

Structural Stress, Far field stress

Notch Effect

Structural Stress, Far field stress

t

l

( d )

( e )

A

A

t

σ

( f )

t

s

p

l

t

l

( d )

t

l

( d )

( e )

A

A

t

σ

( e )

A

A

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

A

A

t

σ

( f )

t

s

p

l

( f )

t

s

p

l

tt

s

p

l

Notch Effect

Notch Effect

Far Field SIF

Far Field SIF

Notch Effect

Notch Effect

Far Field SIF

Far Field SIF

Stress intensity solutions

using published weight

function results: (a) remote

tension; (b) remote

bending.

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 16

SIF Magnification Factor M

kn

t

s

(p ( ) (0 l t ) ) o + < <

n s

K = K K

Introduction of notch induced SIF magnification factor M

kn

:

t

t

s

(p ) ( )

1.0 (0 l t)

( )

o +

> < <

o

kn

s n

n

K

M =

K

K

t

( ) (0 l t) o < <

kn n

K = M K

a/t a/t a/t a/t

Comparisons of stress intensity magnification factor M

kn

at 135° sharp V notch for various

specimen geometries and loading conditions: (a) Edge crack solutions; (b) Elliptical crack

solutions for a/c = 0.4

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 17

M

kn

for 135

0

V Notch Specimen

a/t

a/t

Conclusions:

• M

kn

approaches unity as crack size a/t approaches 0.1 i.e., a/t=0.1 (short

crack correction factor) Thus a/t=0.1 can be taken as a characteristic

parameter beyond which the notch effect is negligible

• The difference between edge crack and elliptical crack solutions are not

significant.

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 18

Modified Paris Law

m

n

n m

kn n

Paris Law :

da

C K (a)

dN

Introduce t

da

CM K

dN

heUnified SIF:

(b) = A

= A

Figures showed the

significant improvement

for the application of

Paris Law and its

application

More important the

crack starts from zero

that covers crack

initiation life

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 19

Master S~N Curve

÷

=

=

= ·

=

÷

A

÷

A

÷

=

=

}

-m

s

Δσ

f

m

1

n m

2

n

kn

kn n

a a

n m

a 0

m b

n

m

kn

Using the Unified Paris Law,

da

N (b)

CM K

Introduction of

S ~ N curve can be obtained

1

N t I(r) (c)

C

d(a/ t)

Where,

generallized SIF ra

da

C

I(r)

M {f (a

M K (a)

dN

nge

/ t) r [f (a/ t) f

, leads

(a

to,

/ t)]

=

=

}

a / t 1

m

a / t 0

(d)

}

1

2 m 1 1

m

2m m m

2 m 1

2

1

1

m

m m

m

Then

C t I(r) N (e)

Introduce Equivalent Structrual Stress Range,

t I(r)

C N (f )

÷

÷

=

=

= ÷

s

s

s s

ΔS

Δσ

Δσ

ΔS

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 20

Master S~N Curve

Nominal Stress Method Hot Spot Stress Method

Equivalent SS Method

Weld Joints (IIW)

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 21

Summary

• The Structural Stress Method developed at Battelle is

mesh insensitive that removes the uncertainty in the

calculation of structural stress for weld joint fatigue

assessment

• The nature of weld joint fatigue is considered through the

introduction of Equivalent Structural Stress based on

fracture mechanics, which enable most fatigue curves of

weld joints merged into a narrow band, the Master S~N

curve. Thus one S~N curve can be used for majority of

weld joints

Note: I believe that the weld joints have to be stress

concentration dominant to achieve consistent

results with test data.

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 22

References

[1]. BS PD 5500: , BSI Standards, London, 2000.

[2]. European Standard for Unfired Pressure Vessels, EN 13445: 2002, BS EN 13445:2002, BSI, London, 2002

[3]. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for construction of pressure vessels, Division 2-

Alternative rules, ASME, 2003.

[4]. Carl E. Jaske, FSRF for WPVP, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, AUGUST 2000, Vol. 122, 297-304

[5]. S.J.Maddox, Review of fatigue assessment procedures…, Int. J. of Fatigue, Vol. 25, 12, 2003, 1359-1378.

[6]. Maddox S J: 'Fatigue aspects of pressure vessel design…, Spence J and Tooth A S, E & F N Spon, London, 1994.

[7]. Harrison J D and Maddox S J: 'A critical examination of rules for the design of pressure vessels subject to fatigue

loading' in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on 'Pressure Vessel Technology', Mech E, London, 1980.

[8]. Taylor N (Ed): 'Current practices for design against fatigue in pressure equipment', EPERC Bulletin No.6, European

Commission, NL-1755ZG, Petten, The Netherlands, 2001.

[9]. Dong, P., 2005, ‘‘A Robust Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Analysis of Offshore/Marine Structures’’, Journal of

Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering , Vol. 127, pp. 68-74.

[10]. Dong, P., 2001, ‘‘A Structural Stress Definition and Numerical Implementation for Fatigue Evaluation of Welded

Joints,’’ Int. J. Fatigue, 23/10, pp. 865–876.

[11]. Dong, P., Hong, J. K, Osage, D., and Prager, M., ‘‘Assessment of ASME’s FSRF Rules for Pipe and Vessel Welds

Using A New Structural Stress Method,’’ Welding In the World, Vol. 47, No. 1/2, 2003, pp. 31–43.

[12] Dong, P., Hong, J. K., Osage, D., Prager, M., 2002, ‘‘Master S-N Curve Method for Fatigue Evaluation of Welded

Components,’’ WRC Bulletin, No. 474, August.

[13]. Lankford, J. , Fatigue of Eng Mater and Structures 5 (1982), pp233-248

[14]. R. Craig McClung, et al, Behavior of Small Fatigue Cracks, ASME, Vol. 19, Fatigue & Fracture, P153

[15]. Fricke W., 2001, ‘‘Recommended Hot-Spot Analysis Procedure for Structural Details of FPSO’s and Ships Based on

Round-Robin FE Analysis,’’ ISOPE Proceedings, Stavanger, Norway, June.

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 23

Part II: Example Application

Aditya Sakhalkar

Sr. Applied Mechanics Engineer

Emerson Climate Technology Inc.

• Background

• ANSYS, Verity, Fe-Safe Weld Assessment Procedure

• ANSYS Preprocessing

• Verity Analysis

• Fe-Safe Analysis

• ANSYS Results

• Comparison of Analysis Results with the Test Results

• Conclusions

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 24

• Resistance welded suction fitting

• Three failures in the suction fitting weld

during reliability testing

• Crack initiated at the weld toe (9 o’ clock)

and propagated through the shell.

• Failure due to reverse bending fatigue.

Background

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 25

ANSYS, Verity, Fe-Safe Weld Analysis Procedure

Verity, Fe-Safe Weld analysis

Ansys Preprocessing

Ansys Post processing

- Meshing per Verity requirements

- Linear material properties

- Apply load

- Solution

Verity Analysis (Eq. Structural Stress

calculations along the weld line)

- Fe-Safe analysis (Weld life calculations

using Master S-N curve)

- Import .rst file

- Post processing

Verity result validation

and comparison

Reliability Testing

Calibration

Quantify loading

relative to the test

for FEA

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 26

Suction Fitting

Shell

Weld Line

Element Type: Solid 186

Ansys Preprocessing- FE Model

Mesh Requirements

• Shell Elements:

• 3D mid-surface element with no through-

thickness dimension

• Solid Element:

• Rectangular faces required along the through-

thickness cut from the weld line

• Regular mesh along the through thickness cut

from weld line

• Recommended elements: Hexahedral (brick) and

Pentahedral (wedge)

• Tetrahedral elements can be used. Requires

special handling.

Hex elements along weld line

Linear material properties

(E = 29,000 Ksi, ν = 0.29)

Symmetry BC

On sides

Top & Bottom

fixed

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 27

ANSYS Results

o

eq

o

1

Maximum Stress

Equivalent Stress

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 28

Verity Procedures

• Structural Stresses calculated along the

weld line at each node

• Fe-Safe builds a connectivity table and

maps the stresses to elemental stresses.

These stresses are inserted into the

stress matrix to be used for fatigue

evaluation

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 29

Fe-Safe Analysis – Weld life predictions

using Master SN Curve

Fully reverse loading defined

Fe-Safe calculates weld fatigue life

based on the Battelle’s Master SN

curve

The weld life (log N) data at each

node is written in the ANSYS .rst

format

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 30

ANSYS Post processing – Weld Life Results

Minimum life at element # 4436, node # 4212

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 31

Comparison of Verity Predictions

with Reliability Test Results

Conservative life estimate!

Predicted Failure Location correlated well with the test failures!!

ECT_wht_templ 2/28/2013 11:09 AM 32

• ANSYS could be used for the fatigue assessment of welded

joints in conjunction with Verity & Fe-Safe

• Verity provides conservative estimate of the weld life

• Good correlation with the predicted and test failure locations

• Verity & Fe-Safe provides a excellent weld design tool in

conjunction with ANSYS

Conclusions

- Fatigue TestingUploaded byadamadamO
- IIW-Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components[1]Uploaded byhansejude
- FEA_CAE_Engineer_MSUploaded byyatinj1
- IIW Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components 2006Uploaded byAta Dindar Safa
- FKMUploaded bygpskainth
- Atlas of Fatigue CurvesUploaded byCristiana Costa
- Fe-safe User GuideUploaded byHadinoorizadegan
- Fatigue Analysis of Welded JointsUploaded byangelobuijtels
- fatigue failure of welded jointsUploaded byShahazad Shaik
- Very Nice Paper on FatigueUploaded bychris_m_germain
- IIW-1823-07-FatigueRecomm2Uploaded bytensorengineering
- Fatigue of WeldmentsUploaded byAjay Menon
- A Load History Generation Approach for Full-scale Accelerated Fatigue TestsUploaded byBilu Varghese
- FE-SAFEUploaded bychandrasmg
- FatLifeCalcUploaded byManoranjan Kumar
- Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and ComponentsUploaded byaiyubi2
- Tank FEAUploaded bySamira Gh
- Fatigue ThesisUploaded bydhook_mmm
- Compare FEA CodesUploaded bydesibanda73
- ASME Fatigue Life CurvesUploaded bynamasral
- Fatigue of WeldingUploaded by1420637
- Stress-Based Uniaxial Fatigue Analysis Using Methods Described in FKM-GuidelineUploaded byclevercog
- ASM International - Atlas of Stress-strain CurvesUploaded bymicver_00
- High Strength Steel FatigueUploaded byskkong
- A Structural Stress Definition and Numerical Implementation for Fatigue Analysis of Welded JointsUploaded byjoshua6
- Rainflow Counting MethodsUploaded bypanos3
- ASME & NAFEMS_2004_What is Verification and Validation_SCUploaded byjadamiat
- FE-Fatigue theory –Uploaded byer_paramjeetgill
- cc-fe-safe-component-user-manual-12.pdfUploaded byManjinderSingh

- Base-4Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Ms Project 1Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- wind-01Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Ms Project 5Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Base-2Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Ms Project 3Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Base-3Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- BaseUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Base-5Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- ContactUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Ms Project 4Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Base Plate 01Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Base-1Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Simple Column Base Plates How ToUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Ms ProjectUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- TorUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Response SpectraUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Limit staUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- LATEST 2Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Base PlateUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Response Spectra1Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- 567Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- pipe1Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- 002Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- 001Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- 10 16 (1)Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- 10 16 (2)Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- 001Uploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Chapitre 3 EnUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- PipeUploaded byLogeswaran Raji

- Lect02-Lava Flows.pdfUploaded bybestbryant
- CATALAGO DE COLA LOCTATE..pdfUploaded byGustavo Diniz
- preparation of Oxalic acidUploaded byusman_uet08
- IMICat 0812 Complete LowResUploaded byLincoln Luiz Corrêa
- Home Work # 2-problemsUploaded bygeneralskarr
- Electricity Vol.1 2Uploaded bySaid Alauddeen Faisz
- ThesisUploaded byfoobar
- The Solar System to the Planets Comets and Beyond.pdfUploaded byWafutu
- What is Surface ChemistryUploaded byHarsimranjeet Singh
- Supratek Test ResultsUploaded byDimitris Zampelis
- Leitura de pH em agua ultrapuraUploaded byRodrigo Neves
- Electron-Beam-Curing-of-Composites (1).pdfUploaded byramukolaki
- A Brief Lookout on Pavement MaintenanceUploaded byhasib
- Rosicrucian Digest, May 1931Uploaded bysauron385
- KKP Boiler Training Material -Vol 1Uploaded byparthi20065768
- 2hoffsore_Lazy Wave SCRs 4 Biggest ChallengesUploaded byDonVic
- Microwave Design ConsiderationsUploaded byapi-26989621
- or71_26Uploaded byPiotr Jwrsk
- Stairwell Pressurization SystemsUploaded bymnt6176
- Sinumerik FM-NC Installation and Start-up Guide 07-00Uploaded bytamanog
- Final Seminar 1Uploaded bySIJOMON BENNY I-DC BCA
- FT-19 Determination of Particle Size for Fine Aggregate REV-04Uploaded byChayank Tiwari
- saej4004v001Uploaded bysamanaveen
- is.10028.3.1981Uploaded bysasikumar
- Marine PropulsionUploaded byThomas St
- Worksheet Chapter 6Uploaded byPang Siew Chu
- Syllabus of Basic ChemUploaded byElsa Try Julita Sembiring
- 7129Uploaded byDiogo Dias
- Dacs Design 1Uploaded byMarvin Dacayan
- Gravity 1Uploaded byAkshay97