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Total Productive Maintenance(TPM)


Total Productive Maintenance
Definition:  Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a structured equipment-centered continuous improvement process that strives to optimize production effectiveness

By identifying and eliminating equipment and production efficiency losses throughout the production system through active team participation of employees across all levels.


Aims of TPM
TPM aims at:  Establishing a corporate culture that will maximize production system effectiveness.  Organizing a practical shop-floor system to prevent losses before they occur throughout the entire production cycle with a view to achieving zero breakdowns, zero accidents, and zero defects.  Involving all the functions of an organization including production, maintenance, quality ,admn, sales and management.  Final Goal is to improve OEE


Overall Equipment Effectiveness(OEE)

Overall equipment effectiveness is a measure of availability , performance efficiency and quality rate of a given equipment. It is a measure for monitoring progress related to the implementation of TPM

OEE = availability x performance efficiency x rate of quality products

Computation of OEE Available time . defective x 100 = 3) Rate of qlty. 0.50 x 0.Down time x 100 = 1) Availability = Available time Theoretical cycle time x Qty.= Operating time Qty.5 x 400 400 400 . produced .98 x 100 = 42. Produced x 100 = 2) Performance eff.8 400 x 100=87% x 100 = 50% x 100 =98% OEE = Availability x performance eff.Qty. 450mins.6% 6 .87 x 0. produced 450mins.-60 mins. X Rate of qlty. Products x 100 = 0. = Qty.

Equipment Failure Loss Setup Loss Cutting tool / Jig / Fixture change loss Startup Loss Minor stoppages & idling Loss Reduced speed loss Defect and rework loss Scheduled down time loss Management Loss Operating motion loss Line organization loss Logistics loss Measurement and adjustment loss Yield loss Energy loss Die. 4. 8. jig. 6. 12. 16. 11. 14. tool. 7. 15. 13. 2. 5. 9.16 Major Losses 1. & Fixture loss 7 . 10. 3.

8 2. Time loss from end of production of previous item to the point where production of new item is completely satisfied. Set-up loss  .Losses during production activities (16 losses)  Seven losses that can impede equipment 1. These are the cases requiring replacement of parts or repair involving major adjustments / settings. Equipment failure loss  Breakdown of equipment due to sporadic / chronic failures.

Start-up losses  Time losses at the start-up after periodic repair / long time stoppage / holidays lunch breaks / tea breaks / shift changes etc. .  9 4. Cutting tool / jig/fixture change loss Losses due to regular cutting blade / tool / jig change and extraordinary replacement necessitated by blade / tool / jig damage.Losses during production activities (16 losses) 3.

Reduced speed loss  . Minor stoppage & idling losses  These are due to temporary functional stoppage / functional recovery through simple measures / adjustments.Losses during production activities (16 losses) 5. Time loss due to difference between standard / normal speed and actual working speed of the equipment ( because of quality / equipment problems) 10 6.

Scheduled down time ( shut down) losses  Time lost when equipment is stopped for planned maintenance. Jishu Hozen.Losses during production activities (16 losses) 7. 11 .  Losses that can impede machine available time 8. Kaizen activities etc. Defects and rework losses  Time losses required to repair defective products and turn them to excellent products by reprocessing on the same equipment.

Losses during production activities (16 losses)  Five losses that can impede manpower efficiency. Management loss  Waiting time losses that occur due to management. 9. etc. 10. Operating motion loss  These include motion losses that occur due to violation of motion economy. and an inefficient layout. skill differences. such as waiting for materials. instructions. 12 .

Line organisation loss  Waiting time losses involving multi-process and multi-stand operators and line balance losses in conveyor work( assembly work) etc. Logistics loss  . and transport of parts and products is not enforced though it is possible. 13 12. shipment. These are manpower losses which occur because automation of distribution operations such as supply.Losses during production activities (16 losses) 11.

14 . 14.  Three losses that impede effective use of production resources. Yield losses  Material losses between raw material / components input and the finished products.Losses during production activities (16 losses) 13. Measurement and adjustment loss  Manpower losses that result from frequent implementation of monitoring and adjustment to prevent occurrence of quality defects.

16. steam.Losses during production activities (16 losses) 15. Die. fuel. equipments and plants. jig and fixture losses  15 . compressed air. tool. jigs. due to inefficient operation of machines. fixtures and tools required for production. water etc. Energy losses  Losses in electrical power. Expenses due to premature failures of dies.

due to machine start-up to stable production. 5.due to discrepancies between designed and actual speed of equipment.6 Major Losses on Equipment (That Affect OEE) 1.due to changeover from batch to batch. 4. blockages of chutes etc.due to scraps and defects to be reworked / repaired.due to breakdown. Set-up and adjustment loss . 3. Process defects loss . Reduced yield loss . Equipment failure loss . 2.due to abnormal operation of sensors. 6. Idling and minor stoppages loss . Reduced speed loss . 16 .

MANAGEMENT LOSS OPERATING TIME = AVAILABLE TIME .Minor stoppage & -Rejection idling loss ( qty.Reduced speed loss .Planned shut down -No material -No tool/ gauge -No drawing/ spec.DEFECT LOSS 17 RG .Re-work MANAGEMENT LOSS DOWNTIME LOSS SPEED LOSS -Breakdown -Set up change -Tool change . rejted x cycle time) -Reduced yield .Start-up loss . -No power AVAILABLE TIME = SHIFT WORKING TIME .Loss Structure SHIFT WORKING TIME AVAILABLE TIME OPERATING TIME NET OPERATING TIME VALUABLE OPERATING TIME DEFECT LOSS .DOWNTIME LOSS NET OPERATING TIME = OPERATING TIME .SPEED LOSS VALUABLE OPERATING TIME = NET OPERATING TIME .

Total Productive Maintenance pillars 18 .

5S Jishu-Hozen Kobetsu-Kaizen Hinshitsu-Hozen 19 .


Evolving autonomous maintenance (7 steps)        Initial clean-up (cleaning and inspection) Taking counter measures against sources of dirt & dust Formulation of tentative cleaning & lubrication standards General Inspection Autonomous Inspection Standardization Autonomous management 21 .


Planned Maintenance    The objective of Planned Maintenance is to “establish and maintain optimal conditions of equipment and process”. Planned maintenance activities put a priority on the realization of zero failures 23 . Planned Maintenance supports the concept of zero failures.

Condition Based Maint. Daily / Routine Maint. Prevention Break down Maint.Maintenance Activities Planned Maint. Corrective Maint. Maint. For Reliability For Maintainability Planned Emergency Time Based Maint. MP Activities 24 . Preventive Maint. Unplanned Maint. Usage – based Maint.


26 . and plants through uncompromising elimination of losses and improvement of performance. processes.Focused improvement   Focused improvement includes all activities that maximize the overall effectiveness of equipment. The driving concept behind Focused Improvement is Zero Losses.

meaning a continuous improvement effort to eliminate any effectiveness loss. Focused Improvement is characterized by a drive for Zero Losses.Focused improvement  Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is the key metric of Focused Improvement. 27 .

Targets for Focused Improvement PQProductivity Improvement in OEE  improvement in Value addition /employee  Quality Incoming quality  Process quality  Outgoing quality  Customer complaints  Warranty cost  28 .

Targets for Focused Improvement C Cost Reduction through OEE Increase  Lead time/through put time  Inventory  Consumables  D Delivery Improve through OEE Increase  Bottleneck machine/process  29 .

WHY analysis M Morale Improve morale of operators through   Involvement & participation in circles Encouragement to generate Kaizens and reward for suggestions/improvements done 30 .Targets for Focused Improvement S.Safety  Achieve zero accidents     Training on machine operations Identify unsafe actions and locations  Take corrective actions Motivate operating personnel through involvement/participation Analysis of past accidents through WHY.


is establishment of conditions that will preclude the occurrence of defects and control of such conditions to reduce defects to zero.Quality Maintenance    Objective of QM is to eliminate in process defects and customer complaints. in a nutshell. Quality maintenance. The key concept of Quality Maintenance is that it focuses on preventive action „before it happens‟ (cause oriented approach) rather than reactive measures „after it happens‟ 32 .

 33 .Quality Maintenance  Quality Maintenance is achieved by establishing conditions for „zero defects‟: Maintaining conditions within specified standards  Inspecting and monitoring conditions to eliminate variation and  Executing preventive actions in advance of defects or equipment/process failure.

Three Don’ts of QM    Don’t receive defective material from suppliers Don’t produce defective material Don’t send defective material to customers 34 .


36 .Office TPM   Office TPM is applying TPM activities to continuously improve the efficiency and effectiveness of logistic and administrative functions. Office TPM increases office productivity by documenting administrative systems and reducing waste and loss.

37 . Like equipment effectiveness improvement office TPM focuses on identifying and eliminating losses in administrative activities.Office TPM   They can help increasing production-system effectiveness by improving every type of organized activity that supports production.


Education and Training   This Pillar covers skill training programme for operators and maintenance men to raise their existing skill level. Steps involved Identify skill need  Training skill  Skill assessment( internal)  Skill evaluation (outside/certificate)  39 .

V-belts.Machine Maintenance Skills     Basics of Bolts and Nuts both from theory and practice Basics of keys and bearings both theory and practice Basics of gears. and electronics both theory and practice 40 . and drive system both theory and practice Basics of hydraulics. electrical. pneumatic.

broken. splashing/spilling. loose. 41 . leaking. discolour etc. bent. hardened. abnormal noise.Training programme for operators on AM /JH  Training content Importance and benefits of AM  Operators role in AM  Basic construction of machine and its basic condition  Meaning of abnormality   Dirty. hanging. missing. excess length/heat. corrosion. crushed. worn out. vibration. unwanted.

Training programme for operators on AM /JH          Each abnormality leads to what Safety aspects of machine Use of different materials for initial cleaning Clean to Inspect equipment Inspect equipment to Discover abnormalities Discover abnormalities to Correct abnormalities Correct abnormalities to improve performance Improve performance to perfect Use of tags 42 .


Safety and environment        Attain and keep zero-accident level Create a healthy and clean working area Install safety measures against equipment Make the operation safe Improve working environment  Noise. vibration and dust  Take measures to achieve environment protection Pay attention to the health and hygiene of employees Promote clean and healthy activities 44 .

and 2% he considered „acts of God/Nature‟ According to the Heinrich Principle. 45 . 10% where the result of unsafe physical conditions.000 safety incidents there are 300„near misses‟. 29 injuries. and 1 death.Safety and environment   88% of accidents where caused by unsafe acts of people. for every 500.


This pillar addresses to improve productivity by eliminating all losses due to tools and by providing right tool at right time at minimum cist. 47 .Tool management    This pillar is an addition to the 8 pillars in TPM This pillar is added as 9th pillar of TPM in the organization where tool cost is considerably high.

Tool cost reduction Tool Engineering Tool management Increase tool life Salvage Lower price Low inventory New technology Surface coat Geometry change Recycle Conversion Indegenisation Bulk order/discount Alternate supplier Tool planning Replenishment Variety reduction Obsolete sale 48 .

Prioritizing for cost reduction High consumption Low value Consumption Priority-2 High consumption High value Priority-1 Low consumption Low value Priority-4 Value Low consumption High value Priority-3 49 .


51 .Initial flow control   Initial flow control refers to design activities carried out during the planning and construction of new equipment. and flexibility. safety. It considers maintenance information and new technologies. that impart to the equipment high degrees of reliability. maintainability. economy. operability. and to thereby reduce maintenance expenses and deterioration losses.

 Early Management and  Initial Phase Management   The classic objective of Initial flow control is to minimize the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of equipment. 52 .Initial flow control  Initial Flow Control is also known as Maintenance Prevention.

Examples of Benefits achieved through TPM implementation ( Tangible)       Equipment failures reduced from 1. Maintenance costs reduced by 30%.0% to 0. 53 .1%. WIP decreased by 50%. Quality defects reduced from 1. Warranty claims reduced by 25%. Productivity improved by 50%.000 per month to 20 per month.

Questions and Comments 54 .