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CRUDE DISTILLATION AND CATALYTIC REFORMING UNITS HALDIA REFINERY PHALGUNI PAL, DMPN

Haldia Refinery Block Flow Diagram


Fuel Gas LPG SRN
H2

ATU&ARU
Off Gas NHDT&CRU

SRU

Sweet Fuel Gas Sulphur LPG Naphtha


MS(BS-II, Euro-III ,Export)

H2

MSQ C D U 1 C D U 2
GO SO

Reformate

HGU-I
FCC Gasoline
HCN

HGU-II
H2

Crude

Kero Cut St.Run G.O JBO

KHDS

H2

MTO RTF/ATF Kerosene


HSD (BS-II, Euro-III ,Export)

DHDS

LPG LCN

JBO (2 GRADES)
Kero HCN HSD

FCCU
Extract
OHCU Bottoms

OHCU
H2

ATU&SRU

FG
Sulphur

RCO

SR LO

Asphalt

Extract

V V D D U U 1 2

CBFS
100N/150N/500N/850N/1 50BN GR-I LOBS

LO / IO / HO
DAO

FEU NMP
DCO

Raffinate

SDU
Slack Wax Raffinate

DWO

HFU
H2

PDA

CDWU
H2

70N/100N/150N/500N/ 850N/150BN GR-II LOBS

VBU

VB Tar

MCW BTU
Bitumen Emulsion

MCW
FO (2 GRADES) Bitumen(3GRADES) Bitumen Emulsion

IFO

FUEL OIL BLOCK UNITS

LPG SRN Naphtha

MSQ C D U 1 C D U 2
Kero Cut St.Run G.O JBO

CRU
H2

REFORMATE

KHDS

MTO ATF Kerosene

Crude

JBO

RCO

CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT (CDU)

CDU IS THE MOTHER UNIT OF ANY OIL REFINERY. PURPOSE OF THIS UNIT IS TO SEPARATE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF CRUDE BY DISTILLATION

INTRODUCTION TO CDU I
DESIGNED FOR PROCESSING 2.5 MMTPA & COMMISIONED IN 1974. DEBOTTLENECKED IN DEC84 TO 2.75 MMTPA. MAIN COLUMN INTERNAL REVAMP IN MAY88 LEADING THE CAPACITY TO 3.16 MMTPA. INSTALLATION OF PREFRACTIONATOR IN MAY96 LEADING THE CAPACITY TO 3.5 MMTPA.

INTRODUCTION TO CDU II
COMMISIONED IN 1997. INITIAL CAPACITY :2.5 MMTPA CAPACITY OF CDU-II AFTER REVAMP = 4.0 MMTPA TOTAL REFINING CAPACITY-7.5.

BASIC OPERATION
CRUDE PREHEATING DESALTING OF CRUDE DESALTED CRUDE PREHEATING PREFRACTIONATION PREFRACTIONATED CRUDE PREHEATING HEATING OF CUDE IN FURNACE MULTI COMPONENT FRACTIONATION OF CRUDE IN MAIN DISTILLATION COLUMN.

BASIC OPERATION
NAPHTHA STABILISATION (REMOVAL OF LPG FROM NAPHTHA) NAPHTHA REDISTILLATION DE-ETHANISER. CAUSTIC WASH OF LPG & EXCESS NAPHTHA. DEPROPANISER.

PRE HEAT EXCHANGERS O/H REFLUX DRUM DESALTER

REFLUX DRUM

PRE HEAT EXCHANGERS

PREFRACTI ONATOR

IBP-140 TO NAPHTHA STABILISER

PRE HEAT EXCHANGERS

IBP-140 TO 11 C04

MAIN FRACTIONATOR

KERO CUT

FURNACE

LGO

HGO

RCO

IBP-140 EX PF AND MF

NAPHTHA SPLITTER
C5-90 CUT NAPHTHA

NAPHTHA STABILISER NAPHTHA CAUSTIC AND WATER WASH

90-140 CUT NAPHTHA LPG DEPROPANISER

PROPANE LPG CAUSTIC WASH DEETHANISER BUTANE LPG SETTLER

DESALTER
1. 2. 3. 4. PURPOSE : TO REDUCE SOLUBLE SALT CONTENT TO REDUCE SUSPENDED SOLID TO REDUCE RESIDUAL WATER TO ACT AS SURGE DRUM FOR FRESH CRUDE OPERATING CONDITION: TEMP = 125 - 135 DEG C PRESSURE = 7.0- 8.0 KG/CM2 WASH WATER = 5 % (V) OF CRUDE

PREFRACTIONATOR
PURPOSE: TO SEPARATE LIGHTER COMPONENT OF CRUDE AT RELATIVELY LOW TEMP SO AS TO A. REDUCE HEAT LOAD FOR THE HEATER B. REDUCE MAIN FRACTIONATOR O/H VAP LOAD OPERATING CONDITION: TOP TEMP = 115-135 DEG C BOTTOM TEMP = 180-210 DEG C TOP PRESSURE = 2.5 3.0 KG/CM2(g)

MAIN FRACTIONATOR
PURPOSE: TO SEPARATE PRETOPPED CRUDE INTO DIFFERENT FRACTIONS LIKE NAPHTHA,HY NAPHTHA, SK/ATF/MTO, GAS OIL,HY GAS OIL & RCO (REDUCED CRUDE OIL) OPERATING CONDITION: TOP TEMP = 115-135 DEG C FEED TEMP = 350-360 DEG C TOP PRESSURE = 2.0 2.5 KG/CM2(g)

NAPHTHA STABILISER
PURPOSE : TO STABILISE THE NAPHTHA (IBP-150 ) BY SEPERATING ITS FEED INTO LPG & STABILISED NAPHTHA OPERATING CONDITION: TOP TEMP = 65- 75 DEG C BOTTOM TEMP = 155- 180 DEG C FEED TEMP = 95- 110 DEG C PRESSURE = 10.4- 10.6 KG/CM2 (g) REFLUX RATIO = 3 - 5

NAPHTHA SPLITTER
1. PURPOSE: TO SPLIT THE STABILISED NAPHTHA FROM STABILISER INTO TWO FRACTIONS WHICH ARE CALLED (C5-90) & (90-140) TOP FRACTION (C5-90) IS SENT TO EXCESS NAPHTHA POOL OR HGU FEED & BOTTOM FRACTION IS EITHER STORED FOR CRU FEED OR SENT TO EXCESS NAPHTA OPERATING CONDITION: TOP TEMP = 70- 80 DEG C BOTTOM TEMP = 125-135 DEG C FEED TEMP = 90-100 DEG C PRESSURE = 0.1 0.4 KG/CM2 (g) REFLUX RATIO = 1

2.

DE-ETHANISER
PURPOSE: 1. TO REMOVE H2S & C2 FRACTION FROM LPG 2. LPG IS FURTHER WASHED WITH CAUSTIC TO MAKE IT FREE FROM RESIDUAL H2S AND LIGHT MERCAPTEN OPERATING CONDITION: TOP TEMP = 55- 65 DEG C BOTTOM TEMP = 95-110 DEG C FEED TEMP= 60-70 DEG C PRESSURE = 20.0- 21.0 KG/CM2 (g)

DEPROPANISER
PURPOSE: TO SEPARATE C3 FRACTION FROM FROM LPG OPERATING CONDITION: TOP TEMP = 40- 45 DEG C BOTTOM TEMP = 85-90 DEG C FEED TEMP= 55-60 DEG C PRESSURE = 12.0- 13.0 KG/CM2 (g)

CHEMICALS USED IN CDU


DE-EMULSIFIER : USED TO BREAK THE EMULSION OF CRUDE OIL & WATER IN DESALTER. CAUSTIC : USED AT THE UPSTREAM OF DESALTER TO NEUTRALISE FREE ACIDS & AT THE DOWNSTREAM OF DESALTER TO CONVERT UNREACTED CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CHLORIDES INTO THEIR RESPECTIVE SODIUM SALT. AMMONIA : USED TO REDUCE CORROSIVE EFFECTS OF RESIDUAL ACIDS. CORROSION INHIBITOR : ITS AMINE SOLUTION OF LONG CHAIN CYCLIC COMPOUND.IT PREVENTS METAL SURFACE CORROSION BY FORMING THIN PROTECTIVE LAYER

PRODUCTS AND THEIR SPECIFICATION


LPG : WEATHERING = +3 DEG C (MAX) FOR NORMAL & +1 DEG C (MAX) FOR AUTO STRIP CORROSION-1A. EXCESS NAPHTHA : Cu- STRIP CORROSION-1A. 90-140 CUT (CRU FEED) : IBP=90(MIN),FBP=155(MAX). SRSK : FBP=285(MAX),FLASH=39(MIN) IF NOT REPROCESSED. SRATF: FBP=255(MAX) SRMTO : FBP=240(MAX) JBO(P): IBP=285(MIN) JBO: FBP=365(MAX)

NAPHTHA HYDROTREATING & CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT

INTRODUCTION
BUILT BY M/S TECHNIP OF FRANCE PROCESS LICENCER:IIP-DEHRADUN & IFP-FRANCE. UNIT CAPACITY: APPROX 37 M3/HR. TYPICAL FEED CHATACTERISTICS IBP: 110 FBP:160 CUT NAPHTHA

WHY NAPHTHA HYDROTREATER ?


TO REMOVE SULPHUR,ORGANIC NITROGEN &

OXYGEN AND TO SATURATE OLEFINS FROM NAPHTHA WHICH ARE POISIONS FOR

DOWNSTREAM REFORMER CATALYST.


SULPHUR

IN THE FORM OF MERCAPTANS, ALIPHATIC DISULPHIDES & CYCLIC SULPHIDES ARE CONVERTED TO H2S. ORGANIC NITROGEN IS CONVERTED INTO NH3.C-O BOND IS BROKEN TO FORM SATURATED ALIPHATIC/AROMATIC COMPOUND.

NHDT
Sulphur Guard HP Purge Gas To Fuel Gas HP Separator DSN

Recycle Gas Compressor


Reflux Drum
REACTORS

HY FCC GASOLINE

HR - 448

HR-945

Stripper Column

Feed Heater
FEED 110-140 CUT NAPHTHA MAKE UP HYDROGEN

HR-448

MAX PERMISSIBLE LIMIT OF

IMPURITIES IN REFORMER FEED


SULPHUR ORGANIC N MOISTURE ARSENIC < 0.5 PPM < 0.5 PPM < 5 PPM < 5 PPB

OLEFINS
DIOLEFINS TOTAL HY METALS HALOGENS ( F,Cl)

0
0 < 5 PPB < 1 PPM

OPERATING CONDITIONS

(PARAMETERS)
REACTOR OPERATING CONDITIONS
SECOND REACTOR O/L PR (KG/CM2,G)

23

FIRST REACTOR INLET TEMP (. C) SECOND REACTOR O/L TEMP (.C)


RECYCLE RATIO

312 330
105

CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT


REFORMING IS PROCESS TO REARRANGE NAPHTHA COMPONENTS TO AROMATICS & ISOPARRAFINS TO INCREASE OCTANE NO. UNIT CAPACITY = 216 TMT / YR

OCTANE RATING IS A MEASURE OF THE AUTO IGNITION RESISTENCE OF GASOLINE USED IN SPARK-IGNITION IC ENGINES.IT IS A MEASURE OF ANTI-DETONATION OF A GASOLINE.THIS RATING WAS DEVELOPED BY A CHEMIST Russel Marker.

REFORMER CATALYST & REACTIONS Three Reactors in series filled with bimetallic (Pt-Re) catalyst. Main Reactions: .Aromatization of Naphthenes & Paraffin .Isomerization of Naphthenes & Paraffins .Hydrocracking .Hydrogenation of Olefins

M S QUALITY SPECIFICATION
Specifications
DENSITY (KG/M3) RON (MIN) BENZENE (%V, MAX) OLEFINS (%V, MAX) AROMATICS (%V, MAX) SULFUR (ppmw, MAX) RVP (KPA)

BS-I
710-770 5

BS-II
710-770 88 3* & 5

BS-III
720-775 91 1

BS-IV
720-775 91 1

18

21

42

35

1000 35-60

500 35-60

150 60 (MAX)

50

DSN EX 21 C01

PRE HEAT EXCHANGERS

CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT

22 F01 RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR

22 R01

22 R02 22 F201 MAKE UP TO NHDT/KHDS

OFF GAS

STABILISER

HP SEPARATOR

EFFLUENT EXCHANGER AND COOLER 22 R201

22 F03

REFORMATE TO R/D

FUNDAMENTAL REACTIONS IN CRU REACTORS


A.DESIRABLE RXN (1) NAPHTHENES DEHYDROGENATION

FNDAMENUTAL REACTIONS IN CRU REACTORS A.DESIRABLE RXN (2) PARAFFINS DEHYDROCYCLISATION


CH2
CH3 CH2 CH2

CH2
CH2 CH3 CH3

CH

CH2 CH

CH2 CH2 CH3

+H

C7H16
CH CH CH CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3

C7H14
CH 2 H C 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 3

Met hylcyclohexane

FUNDAMENTAL REACTIONS IN CRU REACTORS A.DESIRABLE RXN (3) PARAFFINS / NAPHTHENE ISOMERISATION

C H 7 16

C H 7 16

FUNDAMENTAL REACTIONS IN CRU REACTORS B. ADVERSE RXN (1) CRACKING

(a) +H 2 CH 7 14 CH 4 8 + CH 3 8

FUNDAMENTAL REACTIONS IN CRU REACTORS B. ADVERSE RXN (2) HYDROGENOLYSIS

+H 2 C H 7 16

CH

+ C H 6 14

or

+H C H 7 16

C H + 2 6 C H 5 12

OPERATING PARAMETERS OF CRU REACTORS


REACTOR AVG PR = 26.3 KG/CM2,(g) REACTOR INLET TEMP = 497 512 deg c H2 / HC (MOLE) RATIO = 4.5 SEPERATOR DRUM PRESSURE = 20 KG/CM2,(g) OPERATING PARAMETERS OF CRU STRIPPER TOP TEMP = 60-62 deg c BOTTOM TEMP = 208-212 deg c. TOP PRESSURE = 15 16 kg/cm2,g. REFLUX / FEED RATIO = 0.16

REFORMING REACTIONS
DEHYDROGENATION-METALLIC FUNCNTION DEHYDROCYCLISATION-MET+ACID FUNCTION ISOMERISATION- MET+ACID FUNCTION HYDROGENOLYSIS(CRACKING OF C1&C2)-MET FUNCTION HYDRO CRACKING-MET+ACID FUNCTION

THANK YOU