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Energy

Society Kilocalories per Person per Day


Modern industrial 260,000
(United States)

Modern industrial
(other developed 130,000
nations)

Early
industrial 60,000

Advanced
agricultural 20,000

Early
agricultural 12,000

Hunter–
gatherer 5,000

Primitive 2,000
Renewable/Nonrenewable
• Renewable:
– Energy from the sun produces several
forms of renewable energy: wind, flowing &
falling water (hydropower), and biomass
– Energy stored in the Earth’s mantel:
geothermal
• Nonrenewable:
– Fossil Fuels: Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas
– Uranium (nuclear power)
Differences in Energy Use

– Developed countries ~90% nonrenewable


(mainly oil, coal, natural gas)

– Developing countries ~59% nonrenewable


(mainly biomass, oil, coal)
Nuclear power
6%
Hydropower, geothermal,
Solar, wind
7%

Natural
Gas
23%

Biomass
12%
Coal
22%
Oil
World
30%
Nuclear power
7%
Hydropower
geothermal,
solar, wind
Natural 5%
Gas
22%

Coal
22%

Biomass
4%
Oil
40%
United
States
USA
• The US uses ~25% of the
world's commercial energy

• US has ~4.6% of the world's


population
Net Energy Ratio
• The ratio of useful energy produced to
the useful energy used to produce it
• Extraction Transportation 
Processing Transportation to Power
Plant Electric Generation 
Transmission End Use
Space Heating
Passive solar 5.8

Natural gas 4.9

Oil 4.5

Active solar 1.9

Coal gasification 1.5


Electric resistance heating
(coal-fired plant) 0.4
Electric resistance heating 0.4
(natural-gas-fired plant)

Electric resistance heating


(nuclear plant) 0.3
Net Energy Ratios:
Space heating
High-Temperature Industrial Heat 28.2
Surface-mined coal
Underground-mined coal 25.8
Natural gas 4.9
Oil 4.7
Coal gasification 1.5
Direct solar (highly 0.9
concentrated by mirrors,
heliostats, or other devices)

Net Energy Ratios:


Industrial heating
Transportation
Natural gas 4.9
Gasoline (refined crude oil)
4.1
Biofuel (ethyl alcohol) 1.9

Coal liquefaction 1.4

Oil shale 1.2

Net Energy Ratios:


Transportation
Fluorescent light
22% Efficient
Internal combustion engine
(gasoline) 10% Efficient
Incandescent light
5% Efficient
$17.76 $65.80 $87.50

Compact Standard Traditional


fluorescent long-life

Cost of electricity for comparable light


bulbs for 10,000 hours
Reducing energy waste
• Makes nonrenewable fossil fuels last longer
• Gives us more time to phase in renewable
resources
• Decreases dependence on oil imports
• Lessens the need for military intervention in the
oil-rich but politically unstable Middle East
• Reduces local and global environmental damage
• Cheapest and quickest way to slow projected
global warming
• Saves more money, provides more jobs, improves
productivity, and promotes more economic growth
per unit of energy
• Improves competitiveness in the international
marketplace
Ways to improve efficiency
• Insulate & eliminate air leaks
• Air-to-air heat exchange prevent indoor air
pollution
• Waste heat from lights, computers, and other
machines can be collected and distributed to
reduce heating bills during cold weather and
vented outside during the summer
• Cogeneration waste heat is used to produce
electricity
• Switch to high efficiency lighting
• Instant hot water heaters (tankless)
• Reuse and recycling
• Increase the fuel efficiency of motor vehicles
Ways to reduce energy demand
• Cash rebates for buying energy-efficient
lights and appliances, tax breaks, increase
the price of energy, and other economic
incentives / disincentives.
• Increase use of carpools and mass transit
by making it cheap and convenient
• Building design (insulation, triple-paned
windows, orientation to maximize winter &
minimize summer solar heating, etc.)  Cost
is recouped because less energy is required.
Energy Use (thousands of Btus per passenger mile)
11
General aviation

Commercial 5.7
aviation
4.8
Personal truck

3.5
Automobile
2.3
Motorcycle
1.8
AMTRAK railroad

Intercity high- 1.2


speed train
0.9
Intercity bus
Net Energy Efficiency
Superinsulated house
98%
(100% of heat R-43)
Passive solar (100% of heat)
Passive solar (50% of heat) plus high- 90%
efficiency natural gas furnace
(50% of heat) 87%
Natural gas with high-efficiency furnace
84%
Electric resistance heating (electricity
from hydroelectric power plant) 82%
Natural gas with typical furnace
70%
Passsive solar (50% of heat) plus high-
efficiency wood stove (50% of heat) 65%
Oil furnace
53%
Electric heat pump (electricity
from coal-fired power plant) 50%
High-efficiency wood stove
39%
Active solar
35%
Electric heat pump (electricity
from nuclear plant) 30%
Typical wood stove
26%
Electric resistance heating (electricity
from coal-fired power plant) 25%
Electric resistance heating (electricity
from nuclear plant) 14%