Fire Detection and Alarm System Basics

Hochiki America Corporation
7051 Village Drive, Suite 100 Buena Park, California 90621 www.hochiki.com

Fire Detection and Alarm Systems
A key aspect of fire protection is to identify a developing fire emergency in a timely manner, and to alert the building's occupants and fire emergency organizations. This is the role of fire detection and alarm systems. Depending on the anticipated fire scenario, building and use type, number and type of occupants and criticality of contents and mission, these systems can provide several main functions: First, they provide a means to identify a developing fire through either manual or automatic methods. Second, they alert building occupants to a fire condition and the need to evacuate.

Another common function is the transmission of an alarm notification signal to the fire department or other emergency response organization.
They may also shut down electrical, air handling equipment or special process operations, and they may be used to initiate automatic suppression systems.

Fire Detection Principles
Manual Fire Detection - Pull Stations
Manual fire detection is the oldest method of detection. In the simplest form, a person yelling can provide fire warning. In buildings, however, a person's voice may not always transmit throughout the structure. For this reason, manual alarm stations are installed. The general design philosophy is to place stations within reach along paths of escape. It is for this reason that they can usually be found near exit doors in corridors and large rooms.

The advantage of manual alarm stations is that, upon discovering the fire, they provide occupants with a readily identifiable means to activate the building fire alarm system. The alarm system can then serve in lieu of the shouting person's voice. They are simple devices, and can be highly reliable when the building is occupied. The key disadvantage of manual stations is that they will not work when the building is unoccupied. They may also be used for malicious alarm activations. Nonetheless, they are an important component in any fire alarm system. 2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.63.3 Manual Fire Alarm Box. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.

43. 3. Typical examples are Bimetallic detectors. fusible alloy detectors. A device in which the detecting Element is concentrated at a particular location. .21 Spot Type Detector.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Spot type 2007 NFPA 72. and thermoelectric detectors. certain pneumatic rate-of-rise Detectors. certain smoke detectors.3.

.181. some of the light is scattered by reflection and refraction onto the sensor. 3.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Photoelectric Hochiki SLR-24V detector 2007 NFPA 72. The light signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor arranged so that the rays from the light source do not normally fall onto the photosensitive sensor.4 Light Scattering Smoke Detection. When smoke particles inter the light path.3.

Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Photoelectric In the normal case. however. the light from the light source on the left shoots straight across and misses the sensor. A – Light Source B – Photo Sensor . the smoke particles scatter the light and some amount of light hits the sensor. When smoke enters the chamber.

The reduced conductance signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. Inside the ionization detector is a small amount (perhaps 1/5000th of a gram) of Americium241. This type of smoke detector is more common because it is inexpensive and better at detecting the smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming fires. Hochiki SIJ-24 detector 2007 NFPA 72. Smoke Particles entering the ionization volume decrease the conductance of the air by reducing ion mobility. An ionization chamber is very simple.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Ionization Ionization smoke detectors use an ionization chamber and a source of ionizing radiation to detect smoke. The principle of using a small amount of radioactive material to ionize the air between two differentially charged electrodes to sense the presence of smoke particles. The radioactive element americium has a half-life of 432 years.2 Ionization Smoke Detection.181. along with a radioactive source of ionizing radiation. It consists of two plates with a voltage across them. . and is a good source of alpha particles.3. 3.

" When you knock an electron off of an atom.the smoke particles attach to the ions and neutralize them. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off of.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Ionization Ionization Smoke detectors The alpha particles generated by the americium have the following property: They ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the plates represent. and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a negative voltage (opposites attract. . it disrupts this current -. The negative electron is attracted to the plate with a positive voltage. you end up with a free electron (with a negative charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The smoke detector senses the drop in current between the plates and sets off the horn. just like with magnets). When smoke enters the ionization chamber.

they also are the slowest in fire detecting. Although they have the lowest false alarm rate of all automatic fire detector devices. in areas where ambient conditions would not allow the use of other fire detection devices.43. Heat detectors can be sub-divided by their operating principles: . 2007 NFPA 72.9 Heat Detector. They began development of automatic sprinklers in the 1860s and have continued to the present with proliferation of various types of devices. heat detectors are designed to operate when heat causes a prescribed change in a physical or electrical property of a material or gas. or rate of temperature rise. They respond either when the detecting element reaches a predetermined fixed temperature or to a specified rate of temperature change.3. A heat detector is best situated for fire detection in a small confined space where rapidly building high-output fires are expected. A fire detector that detects either abnormally high temperature. In general. 3. or both.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Heat/Thermal Heat detectors are the oldest type of automatic fire detection device. or when speed of detection is not a prime consideration. Heat detectors that only initiate an alarm and have no extinguishing function are still in use. Heat detectors are generally located on or near the ceiling and respond to the convected thermal energy of a fire.

Fixed-temperature heat detectors are designed to alarm when the temperature of the operating elements reaches a specific point. Fixed-temperature heat detectors are available to cover a wide range of operating temperatures . A device that responds when its operating element becomes heated to a predetermined level.3.7 Fixed-Temperature Detector.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Fixed Temp.from about 135'F (57'C) and higher. The air temperature at the time of alarm is usually considerably higher than the rated temperature because it takes time for the air to raise the temperature of the operating element to its set point. Higher temperatures detectors are also necessary so that detection can be provided in areas normally subject to high ambient temperatures. 3. This condition is called thermal lag.43. or in areas zoned so that only detectors in the immediate fire area operate. . Hochiki DFE Series Heat Detector 2007 NFPA 72.

The rate-of-rise detector.3. typically around 12 to 15'F (7 to 8'C) per minute. however.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Rate-of-Rise One effect that flaming fire has on the surrounding area is to rapidly increase air temperature in the space above the fire. 3.43. Hochiki DSC-EA Heat Detector 2007 NFPA 72. will function when the rate of temperature increase exceeds a predetermined value. A device that responds when the temperature rises at a rate exceeding a predetermined value .18 Rate-of-Rise Detector. Rate-of-rise detectors are designed to compensate for the normal changes in ambient temperature that are expected under non-fire conditions. Fixed-temperature heat detectors will not initiate an alarm until the air temperature near the ceiling exceeds the design operating point.

This device has listings for each sensing method employed. Hochiki Photoelectric/Heat Smoke Detector Hochiki DCD Series Fixed Temp/Rate of Rise Heat Detector 2007 NFPA 72. An example of the former is a heat detector that operates on both the rate-of-raise and fixed-temperature principles. These detectors may be designed to respond from either element. while the fixed-temperature element is usually leaf-spring restrained by a eutectic metal. which closes the contact. When the fixed-temperature element reaches its designated operating temperature.43. The most common combination detector uses a vented air chamber and a flexible diaphragm for the rate-of-rise function. . A device that either responds to more than one of the fire phenomena or employs more than one operating principle to sense one of these phenomena.3. 3. the eutectic metal fuses and releases the spring. Its advantage is that the rate-of-rise element will respond quickly to rapidly developing fire. or from the combined partial or complete response of both elements. while the fixed-temperature element will respond to a slowly developing fire when the detecting element reaches its set point temperature.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Combination Combination detectors contain more than one element which responds to fire. Typical examples are a combination of a heat detector with a smoke detector or a combination of rate-of-rise and fixed temperature heat detector.4 Combination Detector.

With this constraint. Similar to the human eye. along with assistance from the manufacturer's design staff. visible. 4000 to 7700 A) or outside the range of human vision.3.16 Radiant Energy-Sensing Fire Detector. Such a detector is sensitive to glowing embers. that is emitted as a product of combustion reaction and obeys the laws of optics.4 micron sensitivity range will not.3. A device that detects radiant energy. that a qualified fire protection engineer is involved in the design of these systems. Each type of fuel. 2007 NFPA 72. or viewing angle. when burning.8 Flame Detector.43. It is imperative therefore. For example an ultraviolet (UV) detector will respond to a hydrogen fire.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Flame A flame detector responds either to radiant energy visible to the human eye (approx. or flames which radiate energy of sufficient intensity and spectral quality to actuate the alarm. flame detectors have a 'cone of vision'. such as ultraviolet. 3. coals. or infrared.43. A flame detection system must be chosen for the type of fire that is probable. the sensitivity increases as the angle of incidence decreases. . 2007 NFPA 72. 3. but an infrared (IR) detector operating in the 4. A radiant energy-sensing detector that detects the radiant energy emitted by a flame. produces a flame with specific radiation characteristics. that defines the effective detection capability of the detector.

hyperbaric chambers. however. Because flame detectors must be able to 'see' the fire. The infrared-type detector. flame detectors are generally used only in highhazard areas. they must not be blocked by objects placed in front of them. industrial process areas.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Flame Due to their fast detection capabilities. Hochiki HF-24 Flame Detector . such as fuel-loading platforms. and atmospheres in which explosions or very rapid fires may occur. high-ceiling areas. has some capability for detecting radiation reflected from walls.

3. Typical examples are rate-of-rise pneumatic tubing detectors. 3. 2007 NFPA 72. .15 Projected Beam-Type Detector.10 Line-Type Detector.43.181. 2007 NFPA 72.3. thereby reducing the light reaching the receiving sensor. projected beam smoke detectors.43. 3.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Linear Type 2007 NFPA 72. When smoke particles enter the light path. some of the light is scattered and some of the light is absorbed.3. A type of photoelectric light obscuration smoke detector wherein the beam spans the protected area. and heat sensitive cable. 3.3 Photoelectric Light Obscuration Detection. The light reduction signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor onto which the principal portion of the source emission is focused. A device in which detection is continuous along a path.

or tubing.1 Air Sampling-Type Detector.43. . piping. A detector that consists of a piping or tubing distribution network that runs from the detector to the area(s) to be protected. At the detector. An aspiration fan in the detector draws air form the protected area back to the detector through air sampling ports. 3.3.Fire Detection Principles Automatic Detectors – Air Sampling 2007 NFPA 72. the air is analyzed for fire products.

A fire alarm system component such as a bell. 2007 NFPA 72. 3. 3. 3.113. light or text display that provides audible.113. 2007 NFPA 72. horn.1 Audible Notification Appliance. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.3 Visible Notification Appliance.113 Notification Appliance. tactile.3. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.Building Notification Notification Appliances 2007 NFPA 72. or visible outputs. or any combination thereof. . speaker.3.3.

Initiating device circuits. 6.2. 6.4.7 . or notification appliance circuits that allow all connected devices to operate during a single open or a nonsimultaneous single ground fault on any circuit conductor. shall be designated as Class A (2) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that do not transmit an alarm or supervisory signal. depending on their performance during nonsimultaneous single circuit fault conditions as specified by the following: (1) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that transmit an alarm or supervisory signal.Fire Alarm Circuit Classes 2007 NFPA 72. An open or ground fault condition shall result in the annunciation of a trouble signal at the protected premise within 200 seconds as required in 4.1 Class. shall be designated as Class B 2007 NFPA 72.2. notification appliance circuits.2. and signaling line circuits shall be permitted to be designated as either Class A or Class B.4. or notification appliance circuits that do not allow all connected devices to operate beyond the location of a single open on any circuit conductor.4.

7K EOLR Class B Notification Appliance Circuit 4.7K EOLR End of line supervision resistors are required to supervise the integrity of the loop.Class B Circuits Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4. .

7K EOLR Class B Notification Appliance Circuit Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel and renders all devices beyond the fault inoperative. .Class B Circuits Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4.7K EOLR 4.

Class A Circuits Class A Initiating Device Circuit Class A Notification Appliance Circuit End of line supervision resistors are not necessary as the loop returns to the panel and is driven from both ends. .

Class A Circuits
Class A Initiating Device Circuit

Class A Notification Appliance Circuit

Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel. All devices on the loop remain operative.

Additional Fire Alarm Terminology
Addressable Device - A fire alarm system component with discreet identification that can have its status individually identified or that is used to individually control other functions. Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal indicating varying degrees of condition as contrasted with a conventional or addressable initiating device, which can only indicate an off/on condition. Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) - A circuit or path between any combination of circuit interfaces, control units, or transmitters over which multiple system input signals or out put signals or both are carried. SLC Interface - A system component that connects a signaling line circuit to any combination of initiating devices, initiating device circuits, notification appliances, notification appliance circuits, system control outputs and other signaling line circuits. Protocol - A language for communicating between control panels and their proprietary devices.

Comparing System Types
To better understand today’s newer technology, a firm understanding of the types of systems available is necessary. The three most popular types of systems installed today are: •Conventional •Addressable •Analog Addressable

Conventional Systems
 

Conventional control panels range in size from 1 zone to over 100 zones. Zones typically consist of some or all of the initiating devices in an area or floor of a building. Some control panels zone capacity is expandable while others are not, limiting its usefulness if a facility adds additional buildings or rooms.

Zones can contain 30 or more devices.7K EOLR Zone 2 FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FACP SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT NAC 1 4. .Conventional Systems Zone 1 4.7K EOLR Multiple devices are combined into a single zone.

7K EOLR Care must be taken when laying out zones to comply with code requirements.7K EOLR Zone 2 FIRE FIRE SILENT KNIGHT NAC 1 4.Conventional Systems Zone 1 4. .

2007 NFPA 72 6.8.4.6 Suggests that the maximum number of square feet in a single zone be limited to no more than 22.   .6.2 Limits the number of supervisory devices in a single zone to 20.5.6.2 Limits the number of waterflow switches in a single zone to 5. 2007 NFPA 72 Annex A.5.5.Zone Considerations  2007 NFPA 72 6.8.500.4.

or Class B with an EOLR.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 4. .Conventional Systems Zone #1 4.7K EOLR Wiring must be installed in a supervised manner either Class A.

.7K EOLR Alarm conditions are annunciated by zone only.7K EOLR Zone #2 FIRE! NAC #1 4. Inspection is required to determine the device.Conventional Systems Zone #1 4.

7K 4. .Conventional Systems Zone #1 4.7K EOLR EOLR Trouble conditions are annunciated by zone only.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 4. Inspection is required to determine the cause.

Trbl only.Conventional Systems Zone #1 4.7K EOLR Information transmitted to the central station is by zone at best. Many panels send Alarm.7K EOLR Zone #2 RJ RJ NAC #1 4. . Supv.

Each SLC circuit provides power. communication. Each SLC can accommodate over 100 addressable devices. . & supervision for all of the devices connected to it.Addressable Systems  FACP   An addressable systems point capacity is determined by the amount of SLC “Signaling Line Circuits” it contains. depending upon the manufacturer.

7K EOLR Each SLC loop can contain a variety of addressable devices.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE SILENT KNIGHT FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) NAC #1 4. . Non-addressable devices are connected via addressable module.

7K EOLR Each point on the SLC loop is given a unique address when installed.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4. .

.7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4.

Addressable Systems
Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector
FIRE FIRE

001

002

004
SILENT KNIGHT

006

FACP

Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown)

005 003

NAC #1
4.7K EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.

Addressable Systems
Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector
FIRE FIRE

001

002

004
SILENT KNIGHT

006

FACP

Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown)

005 003

NAC #1
4.7K EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.

Addressable Systems
Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector
FIRE FIRE

001

002

004
SILENT KNIGHT

006

FACP

Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown)

005 003

NAC #1
4.7K EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.

Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4. .7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.

.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4.7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.

7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4. .

7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4. .

Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4. .7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.

7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop. .Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4.

7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4. .

7K EOLR Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop. .Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4.

Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4.7K EOLR < Replay Supervision is accomplished from the panel by polling the devices on the SLC loop. .

7K EOLR NAC #1 ALARM POINT 006 LOBBY SMOKE DETECTOR Alarm conditions are annunciated by point allowing responding personnel to quickly find the fire. .Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 FIRE! 4.

7K EOLR TRBL POINT 006 DISCONNECTED LOBBY SMOKE DETECTOR Trouble conditions can be located more quickly by analyzing the affected points. .Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4.

7K EOLR More detailed information can be sent to the central station aiding in a quick resolution to the problem.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP RJ RJ Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4. .

t-tapped wiring is permitted.7K EOLR Since supervision is accomplished through polling. (Class B wiring) .Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 NAC #1 4.

.7K EOLR NAC #1 Many systems support flexible input/output programming to link initiating devices to outputs.Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 FACP Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) 005 003 FIRE! 4.

Can be easier to program. .Comparison  Conventional   Addressable      Lower initial equipment costs. Usually much more room available to expand. Wide range of compatible devices.   Easier to install. More system status information at the panel and central station. Limited expansion capability. Input/Output programming much more flexible.

The control panel makes the decisions based on this information when to alarm etc.Analog Addressable Systems   Detectors in an analog addressable systems become “sensors” relaying information to the control panel corresponding to how much smoke or heat that detector is sensing. .

In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR HEAT DETECTOR MECHANICAL ROOM POINT 001 A=062 NORMAL F=190 Supervision is still checked by polling. .

Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR SMOKE DETECTOR LOBBY NORTH POINT 002 A=060 NORMAL F=188 Supervision is still checked by polling. . In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.

Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR RELAY MODULE FAN SHUTDOWN POINT 003 A=N/A NORMAL F=N/A Supervision is still checked by polling. In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing. .

. In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR INPUT MODULE WATERFLOW POINT 004 A=N/A NORMAL F=N/A Supervision is still checked by polling.

In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR INPUT MODULE MANUAL PULL POINT 005 A=N/A NORMAL F=N/A Supervision is still checked by polling. .

. In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR SMOKE DETECTOR FRONT DESK POINT 006 A=061 NORMAL F=189 Supervision is still checked by polling.

In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing. .Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR HEAT DETECTOR MECHANICAL ROOM POINT 001 A=062 NORMAL F=190 Supervision is still checked by polling.

.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR SMOKE DETECTOR LOBBY NORTH POINT 002 A=060 NORMAL F=188 Supervision is still checked by polling. In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.

. In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR RELAY MODULE FAN SHUTDOWN POINT 003 A=N/A NORMAL F=N/A Supervision is still checked by polling.

. In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR INPUT MODULE WATERFLOW POINT 004 A=N/A NORMAL F=N/A Supervision is still checked by polling.

In addition an analog value is transmitted to the panel for processing. .Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR INPUT MODULE MANUAL PULL POINT 005 A=N/A NORMAL F=N/A Supervision is still checked by polling.

Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR SMOKE DETECTOR FRONT DESK POINT 006 A=061 NORMAL F=189 < Replay .

. Higher = more.Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR HEAT DETECTOR MECHANICAL ROOM POINT 001 A=062 NORMAL F=190 This analog value corresponds to the amount of heat or smoke in that detectors area of coverage.

Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR HEAT DETECTOR MECHANICAL ROOM POINT 001 A=062 NORMAL F=190 If the analog value exceeds the alarm threshold. This alarm threshold is calculated by the panel. an alarm occurs. .

Analog Addressable Systems Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 Addressable Relay Module 003 (Fan Shutdown) 002 004 005 006 NAC #1 10K EOLR INPUT MODULE WATERFLOW POINT 004 A=N/A NORMAL F=N/A Input/output modules do not relay analog values to the panel as they are monitoring or controlling on/off devices. .

L.Analog Addressable Features  An analog addressable control panel is capable of several enhanced features not available on conventional. and some addressable systems.  Drift Compensation / Maintenance Alert  Adjustable Detector Sensitivity  Day/Night Detector Sensitivity Adjustment  U. Calibrated Sensitivity Test Instrument .

Drift Compensation   Drift compensation is the process by which an analog addressable control panel automatically adjusts an analog detectors alarm threshold to compensate for contaminants such as dust. . This ensures the detector maintains a consistent sensitivity level. helping to avoid false alarms due to dirty detectors.

Maintenance Alert   Drift compensation occurs until it is nearing a point where it can no longer compensate and remain within U. and continue to operate normally. . This point is called “Maintenance Alert” Some systems handle a maintenance alert condition as a trouble while others flag the condition only. requirements.L.

. A detector in calibration trouble is not functioning correctly and requires service immediately.Calibration Trouble   A detector in a maintenance alert condition will eventually go into calibration trouble if not serviced.

L.  . analog systems typically allow you to change the sensitivity of a detector within a range of U. tolerances.Adjustable (Day/Night) Sensitivity  In order to allow for varying environmental conditions or to provide quicker detection. This is typically made user friendly by giving the installer choices such as high-medium-low.

Some systems allow this sensitivity adjustment to happen automatically on a day/night schedule.Adjustable (Day/Night) Sensitivity  By changing a detectors sensitivity you are instructing the panel to adjust its alarm threshold (analog) value up or down accordingly.  .

L. After the second required calibration test.1 Detector sensitivity shall be tested within 1 year after installation and every alternate year thereafter.2. or Manufacturers calibrated sensitivity test instrument. or Smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where its sensitivity is outside the acceptable range. where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range. Calibrated Sensitivity Test   1996 NFPA 72 7-3. … Testing Methods      A calibrated test method. or Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose. or Other approved calibrated method acceptable to AHJ . the length of time shall be permitted to be extended to a maximum of 5 years.U.

L.U. A printout from the panel is usually available to provide evidence to the AHJ that the test was performed. Calibrated Sensitivity Test  Analog addressable control panels are UL listed for the purpose of performing the calibrated sensitivity testing internally.  .

60 30 .5% .5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration . to be listed as a smoke detector.How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 180 150 120 90 Range (.L. requires.4% per foot obscuration) that U.

In this case the range is 0-255.How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 180 150 120 90 On the other side of the graph. the range of analog values for the detector is plotted.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration . 60 30 .

5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration . 60 30 .How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 180 150 120 90 During powerup the detector performs a self test simulating 4% per foot obscuration. This value is plotted. in this case 193.

In this case 60. 60 30 .5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration .How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 180 150 120 90 The system them initializes and records the 0% per foot obscuration (normal no smoke) value for that detector.

Calibration Curve 60 30 . This line is referred to as the detectors calibration curve.How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 180 150 120 90 A line is drawn connecting these two points.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration .

How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 180 150 145 120 112 Once the calibration curve is established the panel can calculate an alarm threshold value for any valid sensitivity setting. 90 60 30 .5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration .

How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 180 Alarm The panel also calculates the initial ranges for the drift compensation & maintenance alert functions.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration . 150 145 120 90 Calibration Trouble Maintenance Normal 60 30 .

Drift compensation adjusts the alarm threshold value accordingly.How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 As the detector gets dirty the clear air value will increase.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration . 180 Alarm 150 145 120 90 Calibration Trouble Maintenance Normal 60 30 .

Drift compensation adjusts the alarm threshold value accordingly.How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 As the detector gets dirty the clear air value will increase.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration . 180 Alarm 150 145 120 90 Calibration Trouble Maintenance Normal 60 30 .

Drift compensation adjusts the alarm threshold value accordingly. 180 Alarm 150 120 90 Calibration Trouble Maintenance Normal 60 30 .How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 As the detector gets dirty the clear air value will increase.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration .

180 155 Alarm 150 120 90 Calibration Trouble Maintenance Normal 60 30 . Drift compensation adjusts the alarm threshold value accordingly.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration .How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 As the detector gets dirty the clear air value will increase.

180 160 Alarm 150 120 90 Calibration Trouble Maintenance Normal 60 30 .How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 As the detector gets dirty the clear air value will increase.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration . Drift compensation adjusts the alarm threshold value accordingly.

150 120 90 60 30 .How Analog Works Detectors range of analog values 255 240 210 193 180 165 Alarm Calibration Trouble Calibration Trouble Maintenance Normal Even though the detector has gotten dirty. it has still maintained a 2.5% < Replay 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration .5% sensitivity level.

developed by detector manufacturers. Most protocols are developed by detector manufacturers. to provide a proprietary environment for their equipment & distributors. Many manufacturers subtly modify standard protocols.Communication Protocols  Each manufacturer of (analog) addressable fire alarm systems utilize a unique communications protocol on the SLC loop to communicate between the control panel and the addressable devices.   .

 SLC Loop Length  SLC Loop Wire Type  SLC Loop Communications Speed  SLC Loop Alarm Response Time Communication protocols can be broken down into two categories.Communication Protocols  Many of the panels installation requirements and operational parameters are based on the communication protocol used.  Non-Digital  Digital  .

Comparing Protocols Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector 001 002 004 005 006 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) To take a closer look at communication protocols we can look at non-digital and digital SLC Loops through an oscilloscope. .

.Non-Digital Protocol Each detector when polled responds to the panel with square wave pulses.

Non-Digital Protocol The panel reads these square wave pulses and determines the values by measuring the length (time) of each. .

This makes an accurate reading very difficult.Non-Digital Protocol Various sources of interference can cause these square wave pulses to round off. ? .

Non-Digital Protocol Most manufacturers that utilize a non-digital protocol will specify special requirements such as twisted or shielded wire to counteract this problem. ? .

1 1 1 1 24v 0 0 0 .Digital Protocol Using a digital protocol the panel looks for for a series of “1” or “on” bits that are detected by looking for voltage rather than the length of a pulse.

1 1 1 1 24v 0 0 0 .Digital Protocol Even if a source of interference causes rounding off of the digital pulses the voltage is still present for the panel to determine the digital value.

1 1 1 1 24v 0 0 0 .Digital Protocol Digital protocol panels do not typically require special cabling since interference does not pose any substantial signal problems. Retrofits can be done using existing cable.

 Larger systems with hundreds of points can cause delays initiating an alarm. before an alarm is initiated. . some panels must continue polling until it reaches the alarming device.Non-digital Loop Response  When an alarm occurs on many non-digital protocol systems.

Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM .

Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM A fire erupts at the Heat Detector (Point 001) while the system is polling the Smoke Detector (Point 002). .

.Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM An alarm is not initiated. The system continues polling until it reaches the point in alarm.

The system continues polling until it reaches the point in alarm. .Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM An alarm is not initiated.

The system continues polling until it reaches the point in alarm. .Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM An alarm is not initiated.

The system continues polling until it reaches the point in alarm. .Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM An alarm is not initiated.

Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ALARM POINT 001 HEAT DETECTOR 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM ALARM! .

.Non-Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Detector Addressable Smoke Detector Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Detector FIRE FIRE 001 002 004 SILENT KNIGHT 006 005 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ALARM POINT 001 HEAT DETECTOR 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM Systems with hundreds of points can take 15 -20 seconds or longer to respond to alarm conditions.

.  Systems with hundreds of points will respond to alarms in the same amount of time that they would to smaller systems with very few points. an interrupt request from the device sensing the alarm interrupts the polling sequence to immediately handle the alarm.Digital Loop Response  When an alarm occurs on most digital protocol systems.

Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 002 004 005 006 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM .

Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 002 004 005 006 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM A fire erupts at the Heat sensor (Point 001) while the system is polling the Smoke Detector (Point 002). .

Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 002 004 005 006 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ABC FIRE SYSTEMS ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM The Heat Sensor (Point 001) interrupts the polling process to handle the alarm immediately. .

Digital Loop Response Addressable Heat Sensor Addressable Smoke Sensor Addressable Input Module (Waterflow) Addressable Pull Station Addressable Smoke Sensor 001 002 004 005 006 FIRE! 003 Addressable Relay Module (Fan Shutdown) ALARM POINT 001 HEAT SENSOR 15-Jan-00 3:10 PM ALARM! .

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