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Dr. margaret Hannah.

Hygiene is the maintenance of healthful practices. It is the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health. In modern terminology, this is usually regarded as a particular reference to cleanliness. Hygiene is required in several aspects in life

1. Personal care
1. Self 2. Those that cannot (children, the sick and the disabled).

2. Food handling
3. Housing conditions
1. Homes (domestic) 2. Work (occupation) 3. Industries (production)

Personal Hygiene
Learning objectives By the end of the session students should be able to;
1. Explain the meaning of personal hygiene 2. List the components of personal hygiene 3. Describe the benefits of personal hygiene

Personal Hygiene
Personal hygiene refers to the set of practices associated with the preservation of ones body in a clean state. Personal hygiene is the first step to good grooming and good health. Elementary cleanliness is common knowledge, and good looks are the result of careful and continuous grooming.

Components of personal hygiene

Every external part of the body demands a basic amount of attention on a regular basis. Here are some grooming routines. A. Body hygiene Our hair, skin, teeth, hands, nails and feet all need grooming. There is also need to maintain menstrual hygiene.

Components of personal hygiene

1. Hair should be washed regularly, combed & shaven. 2. The skin should be washed regularly. 3. Armpits & the genital area should be shaven once a fortnight. 4. Care should be taken to clean the face and ears at least twice daily.

Components of personal hygiene

5. Clothing and beddings should be cleaned regularly and kept free of infestation with lice, bed bugs etc. 6. Care should be taken to wash the hands with soap and water before eating and after using a latrine or toilet. B. Dental hygiene refers to oral cleanliness, involving the teeth, tongue and gums. The teeth, tongue and gums should be cleaned by brushed at least twice daily.

Benefits of maintaining good personal hygiene

1. Maintaining good personal hygiene 2. Reduces infections related to poor personal hygiene 3. Increases productivity at household and national level, thereby improving the socio-economic status. 4. Improves performance at the work place and in school,

Prevention and control of diseases related to personal hygiene

1. Keep your body, clothing and mouth clean. 2. Disinfect all contaminated and infested materials. 3. Treat all related infections. 4. Create community awareness.

Domestic Hygiene
Learning objectives By the end of this session students should be able to;
1. Explain the meaning of domestic hygiene 2. List the components domestic hygiene

Domestic Hygiene
Domestic hygiene is the maintenance of a healthy environment in the home and the areas surrounding the homestead. This is achieved by observing simple health practices to avoid infections such as those that cause diarrhea, skin infections, intestinal worms and other unhealthy conditions

Components of domestic hygiene

Every household should have the following in order for the home to be considered an ideal homestead. 1. Main house
Adequate floor space, with all rooms measuring not less than 80 sq ft. A well drained site Adequate ventilation and lighting Smooth floor and walls that are kept neat and clean Leak proof roof Clean beds and beddings

Components of domestic hygiene

2. Latrine/toilet
Situated 30 m from the water source A pit and sound superstructure Hole cover Smoked regularly Hand washing facility Privacy Anal cleansing material A facility for children And the associated latrine use practices

Components of domestic hygiene

3. Kitchen
Adequate floor space measuring not less than 35 sq ft. Adequate means of smoke escape Firewood drying rack Situated 10 m from the latrine

4. Bathroom/bath shelter
Provided with a soak pit Provides privacy

Components of domestic hygiene

5. Animal shelter, if required
No body should share accommodation with animals

6. Means of refuse collection and disposal, such as a compost pit 7. A clean water storage facility, such as a tank, drum, pot or any other container

8. A kitchen garden or back yard garden

9. A food storage facility or granary

Components of domestic hygiene

10. Drying rack for kitchen utensils 11. Drying line for clothes 12. Compound
Leveled and well drained Not littered with waste No tall grass

Components of domestic hygiene

12. Home gardens Home gardens, also called kitchen or back yard gardens, are an important source of food for families in both urban and rural areas. Home gardens are a good source of vitamins that are essential in regular small amounts.

Food Hygiene
Learning objectives By the end of this session students should be able to; 1. Explain what food hygiene is

2. Defend the rationale for food hygiene

3. List the components of food hygiene 4. Describe common food borne diseases

Food hygiene
Food hygiene: All conditions or measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages in the food chain. Food hygiene is the condition surrounding the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that keep food borne diseases away. Or the process of keeping one's food and food storage spaces clean while minimizing the risk of food contamination.

Food hygiene
The practice of safe handling and storing food must be observed not just in businesses but also in one's household. After all, your home is where you and your loved ones live and eat. Food handler: Any person who directly handles packaged or unpackaged food, food equipments and utensils or food contact surfaces and is therefore expected to comply with hygiene regulations.

Food hygiene- rationale

1. 2. 3. 4. To prevent and control food borne diseases. To assist in investigation of food outbreaks To create awareness among consumers To make recommendations for public food handlers and consumers 5. To set standards and develop guidelines for food premises. 6. To be able to monitor marketing products 7. To promote food security

Food hygiene important considerations

Food handlers; Who handlers food, what is required

Economy ; the tourism sector is largely dependent on safety of food Immunity; the advent of HIV/AIDS present special challenge with regard to food hygiene. Reporting systems; for food poisoning related illness, often decisions are not evidence based. The law; the legal implications.

Components of food hygiene

1. Food 2. Personnel 3. Utensils

4. Premises

Food hygiene- Food handlers

1. Protective wear Clean and washable over clothing; neck and head covering. 2. Catering and wrapping of food Use wrappers that will not contaminate food 3. Unhealthy persons not allowed to handle food. 4. Personal cleanliness Keep all parts of their body and clothings clean Keep any open cut or abrasion covered suitably. Observe proper food habits; spitting, talking, sneezing, smoking

Food borne disease

Food borne diseases are caused by the consumption of food or drink contaminated by microbes, heavy metals, solvents, or other harmful substances. Many different disease-causing microbes, or pathogens, can contaminate food, and therefore there are many different food borne infections

Food borne disease

There are 2 broad categories of food borne diseases; 1. Food poisoning 2. Food infection 1. Food poisoning - Chemical poisoning - Toxins (exotoxins and endotoxins). 2. Food infections - Enterotoxigenic - Invasive infection

Examples of food borne diseases

1. Cholera 2. Typhoid

3. Dysenteries 4. Diarrhea
5. Worm infestation

Prevention and Control of food borne diseases

It is important to remember that like other diseases caused by infectious agents, food borne diseases can be prevented.
Here below are some ways of preventing food borne diseases.

Prevention and Control of food borne diseases

The five keys to safer food (WHO 2009)

Keep clean

- Separate raw from cooked food - Cook food thoroughly - Keep food at safe temperatures - Use safe water and raw materials

Keep clean
Wash your hands before handling food and often during food preparation. Wash your hands after going to the toilet. Wash and sanitize all surfaces and equipment used for food preparation. Protect kitchen areas and food from insects, pests and other animals

Separate raw from cooked food

Separate raw meat, poultry and seafood from other foods. Use separate equipment and utensils such as knives and cutting boards for handling raw foods. Store food in containers to avoid contact between raw and prepared foods.

Cook food thoroughly

Cook food thoroughly, especially meat, poultry, eggs, pork and sea foods Bring foods like soups and stews to boiling. Reheat cooked food thoroughly and eat while still hot

Keep food at safe temperatures

Do not leave cooked food at room temperature for more than 2 hours. Refrigerate promptly all cooked and perishable food (preferably below 5C).

Keep cooked food piping hot (more than 60C) prior to serving. Do not store food too long even in the refrigerator.
Do not thaw frozen food at room temperature.

Use safe water and raw materials

Use safe water or treat it to make the food safe.

Select fresh and wholesome foods.

Choose foods processed for safety, such as pasteurised milk. Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, especially if they are going to be eaten raw. Do not use food beyond its expiry date

K. Park (2001) Parks Textbook of preventive and social medicine 15th edition. Savage King and Burgess 2006, NUTRITION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 2nd Edition Oxford Medical Publication. 26/11/2009. G=Google+ Search&aq=1&oq=personal+h&aqi=g10 24/11/2009. Unicef-Nov2009.pdf; tracking progress on child and maternal nutrition