Optical properties

S. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 1

gap states). tail states. S.General aspects Optical absorption and luminescence occur by transition of electrons and holes between electronic states (bands. If electron-phonon coupling is strong enough self-trapping occurs. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 2 .

α z} S. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 3 .(1/I(z)) dI(z)/dz I(z) = Io exp {. Hence α = . Absorption coefficient α is defined by where I(z) is the flux density if incident light is Io. z is the distance measured from the incident surface.

Absorption S. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 4 .

A region) The absorption coefficient. This Tauc plot defines the optical gap in amorphous semiconductors. α. S. Eg is optical gap. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 5 . due to interband transition near the band-gap is well described: αħω = B (ħ ω – Eg)2 ħω is photon energy.Tauc law (Tauc plot.

S. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 6 .

S. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 7 .

S.Urbach tail (B region) The absorption coefficient at the photon energy below the optical gap (tail absorption) depends exponentially on the photon energy: α(ħ ω) ~ exp (ħ ω/Eu) where Eu is called Urbach energy. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 8 .

Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 9 . optical absorption by defects also appears at energy lower than optical gap. Likewise α is written as another exponential function of photon energy: α(ħω) ~ exp (ħω/Ed). C region is rather sensitive to the structural properties of materials. S. Ed belongs to the width of the defect states.C region In addition.

S. electron of initial and final states. k selection rule must be satisfied: kphoton = ki – kf . kf are the wave numbers of photons. (kphoton. ki and.Direct/indirect transition  In the case of crystalline semiconductors (without defects. there is no localized state) photoluminescence occurs by transition between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 10 .

c-Si is not satisfying k-selection rule (indirect-gap semiconductor). There is no k vector in amorphous systems! S. The semiconductors satisfying this condition is called direct-gap semiconductors.Since kphoton is much smaller than ki and kf. Transition is allowed by either absorption of phonons or their emission. we can rewrite the selection rule: ki = kf. Kugler: Lectures on Amorphous Semiconductorsa 11 .

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