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Peggy Anne W.

Orbe

A movement of a finite main verb from the head V position of VP into the head T position of TP. A verb movement operation during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I

Negative sentences (20). (a). She shall not see me. (Merry Wives of Windsor) (b). I will not think it. (Much Ado About Nothing) (c). Thou has not left the value of a cord.( Merchant of Venice)
1.

In Elizabethan English, clause containing the finite auxiliary are typically negated by positioning not between the italicised auxiliary and the bold printed verb.

Lets suppose that NOT in the Elizabethan English is an adverb which functions as the specifier of the verbal expression following it (e.g. (a) not is the specifier of see me, (b) think it and left the value of a cord)

21).
C

CP
TP PRN She T shall VP T

ADV
V see

V
PRN me

a) She shall not see me.

-In 21, where is a null complementiser marking the declarative force of the sentence, assigning the nominative case to the subject SHE. -It also accounts for the position which NOT occupies in front of the verb see.

The Auxiliary moves from T to C ( as in present-day English), leaving NOT in front of the verb. 22. a). Have I not heard the sea rage like an angry boar? b). Didst thou not hear somebody? c). Will you not dance?

22a. Have I not heard the see rage like an angry boar?
CP C Have+ PRN T TP

T
have ADV not

VP
V V heard TP the sea to rage like an angry boar

-The

aux. have originates in T and then moves to C- where a copy of the aux.have is adjoined too the strong affixal complementiser in C, leaving behind a copy of have in T which is deleted.

If questions involve movement of FINITE auxiliary from T to C, then a sentence like (22a) will involve the T-toC movement , where the string the sea rage like an angry boar to be a TP headed by a null counterpart of the infinitival T-constituent to , symbolised as to .

where, auxiliariless finite clauses, the main verb is positioned in front of NOT like in sentences below: (24) a). I care not for her. b). He heard not that. c). My master seeks not me. d). I know not where to hide my head.
-

If NOT in Elizabethan English is a VP specifier to which is positioned at the leftmost edge of the VP, How can we account for the fact that the verb (which would otherwise be expected to follow the negative particle NOT ) ends up positioned in front of not IN sentences like:

25
C

CP TP PRN I T care ADV V V care P for PRN her PP VP T

not

The verb care is first merged in the head V position within VP, then moves into the head T position in TP, thereby ending up positioned in front of NOT ( with the original occurrence of care in V being given a null spellout). Question: Why is it that the verb care should move from V to t?

Using Chomskys strength metaphor , we can suppose that [a finite T is strong in Elizabethan English and so must be filled:

Meaning: In a sentence in which the T position is not filled by an auxiliary , the verb moves from V to T in order to fill the strong T position. What does it mean by T to be strong?

It means that T contains a strong tense affix With a V- feature which requires it to have an auxiliary or nonauxiliary verb attached to it as its host.

21).
C

CP
TP PRN She T shall VP T

ADV
V see

V
PRN me

In the structure above (21), the strong (third person singular present) tense affix in T, is provided with a host by directly merging the auxiliary shall with the tense affix in T, forming shall + Af (although the tense affix is not shown in
the simplified structure) but in the Structure below (25)

25
C

CP TP PRN I T care ADV V V care P for PRN her PP VP T

not

the strong tense affix in T attracts the closest verb which it c-commands (the verb care) t o move to T and attach to the tense affix , so that the affix is provided with a verbal host via movement as shown in( 26) where the notation

26
C

CP TP PRN I T care +Af1SgPr ADV V V care P for PRN her PP VP T

not

(where the notation Af1SgPr indicates that the affix has features marking it as first person singular present tense).

Contains a weak tense affix It cannot attract a verb from V to T. It can only be attached to a verbal host either by merger of an auxiliary like shall directly with the null tense affix in T, or by lowering of the tense affix onto the main verb like the structure below (27).

27). C

CP TP PRN He T Af3SPr V enjoy T

He enjoys the classes.

VP DP the classes

In the auxiliariless clause above (27) ,the weak tense affix in T undergoes the morphological operation of Affix Hopping in the PF component, lowering the affix onto the main verb enjoy.

Both and weak tense can be directly merged with an auxiliary T: The difference of weak and strong tense is on how the affix comes to be attached to a main verb; -the strong tense affix like that found in Shakespearean English triggers movement of the V to T. -the weak tense affix like that found in presentday English is lowered onto the main verb in the PF component by affix hopping structure.