# Transformations

BTEOTSSSBAT solve problems
involving reflection, rotation,
translation and enlargement
Key words
Transformation
Translation
Image
Object
Reflection
Rotation
Origin
Enlargement
Congruent
Similar
A transformation changes a shape.
There are four main types of
transformations:
•Reflections,
•Rotations
•Enlargements and
•Translation

Reflection
The triangles above are reflected in the dotted mirror line.
The image is the same distance from the mirror line as the object.

To describe a reflection we need a mirror line.

Now try these 1
1. Draw the image of the objects in (a) and (b) on the sheet
– it may go outside of the grid.

2. Draw the triangle ABC such that A is the point (1, 1)
B is the point (3, 1)
C is the point (1, 2).
(a) Reflect the triangle in the x-axis to obtain triangle A
1
B
1
C
1
.
What are the co-ordinates of triangle A
1
B
1
C
1
?
(b) Reflect the triangle in the y-axis to obtain triangle A
2
B
2
C
2
.
What are the co-ordinates of triangle A
2
B
2
C
2
?
Rotation
Rotations occur when a shape is rotated a specified angle
around a centre of rotation.

Example
Rotate this triangle 90° through the origin (0,0)

First mark the centre of rotation.
Draw around the original shape using tracing paper.
Rotate the tracing paper 90° clockwise around the centre of
rotation, draw the new position of the image.
Note: all angles are anti-
clockwise, this is how
angles are given in
rotations unless it says
clockwise.
Now try these 2

A triangle’s co-ordinates of the
vertices are (2, 1), (1, 6), (2, 3).
Rotate it in the following ways (draw

Enlargement

The diagram shows two enlargements of an object A.
The first is enlarged by a scale factor of 2,
the second by a scale factor of 4 from the centre of enlargement O.
The distance between O and A´ is 2 × OA and
the distance between O and A´´ is 4 × OA.
Example
Enlarge the shape ABC with a scale factor of 3 from the centre of
enlargement marked.

Draw a line from the centre of enlargement going through
each vertex of the shape.
As the scale factor of enlargement is 3
then:
OA´ = 3× OA
OB´ = 3× OB
OC´ = 3× OC
Now try these
1. On the grid enlarge the shape by a scale factor of 3.

2. Enlarge the shape with a scale factor of 2 and centre (0,3)

3. T is an enlargement of S from a centre C.

On the grid mark the centre C and state the scale factor enlargement.
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\
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2
4
movement in
the x-direction
movement
in the y-
direction
Translation

The triangle above has been translated. It has moved 4 squares to
the right and two squares up. The movement is shown by a vector:

In translation the size of the shape does not change, the shape is not
rotated or reflected.
Example
Describe the translation that moves the shaded shape to each of the other shapes.;

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3
6
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.
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\
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÷ 5
5
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.
|

\
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÷
3
5
|
|
.
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\
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÷
÷
4
3
Solution

To get to shape A it moves 6 to the right and 3 up
To get to shape B it moves 5 to the right and 5 down
To get to shape C it moves 5 to the left and 3 up
To get to shape D it moves 3 to the left and 4 down
Now try these

1. Give the vector that translates the shaded shape to the other
shapes.
Similarity and Congruence

Shapes are called congruent when they have the same shape
and size.

If you translate, rotate or reflect a shape, the new shape will
be congruent with the old one.

Shapes are called similar when they have the same shape but
are different sizes. If you enlarge a shape, the new shape will
be similar to the old one.
Summary

Transformations need the following information:

Reflection A reflection line

Rotation A centre of rotation.
An angle (usually given anti-clockwise)

Translation A column vector like
4
3
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\

|
.
|
.
Enlargement A scale factor and a centre of enlargement

showing movement in the x- and y-directions
Images borrowed from CIMT’s MEP http://www.cimt.plymouth.ac.uk/projects/mepres/allgcse/allgcse.htm