Paper Code: ChE-611 Credits: 3L+1T=4
Dr. G. N. Halder Chemical Engg Department E-mail:
3/3/2013 Dr. G. N. Halder- NIT Durgapur 1

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Introduction Furnace: Role and Essence Classification of furnaces Heat Transfer Processes in Furnaces Estimation of heat transfer by conduction, convection & radiation, Problems Case study: Steel Plant & Chemical rxns Furnace design and theories, applications Refractory and Insulating materials Flameless combustion and its significance
Dr. G. N. Halder- NIT Durgapur 2


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Beneficiation of Coal Clean Coal Technology Coal bed Methane and Carbon dioxide Sequestration Coal gasification technology, chemical rxns, process conditions, Underground Coal Gasification ASTM test techniques of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels
Dr. G. N. Halder- NIT Durgapur 3


Text/Reference Books



4. 5.

Modern Furnace Technology: Etherington & Etherington, Charles Griffin & Company Ltd Combustion Engg and Fuel Technology: A. K. Saha, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Science and Technology of Coal and Coal Utilization: Cooper and Ellingson, Plenum Fuels and Combustion: Sharma & Mohan Fundamentals of Coal Combustion for Clean and Efficient Use: L. D. Smoot, Elsevier
3/3/2013 Dr. G. N. Halder- NIT Durgapur 4

Definition: A furnace is an enclosed structure in which fuel is burned to produce heat to melt metals for casting or heat materials for change of shape (rolling, forging etc) or change of properties (heat treatment). The term ‘furnace’ is derived from the Latin word ‘FORNAX’ means oven.
Areas of application: Steel making industries, Oil refineries, Research laboratory, Chemical plants and allied process industries.

Chemical energy Thermal energy Power Furnace technology comprises scientifically applied knowledge of combustion. heat transfer. .Essence of Furnace Technology In the process of combustion in the furnaces. which is used either directly. and the properties of furnace materials. or through the agency of heat energy. gas flow. thermodynamics. It includes the application of sound engineering principles to the construction and control of furnaces and related equipment. Combustion in a furnace is the constant pressure process. is converted into mechanical power. the chemical energy of fuel transforms into the thermal energy.

Continued… Efficient combustion of a fuel in a Furnace largely depends upon the following stringent factors:          Geometry Design Shape of the inner shell Selection of Materials of construction Alignment of Refractory materials Proper Insulation Thermal conductivity of the materials Quantity of feed charged Air fuel ratio .

To achieve this end. as much of material as possible can be heated to an uniform temperature as possible with the least possible fuel and labour. the following parameters can be considered:  Determination of the quantity of heat to be imparted to the material or charge.  Liberation of sufficient heat within the furnace to heat the stock and overcome all heat losses.Characteristics of an efficient furnace Furnace should be designed so that in a given time.  Equalization of the temperature within the stock .

 Reduction of heat losses from the furnace to the minimum possible extent.Continued… Transfer of available part of that heat from the furnace gases to the surface of the heating stock.  .

Classification of Furnaces A furnace is usually described considering its structure consisting of three main portions:  fireplace (where combustion of fuel takes place)  working chamber (where heat is transferred from the products of combustion to the materials under heating)  the appliances for the removal of the flue gases .

A furnace may be classified in several ways. it may be divided into: four classes : a) solid fuel furnaces (coal-fired. e. Depending upon the kinds of fuel. liquid or gaseous fuels. wood-fired) b) liquid fuel furnaces (oil-fired) c) gaseous fuel furnaces (producer-gas fired) d) mixed fuel furnaces (combination of any two or three fuels may be used. I) Classification by HEAT SOURCE or TYPE OF FUEL: Furnaces may be heated by combustion of solid..g. CNG) . coke-fired.

tank furnace) . glass pot.g.. rolling mill furnace) b) batch type furnaces (e.Continued… II) Classification by METHOD OF CHARGING: a) continuous type furnaces (e.g.

It is also called self-draught furnace) b) forced draught furnaces (here forced draught fans are used both for the removal of flue gases and introduction of air needed for combustion) .Continued… III) Classification by DEVICES EMPLOYED FOR REMOVAL OF FLUE GASES: All the existing furnaces may be divided into two classes : a) natural draught furnaces (furnaces operating either with chimneys or with open doors.

g. continuous gas retorts) . brick kilns. furnaces may be divided into two classes : a) periodical furnaces (e.. annealing furnaces) b) continuous furnaces (e.. glass tank furnaces.Continued… IV) Classification by MODE OF OPERATION: Depending upon this condition.g. coke-ovens.

Continued… V) Classification by MODE OF HEAT RECOVERY: a) regenerative furnaces b) recuperative furnaces .

Direct-fired furnace 8. Muffle furnace 3.NIT Durgapur 16 .Some Common Industrial Furnaces 1. Retort furnace 7. N. Recirculating furnace 10. Rotary kiln 9. G. Gas-fired furnace 6. Regenerative furnace 3/3/2013 Dr. Halder. Blast furnace 2. Coal-fired furnace 4. Pot furnace 5.

and flue gases exiting from the top of the furnace. and flux (limestone) are continuously supplied through the top of the vertical cylindrical furnace. ore. . In a blast furnace. generally iron. while air (sometimes with oxygen enrichment) is blown into the bottom of the chamber for combustion of the fuel. The end products are usually molten metal and slag phases tapped from the bottom continuously or intermittently. fuel (coke). so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material moves downward by gravity.BLAST FURNACE A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals.

Blast Furnace Top Gas Mains Top Bins Throat Armour Above Burden Probe Temperature Probe Refractory Lining Sub Burden Probe Bustle Main Tuyeres Hearth Refractories .

Iron making in the Blast Furnace Bell Less Top Sinter Coke Hot Blast Stoves Gas Cleaning Gasholder Stock House Scrubber Combustion Air Blower Combustion Gas Slag. Hot Metal Enrichment Gas .

Cast House .

Fe3O4.III) oxide. the iron oxide is partially reduced to iron (II. . At the top. Depending on the temperature in the different parts of the furnace (warmest at the bottom) the iron is reduced in several steps.Chemical Reactions Involved:     The main chemical reaction producing the molten iron is: Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2 This reaction might be divided into multiple steps. where the temperature usually is in the range between 200 °C and 700 °C. with the first being that preheated blast air blown into the furnace reacts with the carbon in the form of coke to produce carbon monoxide and heat: 2C(s) + O2(g) → 2 CO(g) The hot carbon monoxide is the reducing agent for the iron ore and reacts with the iron oxide to produce molten iron and carbon dioxide.

further down in the furnace. and nitrogen from the air pass up through the furnace as fresh feed material travels down into the reaction zone.Chemical Reactions Involved:      3 Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe3O4(s) + CO2(g) At temperatures around 850 °C.III) is reduced further to iron(II) oxide: Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) → 3 FeO(s) + CO2(g) Hot carbon dioxide. the counter-current gases both preheat the feed charge and decompose the limestone to CaO and CO2 at 900 0C : CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) . As the material travels downward. unreacted carbon monoxide. the iron(II.

it is reduced further to iron metal: FeO(s) + CO(g) → Fe(s) + CO2(g) The carbon dioxide formed in this process is rereduced to carbon monoxide by the coke: C(s) + CO2(g) → 2 CO(g) The temperature-dependent equilibrium controlling the gas atmosphere in the furnace is called the Boudouard reaction: 2CO → CO2 + C .Chemical Reactions Involved:       As the iron(II) oxide moves down to the area with higher temperatures. ranging up to 1200 °C degrees.

automobiles.Chemical Reactions Involved:    The decomposition of limestone in the middle zones of the furnace proceeds according to the following reaction: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 The calcium oxide formed by decomposition reacts with various acidic impurities in the iron (notably silica). and of limited immediate commercial use. making it very brittle. The majority of pig iron produced by blast furnaces undergoes further processing to reduce the carbon content and produce various grades of steel used for construction materials. Some pig iron is used to make cast iron. to form a slag which is essentially CaSiO3: SiO2 + CaO → CaSiO3 The “pig iron" produced by the blast furnace has a relatively high carbon content of around 4–5%. ships and machinery. .

09%  Sulphur: 0.025 .06%  .95.0.0%  Carbon : 4.0.1%  Phosphorous: 0.3 .0.02 .5 .050%  Titanium: 0.03 .55 – 0.4.75%  Silicon: 0.4% (partly in the form of graphite)  Manganese : 0.1 .Composition of Produced Iron: Iron : 93.

How can it be utilized?  .Drawback in Steel making:  One of the biggest drawbacks of the blast furnaces is the inevitable carbon dioxide production as iron is reduced from iron oxides by carbon and there is no economical substitute – steelmaking is one of the unavoidable industrial contributors of the CO2 (greenhouse gas) emissions in the world.

3/3/2013 Dr. Muffle furnaces are used when it is desired to control the atmosphere in contact with the charge. The charge is placed in the muffle and is heated by conduction through the walls of the muffle. G. N. to avoid contamination by furnace gas. or to assure a uniform high temperature.NIT Durgapur 27 . Halder.MUFFLE FURNACE   It consists of a refractory container or muffle supported in a surrounding combustion chamber.

can now produce working temperatures up to 1800 degrees Celsius. Halder. After advancement in materials for heating elements. such as molybdenum disilicide.NIT Durgapur 28 . G. offered in certain models. which facilitate more sophisticated metallurgical applications.Muffle Furnace   There are few muffle furnaces constructed to receive containers in which the charge is sealed or otherwise separated from the flame. 3/3/2013 Dr. N.

NIT Durgapur 29 . Halder.Muffle Furnace 3/3/2013 Dr. G. N.

3/3/2013 Dr. Halder.e. N..NIT Durgapur 30 . G.Muffle Furnace: Application Areas      Fusing glass in Glass and Ceramic industries Creating enamel coatings in Paint industries Heat treatment in Ceramics Soldering and brazing articles in Fabrication of metal body: Steel industries Also used in many research facilities. for example. in order to determine what proportion of a sample is non-combustible and non-volatile (i. ash).

normalizing & salt. It can be used for annealing. 3/3/2013 Dr. It may be regenerative or recuperative.NIT Durgapur 31 . The energy consumption is low but the efficiency is high. N. G.bath solution treatment. Halder.Pot furnace Pot furnace is a circular furnace containing a metal or refractory pot or crucible in which glass is melted for change of shape.

Halder.NIT Durgapur 32 .Illustration of Pot furnace 3/3/2013 Dr. N. G.

Pot furnace .

Halder.Charging to a Pot furnace 3/3/2013 Dr. G. N.NIT Durgapur 34 .

Double pot furnace 3/3/2013 Dr. Halder.NIT Durgapur 35 . G. N.

This type of boiler dominates the electric power industry.Coal-fired furnace A pulverized coal-fired furnace is an industrial or utility furnace that generates thermal energy by burning pulverized coal (also known as powdered coal or coal dust). Coal is pulverized and carried into the furnace through a burner by an air-stream. . Pulverized coal provides the thermal energy which produces about 50% of the world's electric supply. providing steam to drive large turbines.

NIT Durgapur 37 . Halder.Coal-fired furnace 3/3/2013 Dr. G. N.

we can save energy upto 75%.Regenerative furnace The regenerative furnace was first invented by Robert Stirling in 1816 and was applied to glass melting by Fredrick Siemens. By a direct furnace having a regenerator. The incoming air is heated by regenerators. A furnace in which gas is used as fuel and air is for supporting combustion. .

Regenerative furnace .

Regenerative furnace .

burners and flues are located on both sides in staggered positions. and vertical flues are constructed in the opposite wall with ports inside the furnace at hearth level. The burners are spaced along one side of the furnace near the roof. N. G. The products of combustion from the flame cross the furnace in a downward direction to the ports and pass up through the flues.Direct-fired Furnace  The operation in a direct-fired furnace is very simple. In a long furnace.NIT Durgapur 41 3/3/2013 . Halder. The material to be heated lies on the hearth directly exposed to the flame and hot gases. Dr.

stess releiving of weldments and tempering of hardened steel parts. The furnace gases are maintained only slightly above the desired temperature by burning fuel and mixing the high-temperature products with furnace gases before they are returned to the furnace. such as. Halder. G. N. with a high temperature fan used to draw off and recirculate the furnace atmosphere. Direct combustion products are usually much hotter than the required temperature and it may be difficult to control the temperature of the product without local overheating.NIT Durgapur 42 . A recirculating furnace includes an external recirculating duct. 3/3/2013 Dr. require heating at closely controlled temperatures upto 650C.Recirculating Furnaces Many furnace operations.

112 & 324 litres Heating is provided by resistance wire elements on both sides of the chamber Powerful centrifugal fan and air guide system forces air over the elements & back through the chamber to ensure good thermal uniformity Easy clean stainless steel inner chamber .Recirculating Furnace      Maximum operating temperature 650°C Chamber capacities of 22.

Applications: Applications in general industry include: Low temperature ferrous metal heat treatment processes. # annealing # tempering # normalising and # stress relieving .

NIT Durgapur 45 . They are also used for roasting a wide variety of sulfide ores prior to metal extraction. the entire kiln rotates and is inclined at a slight angle. the movement of material by gravity from one end to other is assisted by the rotation. Halder.Rotary Kiln: A Rotary kiln is a device used to raise materials to a high temperature (calcination) in a continuous process.          3/3/2013 Dr. G. Materials produced using rotary kilns include: Cement Lime Refractories Titanium dioxide A alumina Vermiculite Iron ore pellets In rotary kilns. N.

Rotary Kiln 3/3/2013 Dr. N. Halder.NIT Durgapur 46 . G.

inclined slightly to the horizontal. but usually in the opposite direction (counter-current). N. oil or pulverized coal. The hot gases may be generated in an external furnace. The material to be processed is fed into the upper end of the cylinder. As the kiln rotates. Halder. which is rotated slowly about its axis.Rotary Kiln: Operation Principle The kiln is a cylindrical vessel. 3/3/2013 Dr. material gradually moves down towards the lower end. and may undergo a certain amount of stirring and mixing.NIT Durgapur 47 . sometimes in the same direction as the process material (co-current). Hot gases pass along the kiln. or may be generated by a flame inside the kiln. Such a flame is projected from a burner-pipe (or "firing pipe") which acts like a large bunsen burner. G. The fuel for this may be gas.

Components of Rotary Kiln KILN SHELL:   This is made from rolled mild steel plate. Halder. with consequent flexure during rotation. welded to form a cylinder which may be up to 230 m in length and up to 6 m in diameter. Length is not necessarily limited.5% of the length) if the kiln is very long. but it becomes difficult to cope with changes in length on heating and cooling (typically around 0. G.1 to 0. N. This will be usually situated on a east/west axis to prevent eddy currents. 3/3/2013 Dr. usually between 15 and 30 mm thick. Upper limits on diameter are set by the tendency of the shell to deform under its own weight to an oval cross section.NIT Durgapur 48 .

The speed of material flow through the kiln is proportional to rotation speed. A 6 x 60 m kiln requires around 800 kW to turn at 3 rpm. but enough to prevent damage. and refractory is damaged. 3/3/2013 Dr. The gear is connected through a gear train to a variable-speed electric motor. It is therefore normal to provide an auxiliary drive for use during power cuts.Components of Rotary Kiln DRIVE GEAR: The kiln is usually turned by means of a single Girth Gear surrounding a cooler part of the kiln tube. Temperature differences between the top and bottom of the kiln may cause the kiln to warp. In many processes. G.NIT Durgapur 49 . Halder. N. This turns the kiln very slowly. or a diesel engine. but sometimes it is turned by driven rollers. This may be a small electric motor with an independent power supply. it is dangerous to allow a hot kiln to stand still if the drive power fails. and so a variable speed drive is needed in order to control this.

3/3/2013 Dr. or may be absent in zones of the kiln that are below around 250°C.NIT Durgapur 50 . N. and to protect it from the corrosive properties of the process material. Halder. The refractory selected depends upon the temperature inside the kiln and the chemical nature of the material being processed. such as cement. In some processes. the refractory life is prolonged by maintaining a coating of the processed material on the refractory surface. G.Components of Rotary Kiln Refractory Lining: The purpose of the refractory lining is to insulate the steel shell from the high temperatures inside the kiln. The thickness of the lining is generally in the range 80 to 300 mm. A typical refractory will be capable of maintaining a temperature drop of 1000°C or more between its hot and cold faces. It may consist of refractory bricks or cast refractory concrete.

The Kilns of most modern cement plants are running at 4 to 5 rpm. N. The tyre rides on pairs of steel rollers. usually consist of a single annular steel casting. spaced along the length of the kiln. and would be carried on three tyres and sets of rollers. including refractories and feed. and allow rotation that is as nearly frictionless as possible. and must be carefully protected from the heat of the kiln and the ingress of dust. sometimes called riding rings. there are usually upper and lower "retaining (or thrust) rollers" bearing against the side of tyres. while very short kilns may have only two. In addition to support rollers. but also allow thermal movement. A well-engineered kiln. The longest kilns may have 8 sets of rollers. since the tyre must fit the shell snugly. G. will swing pendulum-like many times before coming to rest. Halder. and set about half a kiln-diameter apart.5 to 2 rpm. when the power is cut off. that prevent the kiln from slipping off the support rollers. but sometimes as fast as 5 rpm. The mass of a typical 6 x 60 m kiln.Components of Rotary Kiln TYRES and ROLLERS  Tyres. also machined to a smooth cylindrical surface. is around 1100 tonnes. machined to a smooth cylindrical surface. These require some ingenuity of design.NIT Durgapur 51 . 3/3/2013 Dr. The bearings of the rollers must be capable of withstanding the large static and live loads involved. which attach loosely to the kiln shell through a variety of "chair" arrangements. The rollers must support the kiln. Kilns usually rotate at 0.

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