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Bentley & Ziegler, TRADITIONS AND ENCOUNTERS, 4/e

Chapter Thirty: The Making of Industrial Society

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Foundations of Industrialization

Coal and Colonies

Britain switches from wood & charcoal to coal as a power source forests were being depleted Colonies sent Britain raw materials (sugar, cotton) and purchased its manufacturesthis made Britain wealthy & well supplied

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Foundations of Industrialization
Coal and Colonies Mechanization of the Cotton Industry

Demand for cheap cotton leads to new inventions to mechanize & speed up cotton production:

Kays flying shuttle, 1733


Cromptons spinning mule, 1779 Cartwrights water-powered loom, 1785

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Foundations of Industrialization
Coal and Colonies Mechanization of the Cotton Industry Steam Power

Newcomen invents first steam engine to pump water out of coal mines, 1713
Scotsman James Watt invents the first practical, multi-purpose steam engine, 1765new power source for factories and, later, vehicles Productivity increases, prices drop

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Foundations of Industrialization
Coal and Colonies Mechanization of the Cotton Industry Steam Power Iron and Steel

Darbys smelting process with coke produces better iron, 1700s Bessemer process (1856) produces cheap, high-grade steel

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Foundations of Industrialization
Coal and Colonies Mechanization of the Cotton Industry Steam Power Iron and Steel Transportation

George Stephenson invents locomotive, 1815

Steamships replace sail, mid-19th c. Trade & travel become faster & cheapernetworks grow

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

The Factory System

The Factory

Replaced the putting out or cottage industry system Required division of labor each worker does one thing Also required supervision and coordination

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

The Factory System


The Factory Working Conditions

Workers lost status: not skilled, just wage earners Harsh bosses, long hours, fast pace of work, frequent accidents

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

The Factory System


The Factory Working Conditions Industrial Protest

The Ludditesanti-Industrial movement that broke machines, 1811 & 1816 (cf. the Unabomber) Movement died after 13 were hung, 1816

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

The Early Spread of Industrialization

Industrialization in Western Europe

British monopoly, 1750-1800, prevented spread to other countries Napoleon abolished trade barriers & guilds in western Europe

Belgium & France industrialize by mid-19th c. Bismarck promotes industry & arms in the new Germany

Industrial Europe, ca. 1850

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

The Early Spread of Industrialization


Industrialization in Western Europe Industrialization in North America

Iron & steel, 1870s (Pittsburgh) British craftsmen bring textile industry to New England, 1820s Rail networks, 1860s (Golden Spike, 1869)

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Industrial Capitalism
Mass Production Big Business

New factories required big investment bucks to launch This encouraged investors to go in together, sharing costs & risks

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Industrial Capitalism
Mass Production Big Business The Corporation

A legal body with a life of its own

Advantages over private ownership: Individuals cant be sued Many people can invest, which generates income & shares the risk Lives on beyond the lives of the founders

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Patterns of Industrialization

Industrial Capitalism
Big Business The Corporation Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels

Monopoly: One company controls an entire market good for the company, bad for consumers Trust: Vertical organizationa group of companies under the same management control an industry top to bottom (Rockefellers Standard Oil) Cartel: Horizontal organizationa group of companies join together to control prices in their industry

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

The Fruits of Industry

Population Growth

Industrialization raises standards of living (more & cheaper food & stuff for more people) Populations of Europe & America rose sharply from 1700 to 1900:

Europe: 105 to 390 million


Americas: 13 to 145 million Better diets & sanitation led to longer lives for adults & children

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Sources From The Past: Thomas Malthus on Population


It may be safely pronounced, therefore, that population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio...

- Thomas R. Malthus, An Essay on Population

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

The Fruits of Industry


Population Growth The Demographic Transition

In industrial countries, the birthrate declines to match the declining mortality rate (or, why have so many kids if theyre all going to live?) Birth control becomes more popularsmaller families (in the 1700s, having 12 children for a woman was common)

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Urbanization and Migration

The Urban Environment

By 1900:
Half of the people in industrial countries lived in towns or cities More than 150 cities in Europe & America with over 100,000 people

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Urbanization and Migration

The Urban Environment

Problems:
Poor housing Fouled air Inadequate water systems Solutions: Government building codes, sewer systems

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Urbanization and Migration


The Urban Environment Transcontinental Migration

From 1800-1920, 50 million Europeans left for North and South America

Reasons: Work, opportunity, religious freedom (eg., Russian Jews), escaping famine (Irish)

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Industry and Society

New Social Classes

Captains of industry (aka robber barons): a new aristocracy of wealth Middle class: managers, accountants, professionals

Working class: unskilled, poorly paid, vulnerable

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Industry and Society


New Social Classes Industrial Families

For the first time, people go to work outside the home

Family members see less of each other (especially fathers)

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Industry and Society


New Social Classes Industrial Families Men at Work and Play

Upper & middle class men gain stature as sole providers

Self-improvement, discipline & work ethic valued and imposed on workers


Workers often resisted discipline & patronized bars, sports, & gambling

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Industry and Society


New Social Classes Industrial Families Men at Work and Play Women at Home and Work

Working women could not bring children with them Middle-class women expected to keep the home fires burning clean house, cook, etc. Increased opportunity for women to work as cooks, maids, etc.

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

Industry and Society


New Social Classes Industrial Families Men at Work and Play Women at Home and Work Child Labor

Common in early industrial times (no public schools yet) Regulated from 1840seventually replaced by public education

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

The Socialist Challenge

Utopian Socialists

Charles Fourier, Robert Owen


Built model communities based on equality Stressed cooperative control of industry, education for all children

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

The Socialist Challenge


Utopian Socialists Marx and Engels

Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic, unproductive (Marx, the angry young man) Critique of industrial capitalism: Competition demanded ruthless exploitation of working class Government, courts & police are all tools of the capitalist ruling class (aka the Golden Rule: whoever has the gold rulesfollow the money)

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

The Socialist Challenge


Utopian Socialists Marx and Engels The Communist Manifesto, 1848

Workers of the world, unite!a fire-breathing call for violent Communist revolution Dictatorship of the proletariat (workers) would destroy capitalism Socialism would follow: a fair, just society (the Communist dream) These ideas dominated international socialism for the next century

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Sources From The Past: Marx and Engels on Bourgeoisie and Proletarians
The advance of industry, whose involuntary promoter is the bourgeoisie, replaces the isolation of the labourers, due to competition, by their revolutionary combination, due to association What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, is its own grave-diggers.

- Manifesto of the Communist Party

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

The Socialist Challenge

Social Reform

Many countries gradually addressed some of the industrial worlds worst problems: Legislation reduced hours and limited work for women & children Germany under Bismarck became the first country to provide social security and universal health care

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Industrial Society

The Socialist Challenge


Social Reform Trade Unions

Formed to represent workers interests Faced stiff opposition from employers & governments Forced employers to meet workers needs; avoided violence

Stole much of Marxisms fire

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Global Effects of Industrialization

The Continuing Spread of Industrialization

Industrialization in Russia

Promoted by the tsar & finance minister Sergei Witte, 1860-1900:


Built 35,000 miles of railroad (Trans-Siberian) Reformed commercial law to promote business Promoted nautical & engineering schools Encouraged foreign investors By 1900, Russia strong in oil, weapons and iron

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Global Effects of Industrialization

The Continuing Spread of Industrialization


Industrialization in Russia Industrialization in Japan

Promoted by Meiji government, late 1800s: Brought in foreign experts to build modern industry Opened technical institutes and universities Government-owned businesses sold off to entrepreneurs (zaibatsu) Japan is Asias most industrial nation by 1900

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Global Effects of Industrialization

The International Division of Labor

Demand for Raw Materials

Nonindustrial societies became suppliers of raw materials: Cotton from India & Egypt Rubber from Brazil, Malaya & Congo

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Global Effects of Industrialization

The International Division of Labor


Demand for Raw Materials Economic Development

Better in lands colonized by European settlers (Australia, Canada, South Africa): High wages provided a strong consumer market & promoted labor-saving devices These countries gradually developed their own industries

Chapter Thirty:
The Making of Industrial Society

Global Effects of Industrialization

The International Division of Labor


Economic Development Economic Dependency

Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south & southeast Asia simply sold cash crops to the industrial worldthey developed little or no industry of their own Plantations were owned by foreigners Free-trade policy made it hard for new industry in these countries to compete World divided into producers (non-industrial) and consumers (industrial)

Chapter 30 Summary

Industry transformed Europe & other countries that adopted it into economic & military powerhouses Industry revolutionized how goods were produced & shipped, making them cheaper & more affordable, which led to dramatic improvements in diet & quality of life Industrial work changed society, creating a wealthy new business class & urban workers (bourgeoisie, proletariat) Critics of industrys harsh abuses, like Marx, spoke up for the working classMarx called for revolution Reforms, often driven by trade unions, ended many of industrys worst abuses Some countries got the short end of the stick by becoming merely suppliers of raw materials to the industrialized nations

The Industrial Revolution began in:


87% 0% 13% 0%

1. 2.

3.
4.

Britain Japan Germany The United States

The first industry to use the factory system was:


1. 2.

3.
4.

Steel Food processing Textiles Fishing


Steel

0%

100%

Food processing

Textiles

Fishing

The most important invention of the early Industrial Revolution was:


1.

2. 3. 4.

Stephensons locomotive Kays flying shuttle Watts steam engine Fords assembly line

93%

7%
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0%
s. .. .. e. ng m

0%
m bl as se Fo rd s ...

n s

ns o

he

St ep

at t

ay

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Who were the Luddites?


1.

2.

3. 4.

Early utopian socialists Early opponents of industrialization British communists An early British investment club
Early utop...

0% 7%

93%
Early oppo... British co... An early B...

Industrialization quickly spread to all of the following EXCEPT:


0% 1. 0% 2. 0% 3. 0% 4.
5.

Germany The United States France Belgium The Middle East Russia Japan
100%

0% 6. 0% 7.

Which of these advantages do corporations NOT provide?


1.

2.

3. 4.

Greater government control over business Investment from a large pool of shareholders Protection from liability Legal existence independent of any single individual

27% 7% 0%

67%

Greater governmen... Protection from l...

Investment from a... Legal existence i...

Why was the Bessemer process important?


7% 80% 13% 0%

1. 2.

3. 4.

It provided legal protection for workers It facilitated the construction of bridges, buildings, ships & railways It led to the invention of the telegraph It led to the pasteurization of milk

Why did big businesses begin to form monopolies, cartels, & trusts?
1.

2.

3.

4.

They led to increased competition They allowed businesses to control the price of their products Socialist governments required it All of the above

7%0%

93%

They led to incre... Socialist governm...

They allowed busi... All of the above

In his 1848 Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx called on workers to:


1. 2.

3.

pp or tt ra

ol ta

at e

Em ul

ev

Su

ll o

4.

Support trade unions Revolt against capitalism and establish a workers paradise Emulate the British model of industrial success and free labor All of the above

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33%

0%
... ns t de ...

0%
B ab ft he o. .. r.. . th e

ga i

Social impacts of the Industrial Revolution included all of the following EXCEPT:
1. 2.

3.

4.

5.
6. 7.

Child labor Urbanization & attendant problems of crowding & sanitation Increased power for the landed aristocracy Improved diet, life expectancy & quality of life Population growth Declining birth rate Families spending less time together

7% 13% 0% 0%

80%

Child labor Improved d... Families s...

Urbanizati... Population...

Increased ... Declining ...

The growth of trade unions resulted in:


1.

Stiff opposition from employers & 20% government support for Marxism

2. 7% Reduced 3.

Better working & living conditions for 13% workers All of the above

4.

60%

How did industrialization affect the global balance of power between 1800 & 1900?
1.

2.

3.

4.

Asia & Africa became wealthy by selling their natural resources Democracies became more powerful Countries that industrialized came to dominate those that did not The United States & Japan became the worlds leading powers

7%

0%7%

87%

Asia & Africa bec... Countries that in...

Democracies becam... The United States...