Prepared by; Mr.N.Sriram Msc nursing Asso.professor

The World is always changing. disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living things. Great changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its surface. The changes on the outer part of the Earth happen because of different kinds of weather.

D – I – S – A – S – T – E – R PARADIGM

Disaster Paradigm : D: Detection I: Incident Command S: Safety & Security A: Assess Hazards S: Support T: Triage & Treatment E: Evacuation R: Reallocation & Redeployment

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economic.   A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human.  A grave misfortune.WHAT IS DISASTER ?  Disaster. A catastrophe.  A total failure . . or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.dis·as·ter (noun) An occurrence causing widespread destruction & distress. material.

economic activity disrupted or environmental damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions . or expected losses (deaths. injuries. which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. social. property. and environmental factors or processes.  Risk : The probability of harmful consequences. economic.DEFINITIONS  vulnerability : The conditions determined by physical. livelihoods.

CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTER      Poverty Population growth Rapid urbanization Transition in cultural practices Environmental degration   Lack of awareness War and civic strife .

CLASSIFICATION –BONNET(1990)  Minor disaster.Limit of 25 persons killed or injured Moderate disaster – up to 100 persons injured or killed. Major disaster – exceeds 100 persons   .

PHASES OF DISASTER:  Rapid onset disaster: • • • • The relief phase Rehabilitation Reconstruction Mitigation  Slow onset disaster • Early warning • The emergency phase • Rehabilitation .

PHASES OF DISASTER .EMOTIONAL REACTION  Heroic phase  Working together to save each other and their property  Honey  moon phase: Victims feel buoyed and supported by Govt and Non govt agencies  See an opportunity to re constitute quickly  Prepare plan to reestablish quickly  Disillusionment  phase: Turn to rebuilding their own lives and solving their own individual problems .

Shock Awareness (impact period) 2. 3. Euphoria (thread period) Exhibits fear and anger(inventory period) Resolution (rescue period) 4. 5.PHASES OF DISASTER-PHIPPS&BARBARA 1995 1. .

TYPES OF DISASTER :  Natural  Human-Induced .

NATURAL DISATER             Volcanic eruption Earthquake Cyclone or Hurricane Avalanche Flood Drought Forest fire or Bushfire landslides Tidal wave Environmental pollution Snow storms Epidemic Disease .

Nuclear and chemical)  Transportation accident  Structural collapse  Explosions  Fires  Pollution  Civil interest  Terrorist attack  .HUMAN-INDUCED Conventional warfare  Non conventional warfare(eg.

.VOLCANIC ERUPTION : A volcanic eruption is the spurting out of gases and hot lava from an opening in the Earth’s crust.

EARTHQUAKE An earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes it is so strong that the ground splits apart. When parts of the earth. move against each other giant shock waves move upwards towards the surface causing the earthquake. called plates. .

During a cyclone trees can be uprooted. buildings can be destroyed and cars can be overturned. .CYCLONE OR HURRICANE A Cyclone is a fierce storm with storm winds that spin around it in a giant circle.

. Floods are caused by heavy rain or by snow melting and the rivers burst their banks and overflow.FLOOD : A flood is caused by an overflow of water which covers the land that is usually dry.

Avalanches can be caused by – snow melting quickly snow freezing. ice and rock down a mountainside.AVALANCHE An Avalanche is a movement of snow. melting then freezing again someone skiing a loud noise or an earth tremor .

DROUGHT A drought is the lack of rain for a long time. In 1968 a drought began in Africa. Children born during this year were five years old before rain fell again. .

FOREST FIRE OR BUSHFIRE : Fires can burn out of control in areas of forest or bush land. Fires are caused by lightning. sparks of electricity or careless people. Wind may blow a bushfire to areas where people live. .

. such as rock falls. deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows.LANDSLIDES : Landslip is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement.

accompanied by an earth quake. and then plunging in to the water.TSUNAMIS Tsunami is a fault movement on sea floor. A land slide occurring under water or above the sea. .

SNOW STORMS : Snowstorms are storms where large amounts of snow fall. . they may form in summer. Very rarely. It may occur in the late autumn and early spring as well.

Botulism. Cholera.Plaqu e. and H1N1.EPIDEMIC DISEASE :  Epidemic Disease Outbreaks of Disease A biological agents are used in attacks because they cause the most illness and death among humans. they include: Anthrax. Smallpox.  .

HUMAN INDUCED  Fire : Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion. light. releasing heat. . and various reaction products.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS The terms “chemical accident” refer to an event resulting in the release of a substance or substances hazardous to human health and/or the environment in the short or long term. that can cause people illness. . disability or death. injury.

.BOMB BLAST : Blast bomb is a term used for a type of improvised explosive device which is using to destroy mass people in particular area as a weapon.

motor vehicle accident.ROAD ACCIDENTS : Road accidents A traffic collision (motor vehicle collision. . or car crash) is when a road vehicle collides with another vehicle.

emergency evacuation. quarantine. It is a discipline that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs. etc.DISASTER MANAGEMENT :  Disaster management (or Emergency management) is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks.  . and supporting.. disaster response (e. and rebuilding society after natural or human-made disasters have occurred. mass decontamination.).g.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT :   Disaster preparedness Disaster response  Disaster mitigation .

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procedure and resources are in place to assist those afflicted by the disaster and enable them to help themselves .DISASTER PREPAREDNESS It is to ensure that in time of disaster appropriate system.

 . and efficient organization and delivery. To ensure timely.AIMS OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS  To minimize the adverse effect of disaster or hazard. appropriate.  Through effective precautionary measures.

COMPONENTS OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS  Assessing  vulnerability Geographical region  Planning  Plan framework and resources framework Govt and Non Govt Horizontal and vertical co-ordination  Institutional   .

communication system .medicine.shelter.COMPONENTS OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS  Information system  Monitoring the communication system  Resource base  Food.workers.

COMPONENTS OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS  Warning system   Response mechanism Public education and training  Public education in schools and colleges  Special training programme for adult Extension programme for village based extension workers Public information through mass media    Rehearsals .

PROFESSIONAL PREPAREDNESS   Aware of the disaster and its management Aware of disaster management agent and voluntary agencies  Can able to coordinate and leadership quality  Keep ready all personal items Copy of their personal items  Stethescope  Flash light with extra batteries  Cash  Warm clothing and heavy jocket  Pocket sized reference book  Identification card and tag  .

TRAINING FOR DISASTER NURSE  Not high-tech-work Field work training   Shelter management First aid and CPR training Use the exist skills for disaster situation   .

Educate the people about supportive system available in local area.    .COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS    Prepare the plan and make them to participate the drills. Establish and teach about the warning system. Organize disaster management programme every year. Review the past disaster plan and how the community impact-organization in the rescue. Select the adults person from that community and give special training to them.

The Govt of India has identified the nodal ministries to enmark responsibilities to various concerned departments and sectors to co-ordinate the entire activities relating to specific type of disaster
Type of disaster Natural Chemical Nuclear Biological Civil strife Ministry Agriculture Environment Atomic energy Health Home Support ministry Health Health Health Public health Health

Tenth five year plan :

Policy at the macro level that would inform and
guide the preparation and implementation of devpt prescribed.

Operation guidelines of integrating disaster
management practices.

Specific development scheme for prevention and

mitigation of disaster.

Status of implementation:

Enacted in december 2005
Chairman – Prime minister State Govt- state and District disaster management 8 battalion NDRF-144 specialised response team Fire services change in to multi hazards unit Curriculum of middle and secondary school education

Safe construction practices and do’s and doesn't for various activities.DISASTER PREPAREDNESS IN INDIA Status of implementation:   In-service education for civil and police services New building code and construction for different types of building in different zone. . A web enabled centralized inventory of resources.    Community based disaster risk management program.


DISASTER RESPONSE Disaster response is some of total of action taken by people or institution in the face of disaster. these action commence with the warning of an oncoming threatening event or with the event itself if it occur without warning. .

 To re establish self sufficiency and essential services as quickly as possible for all population groups. To repair and replace damaged infra structure and regenerate viable economic activities.DISASTER RESPONSE Aims of Emergency:  To ensure the survival of the maximum possible number of victims.  .

R>O>D Early warning activities include process of monitoring the vulnerable and risk area and take a remedial measures on it.S>O>D  .DISASTER RESPONSE  Warning :  Disseminate information to concerning imminent disaster threat to government official institution and population.


    Red indicates highest priority Yellow signals medium priority Green indicates ambulatory Black for Dead or Moribund .  Triage : Triage consists of rapidly classifying the injured on the basis of the severity.DISASTER RESPONSE  Search and Rescue: Identify the location of victims that maybe trapped or isolated and bringing them to safety and medical attention.


storage and dispatch of relief supplies  Logistics and supply      Communication and information management Survivor response and coping Security Emergency operations management  Establish policies and plans well in advance  Rehabilitation and reconstruction .DISASTER RESPONSE  Emergency relief  Emergency medical care and meet the basic needs Procurement.

Policy response 2.INDIA’S RESPONSE TO DISASTER Central GOVT response to the disaster depends upon: The gravity of natural calamity.  The scale of relief operation necessary  The requirement of central assistance and financial support Types of centralresponse:  1. Administrative response .

reviewing and monitoring of relief measures .   Setting up machinery for implementing. prime minister and other dignitaries. Activating the administrative machinery for relief.INDIA'S RESPONSE TO DISASTER Policy response:  Visit of the area by president.

Publicity to impending calamity through mass media Arrange transport for evacuation Ensuring availability of essential commodities Ensure the availability of medicine.INDIA’S RESPONSE TO DISASTER Administrative response:  Operational requirement:         Fore casting and operation of warning system Maintain uninterrupted communication. vaccines and drugs Investments in infrastructure Mobilization of financial resources .

INDIA’S RESPONSE TO DISASTER Administrative response:  Flood inflow forecast from the central water commisions through military and civil services  Rescue  Contingency plan for crops. cattle preservation. nutrition and health measures  Provision of drinking water of state and voluntary health agencies  Co-ordination .

1968 The Civil Defence Rules.1968 The disaster Management Act.1968 The Civil Defence Regulation.2006 The National Institute of Disaster Management Regulations-2006 The Notification of national Disaster response Force Rules-2008 .2006 The Disaster management Rules.2005 The Disaster management National Executive committee rules.DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT         The Civil Defence Act.


.DISASTER MITIGATION Mitigation refers to all actions taken before a disaster to reduce its impacts. including preparedness and long-term risk reduction measures.

DISASTER MITIGATION TYPES OF DISASTER MITIGATION:  Structural mitigation – construction projects which reduce economic and social impacts  Non-structural activities – policies and practices which raise awareness of hazards or encourage developments to reduce the impact of disasters. .

Vulnerability analysis updates. (World  Development Report.  Reviewing of building use regulations and safety codes. Zoning and land-use management and planning. Implementing preventative health measures. .DISASTER MITIGATION Mitigation includes    Reviewing building codes. 1998)  Educating the public on simple measures.

Hazard management and vulnerability reduction b.TOOLS OF MITIGATION a. Economic diversification c. Public awareness . Political intervention and commitment d.

Stratagies  Adjusting normal development programmes to reduce losses. Economic diversification.MITIGATION Two aspects of mitigation include: 1 Hazard identification and vulnerability analysis 2 Various mitigation strategies or measures.   . Developing disaster resistant economic activities.

 Investments in improving administration and strengthening the resource.  Agricultural and forestry programmes provide a range of opportunities for mitigation.  Incorporate hazard resistant building techniques in housing and other construction programmes. .MITIGATION  Strengthening urban utility systems and industrial support infrastructures.

INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES  United nation office for the co-ordination of humanitarian affairs (OCHA)       World health organization (WHO) World food programme (WFP) Food and agriculture organization (FAO) Organization of American state (OAS) International council of voluntary agencies (ICVA) Inter national federation of red cross and red crescent societies (IFRC) .


 Professional preparedness:     Organize disaster skills with the help of agencies.NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Personal preparedness:  Physically and psychologically well. Develop awareness about disaster management plan. Update the record of vulnerable population with in community. Provide educational material –disaster.  . Certified in first aid and CPR. Update the disaster plan as per need.

Provide public education in disaster prone areas.  Co-ordinate the medical services.  .   Should aware of different disaster kid and assessment tool. Keep update to handle emergency situation.  Lessening the unsafe conditions immediate after the impact.NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT  Understand available resources in community.

.  Sort out the victims from untreatable to treatable condition  Carry out the exact role that determined to each nurse.  Disaster service personal and EMS personal called for the response.NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Rescue and emergency care:  Locate the trapped victims and evacuate them to safe place.

 Transport the victim to health center . Administer immunization to prevent complication.   Do dressing for minor wounds.NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT   Classify the victims acc to triage tag system. Do the ABC analysis and provide nursing care to the victims.

Do the ABC analysis. Receive and transfer the victims to ICU. Do the dressing for minor wounds. Provide recording and reporting of nursing care.NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Health care centre:       Keep ready all supplies and equipments. Provide medical care and nursing care to the victims. Call for medical attention.   Provide psychological support to relatives. .

NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster response:  Assist with member of health team and send information to relief manager.  Prepare assessment report Geographical and population  Presence of hazards  Shelter and sanitation availbility  Status of health care infrastructure   Gather information Interview  Observation and Physical examination  Survey and record.  .


first aid. transportation.safe environment.  Provide medical.  Provide basic necessities.  Provide basic diginities.nursing aid.  Delegate task to deenager.  Help victims to take their own decisions.  Refer the patient to councellor.  .NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT  Dealing with stress Listern carefully to victims  Encourage them to share their feelings. keep records  Ensure communication.

NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Rehabilitation:  Medical rehabilitation Vocational rehabilitation Social rehabilitation Psychological rehabilitation    .



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