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WAWASAN OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIAN STUDIES

Outline :Unit 1
Chapter 1 : The Early History -Malay Kingdoms and the Colonial Era Chapter 2 : The Flight For Independence Chapter 3 : The Formation Of Malaysia

Ms R.Rajeswari Tutor/ 2013 rar1@tutor.wou.edu.my rrajes1@gmail.com

CHAPTER 1: EARLY HISTORY & THE MALAY KINGDOMS

Early Inhabitants

Palaeolithic (Early Stone Age) Mesalithic (Middle Stone Age) Neolithic (New Stone Age) Metal age

35,000 years ago 11,000 years ago 5,000 years ago 2,500 years ago

Ancient Ports Old Malay Kingdom Islands of the Malay Archipelago Funan, Old Kedah, Gangga Negara, Perak;Langkasuka, Patani; Chih-Tu, Kelantan;Tan-Tan, Terengganu; TunSun Segenting Kra, Srivijaya, Sumatera, Mataram, Jawa; Majapahit Jawa.

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms


The Malay Melaka kingdom was established by Parameswara in 15th century. The golden age of Malay Melaka kingdom-during the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah (1456-1477). Factors that made Melaka supreme and outstanding:
Geographical factors; Economic factors; Political and administrative factors.

A) Malacca as a Great Kingdom- factors contributed to the Golden Age of Melaka(GAM) B) The Fall of Melaka

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms


Malacca as a Great Kingdom achieved glory and famous throughout the world as: 1. A vast empire that was stable in its rule, military, control of conquests and laws. The Melaka Empire was said to encompass the entire of the Malay Peninsular, the eastern parts of Sumatera and Riau-Lingga Archipelago. 2. Centre for world trade Melaka was the diverging point of all Eastern and Western merchants,-China, India, Middle East, East Asia and the Malay Archipelago. 3. Centre for the Spread of the Islam Islam was declared as the official religion and was embraced by the Sultan and his people 4. Centre for the spread of Knowledge The Melaka Palace functioned as the centre for the dissemination and expansion of language, culture and literature.

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms The Malay Melaka Sultanate is the oldest in the history of Malaysia. 1391, Srivijaya was attacked by Majapahit. Parameswara and his followers retreat to Temasik(Singapore). 1398, Temasik was attacked again by Ayudha. Parameswara retreat to the Malay Peninsula: set up-camp in Muar, Sening Hujung, Bertam and 1400 finally settled in Melaka. Paramewara nama Melaka after a Malaka tree. (alt. theory Arabic word Malaqat-place of shelter)

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms

Administration/ Ruling system


Malacca had a well-defined government with a set of laws or clear-cut administrative. The highest position in the early Melaka administrative system was the king or Yang di Pertuan. When the members of the Melaka Kingdom converted to Islam, the ruler was then called Sultan or Shah. Below him were Bendahara, Penghulu Bendahari, Temenggung and Laksamana. The ruling system was known as absolute monarchy- the status and rights of the kings could not be questioned. The power and rights of the kings were closely based on-beliefs and practices of the community, namely
Setia(Loyalty), Derkaha (treason) Daulat(sovereignty) Tulah dan nobat/

The sultan was assisted by a powerful hierarchy of court officials with different ranks, status and functions- Fourfold dignitary System The administrative structure created a system of nobility in Melaka. This system produced two groups of people: 1) The government and 2) the governed(pemerintah dan diperintah)

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms

Fourfold Dignity System

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms Geographical Factors


Its geographical location was in the middle of the international oceanic trade routes.-link between the main trade market Indian subcontinent and China. Ports along the Straits of Melaka-two main monsoon winds beneficial to seafaring boat met. The Straits also narrow path which made it good spot to dock and the area was protected from strong wind. Rich natural resources- available for trade:aromatic woods, resin and rotan etc. The Malays settlements along the rivers and beaches of Melaka-vital role in selling and supplying items from forest(ventured into the forest to gather the products-Orang Aslisandalwood and camphor). Rich with mineral- The port of Melaka rich with gold and tin mining . Been called as Golden Chersonese by Greek and Indian traders named it Suwarnabhumi(The Golden Peninsula). Mangrove forest grew along the coastal areas of Melaka. Nipah leaves were used to weave mats and roofing material. Palm sap-as alcoholic drinks; mangrove wood as firewood. Sea Produce industry- the location promote the growth of Plankton- encourages the growth of sea life such as shells, cockles, oysters.(Many Chinese dishes and medicines used the root of the Bahar tree and teriang) (cowrie shells and cockle shells were used as currency)

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms

Economical Factors

Advantage in location-middle of trade route, abundance of luxury item from other nations Produce such as spices, rotan, wood and resin-valuable trading items. Well organised treasury system-including own tax and trade systems. Trade was done using gold, silver or tin. As an entrepot port.
Bahasa Melayu as the medium(lingua france) of communication help to facilitate the trade.

Social Factors

Law
The sultanate was governed with several sets of laws: 1) Undang-Undang Melaka (Laws of Melaka), variously called the Hukum Kanun Melaka and Risalah Hukum Kanun, 2)Undang-Undang Laut Melaka (the Maritime Laws of Melaka). The laws as written in the legal digests went through an evolutionary process and able to maintain the peace.

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms

The Fall Of Melaka


Internal Factors Weak leadership Weakness in the defence sector Lack of unity amongst the people Behavior of the officials Weak understanding of religion External Factors Discovery of the Cape of Good Hope The Portuguese assault on Melaka

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms

The Fall Of Melaka


Internal A) No efficient leader After the death of Bendahara Tun Perak Malacca lacked in efficient leader. His successor Tun Mutahir was a weak leader. Too much of power struggle. Sultan Mahmud was weak because he paid little attention to the administration. This has also caused disunity among the people and had caused them to split into factions. Tun Mutahir weak administration has caused the Malays to be hostile towards Indian Muslim.

Chapter 1: Early History & The Malay Kingdoms

Among the other Malay kingdom are: Johor Perak Pahang Negeri Sembilan Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Selangor

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


Portuguese Occupation 130 years Dutch Occupation
The Dutch in Melaka The Dutch in Perak The Dutch in Selangor British Occupation In Penang Island Singapore Perak Selangor Sg Ujong Negeri Sembilan Pahang Intervention in Politics English Dutch Agreement 1824 The resident system

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


Portuguese Occupation The beginning of the end of the Golden Age of the Melaka Sultanate. Portuguese occupied Melaka for 130 years from 1511 to 1641. Portuguese administrative systems by Alfonso de Albuquerque. The Portuguese practised a form of military administration-head by Captain of Melaka Fort. Portuguese implemented several trade administrative system:

Trading vessel were required to pay mandatory tax 6-10% of their total income. Every trader must have trading pass to be allowed to trade at the port. The Portuguese monopolised the main trade item, buying at low prices and selling at a high inflated prices.

Impact to community: Roman writing, Portuguese marrying local and assimilation of Portuguese words into the local language-jendela, almari tuala, garpu etc.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


Dutch Occupation

In 1559, Dutch expedition reached the Malay Archipelago. Interested to obtain spices, nutmegs and cloves, and to monopolise the tin trade. Form the United East Indies Company(Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie)VOC-to remove Portuguese trading in the region. Dutch made Batavia as an alternative port for the traders all over the world.(Johor emerged as trading partner) Dutch (VOC) implemented a few policies:

Mandatory for trading ships to acquire trading passes to trade in Melaka Monopolising the tin trade in the Malay States(Perak, Selangor and Sg Ujong) by signing agreements with the Malay Kings

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


British Occupation

British intervention in the Malay states: Perak, Selangor, Sungai Ujong, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang. The Resident System

the British had full control over the Malay states in all aspects and their salary paid by Malay states. objective of Resident System:

1)maintain peace through legal provisions; 2) create organised civil administrative and tax collection 3) exploit the natural resources of the Malay States.

Effects of the Resident system- Development of the State economy, changes of political influence and social developments.

The Straits settlements(SS) The Federated Malay States(FMS) The Unfederated Malay States(UFMS) Decentralization Community reaction to British Occupation

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


British High Commissioner/Governor Of The Ss(in Singapore)
HIGH COMMISIONER

RESIDENT GENERAL

4
SULTAN

4
RESIDEN T

4
UNOFFICI AL MEMBERS

It was established in 1909 Aim to increase power of ruler and residents. Real motive to increase the power of British Governor in Singapore. Effects, gradual weakening of the power of the Sultan and the State Executive Council Law were signed and passed by High Commissioner British strengthen their hold in Malaya.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era

Straits Settlements

The Straits Settlements consisted of the individual settlements of Melaka, Penang and Singapore, as well as (from 1907) Labuan, off the coast of Borneo. On 1 April 1867 the Settlements became a British crown colony, making the Settlements answerable directly to the Colonial Office in London instead of the Calcutta government based in India. Earlier, on 4 February 1867, a "Letters Patent" had granted the Settlements a colonial constitution. This allocated much power to the Settlements' Governor, who administered the colony of the Straits Settlements with the aid of an Executive Council.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era

The Federated Malay States


The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four protected states in the Malay PeninsulaSelangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang Established in 1895, which lasted until 1946, and joined together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States Reason for Establishment Efficiency and uniformity in administration-cost cutting To check the resident power To address Pahang financial problem Security

Chapter 2: The Colonial Era

The Federated Malay States

Among the conditions of acceptance of the Federal Agreement is all Malay ruler must accept Resident General that would advice in all aspect beside Malay custom and Islam. The centralization of power in the hand of the Resident General resulted in the gradual loss of power by the rulers in their own states. The British also establish a federal department- employed many British officer resulting in the Malay states to be administered mostly by British officers. First Resident General was Frank Sweettenham

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era

Unfederated Malay States(UFMS)

Unfederated Malay States - five British protected states in the Malay peninsula. (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu). Many of these states disagree with this treaty. Bangkok Treaty has limited Siamese expansion on the northern Malay states. This agreement made it difficult for other western power to penetrate. This agreement also marked the border of Malaya and Siam.

The British intervention in the Malay Peninsular

The Straits settlements(SS) The Federated Malay States(FMS) The Unfederated Malay states(UFMS)

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


Local community Reaction to British Occupation They were willing to fight and sacrifice their life's to free their homeland. Constantly launched attacks to fight for their freedom. The resistance in Naning British-Naning Agreement of 1801. Demand for 1/10 of their profit to be paid to British government in Melaka. The British impositions of taxes was opposed by Dol Said- several attacked. The introduction of rule 42 Rule of the Penghulu the attitude of the British officer (collector of Melakas taxes) Issues of government, land and slave restrictions.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


The resistance in Perak
Pangkor Agreement signed on 10 Jan 1874-JWW Birch been appointed as Perak Resident-but he failed to manage and gain the cooperation of Sultan Abdullah and the Malay officials. Customary practices in the taxes collections and kerah or conscription and slavery as their traditions. British and Birch restricted the rights of Sultan and the officials to collect taxes and gave that rights to the residents-means of income for sultan and the officials. 1875, British government used Birch to force Sultan Abdullah to sign papers that effectively handed over his power to the British. Abolishing the Debt slavery system, Offering protection to slaves who run away from their master Intervening in Malay local customs. Birchs own attitude towards local leaders. He like to implement changes in a hurry and his actions did not take into consideration the status of Malay officials. He could not speak Malay and made difficult for him to communicate with the locals. He burned down the houses of two official who collected taxes without permissions

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


The resistance in Pahang
British resident in Pahang was J.P Rodger-came into power in October 1888. The sultan and local officials losing their rights and privilege with formation of the State Council. Land law-restricted the freedom of Malay leaders and their sources of income Local officials no longer being able to judge criminal cases and civil disputes Important decision being wholly made by the British residents in the state council. The British replacing the Penghulu(village leader) in six districts with British officers. The British refused to increase Dato Bahamans allowance The British also introduced system that required licenses and permit for those who wished to collect jungle product, such as wood and sago leaves. They were forbidden to wear a keris. The British introduced a land tax and kerah system for civil project which involved the local people. A $25 fine or three months of jail were the penalties for those who went against the law. Rebellion by Tok Gajah, Mat Kilau, Dato Bahaman etc.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


The resistance in Sarawak- Brooke Dynasty. In 1859, -James Brookes abolished the practice of headhunting, a traditional practice of the indigenous people in Sarawak. In 1893-During Charles Brookes-attempt to abolish certain traditions and customs of the locals. In 1920-During Vyner Brooks rule the Dayaks opposed the payment of taxes and rebelled at Sungai Kanowit. The resistance in Sabah Two revolts happen in Sabah: under the leadership of Mat Salleh-British activities which burdened the locals and the restrictions placed on the local leaders. the Rundum rebellion-taxes were imposed to rice and cassavatapai(traditional food of Murus), new law that forbade clearing forest for agricultural purposes, the local being ordered to build forest path without pay.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


Japanese Occupation

The Japanese Invasion of Malaya, begun on 8 December 1941 in Kota Bharu, Capital of the Kelantan Province.
Japanese occupied Malaya for three and half years. The invasion was fast and effective, the entire country and Singapore was defeated in 70 days. The main aim of the Japanese was to establish a New Great Asia Government.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era


What Made It So Successful?

British were not prepared for the war. Anticipated the attack from the north(not south) and sea routes and not air. Japan had a comprehensive plans. Japan had a network of spies. Japanese soldier was in excellent form because of intensive training. The Japanese were led by experience leader- Yamashita and Tsuji They were enthusiastic and inspired to fight for the importance and supremacy of Japan. They had practical war tactics i.e.: using bicycle British soldier consisted Indians which were young inexperience and lacked spirit of war.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era The Effects Of Japanese Occupation

Social
Worsen the relationship among races. Japanese were against Chinese but sided with the Malays. This misunderstandings continued even after the Japanese surrendered. Economic Economic infrastructure was destroyed. Economic activities was disrupted. Life condition was very bad and inflation continued to escalate.

Chapter 1: The Colonial Era The Effects Of Japanese Occupation


Politics Malays were attracted by the slogans Asia for Asians stirred them to build their own government. The Chinese established MPAJA to fight the Japanese. The Japanese used the police force mainly consisting Malay to fight against MPAJA. This caused racial frictions between the two race. When Japanese surrendered MPAJA terrorize and took revenge on those, whom the they accused of supporting Japanese. MPAJA activities have caused a state of emergency from 19481960.

Chapter 2: The Flight For Independence


The Struggle for Independence - 2 stages/phases 1)Through a spirit of nationalism 2)Bloodshed

The awakening of Nationalism The spirit of Nationalism: Newspaper or Magazines, Organization movements Malayan Union and the Reactions of the people The federation of Malaya 1948 The negotiations of Independence The Emergence of Main Political Parties

Chapter 2: The Flight for Independence


The rise of Nationalism by Race- by three major ethnic: Malay Nationalism, Chinese Nationalism,Indian Nationalism. Malay Nationalism-involved in a series of stage: Religious stage(1906-1926) Social and Economic stage (1926-1938) Political stage (1936 onwards)
These Malay stages influenced by and led by the following three main groups:

Those who received Islamic education Those who received Malay education Those who received English education

Chapter 2: The Flight for Independence


Chinese Nationalism

More focus on the politics of China- as homeland Renewal Movement in China-100-Day Renewal Plan- to bring modernization in China-spread throughout the Chinese communities in Perak and Selangor. The Kuomintang Party from China-fought for reunification of China and strengthening of the county through industry and modernization. Many branches appeared in Malaya which give assistance to main party in China-active in Malaya during 1937-1939.

Indian Nationalism

More focused on political strike in India. After WW2 focus on local politics. Anti-colonial activities among Punjabi-publication been distributed to Indian in Malaya(chasing away British in India). April 1906- Taiping Indian Association was founded 1923 Selangor Indian Association-improving social-economic status of Indian by building school, health centers and starting Hindi Language Classes October 1936- the Central Indian Association of Malaya (CIAM) was founded-alliance of 12 other Indian association and for Indian Chambers of Commerce-fought for progress and the political rights of the Indian in Malaya. The Indian community in Malay Peninsula was influenced by the National Movement in India, led by Mahatma Gandhi- satyagraha-non-violent resistance against the British.

Chapter 2: The Flight for Independence


Nationalistic Ideas Spread through Newspapers and Magazines Al-Imam(Kaum Muda)-1906, Al-Ikhwan(Kaum Muda)-1926, Saudara-1928, Neracha-1911, Majlis-1931, Warta Malaya-1930, Utusan Melayu-1907, Chenderamata-WW2,Fajar Sarawak-Preindependence, Lembaga Melayu-1931, Panduan Guru-1922.

Organised Movement against the colonial Powers Kesatuan Melayu Singapura-1926,Persaudaraan Sahabat Pena1934, Persatuan Melayu Perak-1937, Persatuan Melayu Selangor-1937, Persatuan Melayu Pahang-1938,Persatuan Melayu Negeri Sembilan-1938, Persatuan Melayu Kelantan1939, Kongres Melayu Seluruh Tanah Melayu-1939, Kesatuan Melayu Muda-1938,Malayan Communist Party-1930.

Chapter 2: The Flight for Independence


The formation of the Malayan union (MU)- approved in January 1946. British introduced MU for: To unify the different administrative system-FMS,SS and UFMS and to improve the efficiency and reduced costs. To control over the Malay Peninsulas economy. Malaya rich with tin and rubber-were import sources of income for the British. To control and restrict the power of Malay An attempt by the British-locals ruled, but adhered to the British political system. Integrate the Chinese, Malays and Indians into Malayan community so that would shift their loyalties from their former homelands to the Malay Peninsula and their economic wealth to remain in Malaya. Opposition Towards the MU The abolishment of the Sultans sovereignty-just as symbols Citizenship according jus-soli principle-reduce the majority voice of the Malays and would cause them lose their economic and political rights. MU was formed without input from the Malays-plan in London and Sultan was given only one day to read the conditions and accept without discussion.

Chapter 2: The Flight For Independence


Main Political Parties after the Second World War(WW2) UMNO (United Malays National Organisation)

Was founded on 11 May 1946 by Dato Onn Jaafar-first president Slogan Hidup Melayu Was founded on 8 Aug 1946 by John A. Thivy, 1955 entered an alliance with UMNO and MCA

MIC (the Malayan Indian Congress)


MCA (the Malayan Chinese Association(MCA)

Was founded on 27Feb 1949, by Leong Yew Koh and the first president was Tun Tan Cheng Lock 1952, MCA and UMNO formed an alliance called the Alliance Party
1952 Malayan general election in Kuala Lumpur (UMNO and MCA) 1955 UMNO-MCA and MIC partnership Malayan General election (Party won 51 out of 52 seats that were contested) clear signal of national unity among the various ethnic groups and proof that the locals were ready to rule their own country.

The Alliance Party


Chapter 3 - The Formation Of Malaysia


Factors Reactions Process

The factors that led to the forming of Malaysia: Fastening the independence of Singapore, Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak; Reducing the threat of communism and to maintain regional stability and peace; Creating ethnic balance and strengthening unity; Developing the regional economies for the interests of people and member-states; and Cultivating a Malaysian nation of various races, based on the sharing of rich cultural heritage. United in International Relations.

Chapter 3 - The Formation Of Malaysia


Reactions of the Neighboring Countries Indonesia-Ganyang Malaysia (President Sukarno) Philippines-Claiming Sabah as his country (President Macapagal) Reaction in Sabah and Sarawak Ethnic balance between bumiputras and non-bumiputras in the federation Reaction in Brunei Wanted to join Malaysia after achieved independence. Sultan of Brunei laid down several claims; Reaction in Singapore Racial divisions until two riots broke out-21 July 1964 and 2 Sept 1964 The formation Process of Malaysia The Malaysia solidarity Consultative Committee( Jawatankuasa Perundingan Perpaduan Malaysia-JPPM) The Cobbold Commission Inter Government Committee(Jawatankuasa Antara Kerajaan-JAK) Singapore Referendum

Activity
Traditional Malay Kingdoms
1. 2. 3. State two (2) political factors that contributed to the glory of Malay Melaka Sultanate in the 15th century A.D. The Portuguese colonisation of Melaka lasted for 130 years. Give two (2) effects of the Portuguese colonisation in Melaka. The Malayan Union or Kesatuan Tanah Melayu was introduced by the British to replace the British Military Administration in the year 1946. Explain two(2) characteristics of the Malayan Union.

Colonial Era and the Fight for independence


1. The colonisation of Japanese from the year 1942 to 1945 left a lasting effect on the inhabitants of Malaya. a. State factors that caused the Japanese to occupy Malaya. b. Give positive effects of the Japanese occupation in Malaya. c. Discuss the negative effects of the Japanese colonisation in Malaya that had an impact on the relationship between races. 2. List two bodies in the Malay Peninsular that were based on Nationalistic policies. 3. State two form of cooperation that became the basis of the Alliance Party. 4. Give two benefits gained by the people of Sabah and Sarawak upon joining Malaysia.