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It is the conceptual structure/general plan of study within which research work is conducted, it constitute the blue print for

the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It focuses on the data collection methods, the research instruments utilized and the sampling plan to be used

For Example: an Architect prepares a blueprint before he approves a construction. An army prepares a strategy before launching an attack. An artist makes a design before he executes his ideas.

So, the researcher makes a plan of his study before

undertaking the research work Thus, It will enable to save time and resources Such a plan of study or blue print for study is called a research design or research strategy.

it is the outline/the scheme and the paradigm of the

operation of the variables related to the study. it is the frame of plan on the basis of which a researcher performs his research work. Research designs can be taken as strategy for the research work rather than plan.

It contains the decisions of the following questions related to the

area of study of research. i. Why is the study being made? ii Where will the study be carried out? iii. What is the study about? iv. How the data will be collected? v. What will be the sampling design? vi. What period of time is required ? vii What types of observation is taken? viii. What types of population is being observed? ix. What techniques of data processing and analysis is taken? x. In what style the report of research have to prepare?

Research Design :
According to Kerlinger (1986) Research design is the

plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance.

According to P V Young A research design is the

logical and systematic planning and directing of a piece of research.

According to R L Aekoff Design is the process of

making decisions before the situation arises in which the decision is to be carried out.

Types of Research Design :

According to task
i. Sampling design ii. Observation design

iii. Statistical design

iv. Operational design

Research Design :
Sampling design:
Sampling design deals with the different method of

selecting items to be included and observed for the given study. It can be broadly divided in to two classes. Non probability sampling Probability sampling

Observational design:
It relates to the conditions under which the

observations are to be made. It is concerned with the decision on the following questions related to observations i. What should be observed? ii. What type of method of observation should be taken? iii. How the accuracy of observation can be assured?

It can be divided into following categories.

Participant observational design Non-participant observational design

Controlled observational design

Non-Controlled observational design

Statistical design
It is concerned with How many items are to be

observed How the information / data collected which statistical tools are used for data analysis Operational design It deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational design can be carried out.

Objective of Research Design :

Two basic purposes:
1 To provide the solution to the research problem: As validly, objectively, accurately and economically 2To control variance : Maximization of experimental variance To control extraneous variables Minimize error variance

Features of good Research Design :

A good research design Minimizes biasness
Maximizes the reliability of data collected and analysis Use appropriate method of data collection and analysis

Gives smallest experimental error

Formulate the problem on the basis of the purpose of

study Indicates the availability of time and money

Advantages of Research Design :

Provides more accurate result
minimizes the expenditure of money and efforts provides the best methods and techniques of data

collection and analysis It minimizes the uncertainty and confusion associated with any research work. It minimizes the waste of time It gives guideline to the researcher and moves him on a right track

Main steps in preparing Research design :

Title of the study and statement of the problem Review of previous literature Definition of concepts or theoretical principles Coverage and scope of the study Objective of the study Formulation of hypothesis Sampling design Construction of schedule or questionnaire Data collection Analysis of data Interpretation of results Reporting the findings

Types of Research Design

i. Descriptive research design
ii. Exploratory or Formulative research design iii. Experimental research design

iv. Diagnostic research design

Descriptive Research Design :

It is basically interested in detail description of the

phenomenon, group or community.

Example: like number of workers in a factory, their age

distribution, level of education, state of their physical health, their community wise distribution and so one.

Descriptive Research Design :

It is essentially a fact finding approach relative largely

to the present and abstracting generalizations by the cross sectional study of the current situation. It is extensively used in the physical and natural sciences Example physical measures, zoological dissects and geological studies of rocks, biological classification etc. This type of research study is generally conducted to know the views of the people toward any things.

Descriptive Research Design

objective to acquire knowledge.

There are certain areas where knowledge has not yet

properly developed. In such a case the investigator has to confine him to descriptive research design.

Types of Research Design :

Purposes of Descriptive Research Design
To collect detailed information that describes existing

phenomena. To identify problems or justify current conditions and practices. To make comparison and evaluation. To determine what others are doing with similar problems or situations and benefit from their experience in making future plans and decisions.

Limitations of descriptive research design:

Makes description and end itself. Essentially creative and demands the discovery of facts

in order to leads solution of the problems. It dominates statistical tools to present the facts in terms of average, correlation; dispersion .

Exploratory research design :

Also known as Formulative Research design. The main purpose of such designs is that of

formulating a research problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. Such a study can have other functions as well, namely more structured investigation of phenomena which an investigator wishes, to study in the subsequent etc. Helps in clarifying concepts, establishing priorities for further research etc.

Exploratory studies represent the earlier stage of a

science. This design is initial step of problem finding In fact much of social research is of exploratory nature. Since most of the theories in social sciences are either too general or too specific therefore these dont provide clear guidance for empirical research.

Generally following three steps are considered

Survey of concerning literature Experience survey

Case Study:

Experimental Research Design :

The Experimental Method provides a logical systematic way to answer

the question this is done under carefully controlled conditions, what will happen?. To provide a precise answer, experimenters manipulate certain influences or variables and observe how the condition or behavior of the subject is affected or changed. Experimenters control or isolate the variables in such a way that they can be reasonably sure that the effects they observe can be attributed to the variables they have manipulated, rather than to some other uncontrolled influences. The classic method of the laboratory is the most powerful method for discovering and developing a body of knowledge about the prediction and control of events. The experimental method has been used with some success in the school classroom, where, to some degree, variables cab be controlled.

Experimental design provides a plan or blueprint for

experimentation that enables the researcher to test hypothesis by reaching valid conclusion about relationships between independent and dependent variable.
Experimentation is a sophisticated technique for

problem solving and may not be an appropriate activity for the beginning researcher.

Manipulation: the researcher does something to one

group of subjects on the study. Control: The researcher introduces one or more control groups to compare with the experimental group. Randomization :The researcher takes care to random assign subjects to the control and experimental groups. Each subject is given an equal chance of being assigned to either group by assigning them number and blindly selecting the number for each group.

Diagnostic Research Design :

Like descriptive research design diagnostic research design

basically interested in detailed description of the phenomenon, group or community.

The diagnostic design is concerned with discovering and

testing certain variables with respect to their associations or dissociation.

A diagnostic study is concerned with an existing social

problem and its basic nature and cause. The diagnostic design is concerned with the causes as well as the treatment.

Objectives :
to diagnoses the problem, to accurately specify the

characteristics, to determine the frequencies of significant variables and to find out whether certain variances are associated.
The research deign for this studies must be carefully

planned so that subjective bias can be eliminated.

The most important step of the research this design

would be objectively define questions, which are to be answered.

Historical Research Design :

It is connected with past phenomena.
It is a design of collection, evaluating, verifying, and

synthesizing past evidence systematically and objectively to reach a conclusion.

The present observed phenomenon can be explained if

the proper analysis of factors of the past is well done.

It is to be noted that past is the starting pointy of

future. Hence historical research design is useful for making predictions or for forecasting in future in the field of population, student enrollment, Demand supply, import , export etc

quantifying the dependent variable

Importance of measurement
research conclusions are only as good as

the data on which they are based observations must be quantifiable in order to subject them to statistical analysis the dependent variable(s) must be measured in any quantitative study. the more precise, sensitive the method of measurement, the better.

Direct measures
physiological measures
heart rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin

response, eye movement, magnetic resonance imaging, etc.

behavioral measures
in a naturalistic setting.

example: videotaping leave-taking behavior (how people say goodbye) at an airport. in a laboratory setting example: videotaping married couples interactions in a simulated environment

Self reports or paper pencil measures

oral interviews
either in person or by phone

surveys and questionnaires

self-administered, or other

administered on-line surveys

standardized scales and instruments

examples: ethnocentrism scale, dyadic

adjustment scale, self monitoring scale

Indirect measures
relying on observers estimates or perceptions
indirect questioning example: asking executives at advertising firms if they think their competitors use subliminal messages example: asking subordinates, rather than managers, what managerial style they perceive their supervisors employ.

unobtrusive measures
measures of accretion, erosion, etc. example: garbology researchstudying discarded trash for clues about lifestyles, eating habits, consumer purchases, etc.

Miscellaneous measures
archived data
example: court records of spouse abuse example: number of emails sent to/from

students to instructors retrospective data example: family history of stuttering example: employee absenteeism or turn-over rates in an organization

Levels of data
Nominal Ordinal Interval (Scale in SPSS)

Ratio (Scale in SPSS)

ratio interval


Nominal data
a more crude form of data:

limited possibilities for statistical analysis categories, classifications, or groupings pigeon-holing or labeling merely measures the presence or absence of something gender: male or female immigration status; documented, undocumented zip codes, 90210, 92634, 91784

nominal categories arent

hierarchical, one category isnt better or higher than another assignment of numbers to the categories has no mathematical meaning nominal categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive

Nominal data-continued
nominal data is usually

represented descriptively graphic representations include tables, bar graphs, pie charts. there are limited statistical tests that can be performed on nominal data if nominal data can be converted to averages, advanced statistical analysis is possible

Ordinal data
more sensitive than nominal

data, but still lacking in precision exists in a rank order, hierarchy, or sequence highest to lowest, best to worst, first to last allows for comparisons along some dimension example: Mona is prettier than Fifi, Rex is taller than Niles

1st, 2nd, 3rd places finishes

in a horse race top 10 movie box office successes of 2006 bestselling books (#1, #2, #3 bestseller, etc.)




More about ordinal data

no assumption of equidistance of numbers increments or gradations arent necessarily uniform researchers do sometimes treat ordinal data as if it were interval data there are limited statistical tests available with ordinal data Top 10 Retirement Spots, according to USN&WR Sept. 20, 2007 Boseman, Montana Concord, New Hampshire Fayetteville Arkansas Hillsboro, Oregon Lawrence, Kansas Peachtree City, Georgia Prescott, Arizona San Francisco, California Smyrna, Tennessee Venice, Florida

Interval data (scale data)

represents a more sensitive type of data

or sophisticated form of measurement assumption of equidistance applies to data or numbers gathered

gradations, increments, or units of measure

are uniform, constant

Scale data: Likert scales, Semantic

Differential scales Stanford Binet I.Q. test most standardized scales or diagnostic instruments yield numerical scores

More about interval data

scores can be compared to one another, but

in relative, rather than absolute terms.

example: If Fred is rated a 6 on attractiveness,

and Barney a 3, it doesnt mean Fred is twice as attractive as Barny

no true zero point (a complete absence of

the phenomenon being measured)

or zero self esteem

example: A person cant have zero intelligence

scale data is usually aggregated or converted

to averages amenable to advanced statistical analysis

Ratio data
the most sensitive, powerful type of data
ratio measures contain the most precise

information about each observation that is made examples: time as a unit of measure distance as a unit of measure (setting an odometer to zero before beginning a trip) weight and height as units of measure

More about ratio data

more prevalent in the natural

sciences, less common in social science research includes a true zero point (complete absence of the phenomenon being measured) allows for absolute comparisons
If Fred can lift 200 lbs and Barney

can lift 100 lbs, Fred can lift twice as much as Barney, e.g., a 2:1 ratio

Examples of levels of data

nominal: number of males versus females who are

HCOM majors ordinal: small, medium, and large size drinks at a movie theater. interval: scores on a self-esteem scale of Hispanic and Anglo managers ratio: runners individual times in the L.A. marathon (e.g., 2:15, 2: 21, 2:33, etc.)

Application to experimental design

As far as the dependent variable is concerned:
always employ the highest level of measurement

available, e.g, interval or ratio, if possible rely on nominal or ordinal measurement only if other forms of data are unavailable, impractical, etc. try to find established, valid, reliable measures, rather than inventing your own home-made measures.


Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data - for example as part of a process improvement or similar project. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record, to make decisions about important issues, to pass information on to others. Primarily, data is collected to provide information regarding a specific topic.

It contains the following activity.

1) Pre collection activity 2)Collection 3)Present Findings

1) Primary data

Observation method Interview method questionnaire schedule method Case study method Survey method Panel method

2) secondary data


1) Data collection techniques

Various data collection techniques can be used such as: * Using available information * Observing * Interviewing (face-to-face) * Administering written questionnaires * Focus group discussions * Projective techniques, mapping, scaling

Data collection techniques and tools

Advantages and disadvantages of various data collection techniques

2) The importance of combining different data collection techniques



Possible sources of bias during data collection: 1. Defective instruments, 2. Observer bias: 3. Effect of the interview on the informant: 4. Information bias:

A) Harm may be caused B) methods for dealing issues