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What is ARDUINO?
Arduino is a rapid electronic prototyping platform composed by the Arduino board and the Arduino IDE.
It is an open-source project, software/hardware is extremely accessible and very flexible to be customized and extended It is flexible, offers a variety of digital and analog inputs, SPI and serial interface and digital and PWM outputs It is easy to use, connects to computer via USB and communicates using standard serial protocol, runs in standalone mode and as interface connected to PC/Macintosh computers It is inexpensive, around 30 euro per board and comes with free authoring software Arduino is backed up by a growing online community, lots of source code is already available and we can share and post our examples for others to use, too! Arduino is a great tool for developing interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors and controlling a variety of lights, motors and other outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone or they can be connected to a computer using USB. The Arduino will be seen by the computer as a standard serial interface.
BLOAK DIAGROM OF ARDUINO .
3V3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3. POWER PINS: VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). It also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 . and can damage your board.12V). Maximum current draw is 50 mA. access it through this pin. A 3.This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. the USB connector (5V).3V pins bypasses the regulator. Memory: The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0. . if supplying voltage via the power jack. You can supply voltage through this pin.5 KB used for the bootloader). 5V. or.
some pins have specialized functions: Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). it's off . 6. 9. They operate at 5 volts. LED: 13. In addition. SPI: 10 (SS). 5. When the pin is HIGH value. digitalWrite(). and digitalRead() functions. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip. 10. PWM: 3. and 11. Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. a rising or falling edge. See the attachInterrupt() function for details. or a change in value.Input and Output: Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. 12 (MISO). when the pin is LOW. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. 11 (MOSI). using pinMode(). External Interrupts: 2 and 3. the LED is on. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function. 13 (SCK).
examples of arduino ARDUINO NANO BACK&NANO FRONT .
Ground. PB6 can be used as input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-upresistors are activated. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings. Port B (PB7:0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2:-Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). GND:.. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active..1 input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set. If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source. PB7 can be used as output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. As inputs.6 is used as TOSC2. PB7. The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. .even if the clock is not running. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings.Digital supply voltage. VCC:.
even if the clock is not running. even if the clock is not running.Port C (PC5:0):-Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The PC5. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. PC6 is used as a Reset input. Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-upresistors are activated. Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. PC6/RESET:If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed. As inputs.0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Port D (PD7:0):-Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). even if the clock is not running .. As inputs. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is unprogrammed. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C. The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset.
it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle. and ADC7:6. PC3:0. ADC76:. AREF:. If the ADC is used. These pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels. ADC7:6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter. Note that PC6.AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.4 use digital supply voltage.. VCC.(TQFP and QFN/MLF package only) In the TQFP and QFN/MLF package. even if the ADC is not used.AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC. the ATmega48/88/168 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.AVCC:. . OVERVIEW:-The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture.
. so has the technology associated with microcontrollers. STK500 Development Board. Use AVR Studio to compile code in ANSI C. control digital outputs. interrupt capabilities. Newer microcontrollers are much faster. and populate the project with preexisting code. high-speed timers and counters. self-contained computer. and monitor digital inputs. etc. it can be programmed to interact with both the hardware of the system and the user. and have a host of input and output features that dwarf the ability of earlier models.Atmel ATmega168 Microcontroller Introducton: Identify the Atmel ATmega16 microcontroller. Use AVR Studio to program the ATmega16 microcontroller A microcontroller often serves as the “brain” of a mechatronic system. Create a new project in AVR Studio. Like a mini. and associated hardware. Most modern controllers have analog-to-digital converters. have more memory. outputs that can be pulse-width modulated. serial communication ports. Even the most basic microcontroller can perform simple math operations. As the computer industry has evolved.
000 EEPROM – Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C() – Optional boot code section with independent lock bits In-system programming by on-chip boot program True read-while-write operation . low power Atmel® AVR® 8-bit microcontroller • Advanced RISC architecture – 131 powerful instructions – most single clock cycle execution – 32 × 8 general purpose working registers – Fully static operation – Up to 20 MIPS throughput at 20MHz – On-chip 2-cycle multiplier • High endurance non-volatile memory segments – 4/8/16 Kbytes of in-system self-programmable flash program memory – 256/512/512 bytes EEPROM – 512/1K/1Kbytes internal SRAM – Write/erase cyles: 10.000 flash/100. • High performance.
ATmega168V-10PU Atmega168 20AU 0629 .
WHAT IS DTMF:- DTMF is a signalling system for identifying the keys or better say the number dialled on a pushbutton or DTMF keypad. DTMF is a multi frequency tone dialling system used by the push button keypads in telephone and mobile sets to convey the number or key dialled by the caller. DTMF (Dual tone multi frequency) as the name suggests uses a combination of two sine wave tones to represent a key. This was replaced by multi frequency (MF) dialling. . These tones are called row and column frequencies as they correspond to the layout of a telephone keypad. DTMF has enabled the long distance signalling of dialled numbers in voice frequency range over telephone lines. This has eliminated the need of telecom operator between the caller and the callee and evolved automated dialling in the telephone switching centres. The early telephone systems used pulse dialling or loop disconnect signalling.
AND IT WAS MANY YEARS BEFORE THESE KEYS BECAME WIDELY USED FOR VERTICAL SERVICE CODES SUCH AS *67 IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND CANADA TO SUPPRESS CALLER ID. C AND D. THE ENGINEERS HAD ENVISIONED PHONES BEING USED TO ACCESS COMPUTERS. THIS LED TO THE ADDITION OF THE NUMBER SIGN (#. . AND SURVEYED A NUMBER OF COMPANIES TO SEE WHAT THEY WOULD NEED FOR THIS ROLE.' 'POUND' OR 'DIAMOND' IN THIS CONTEXT . THE LETTERED KEYS WERE DROPPED FROM MOST PHONES. THE COLUMN FREQUENCIES BELONG TO HIGH GROUP FREQUENCIES. ALSO THE FREQUENCIES FOR DTMF ARE SO CHOSEN THAT NONE HAVE A HARMONIC RELATIONSHIP WITH THE OTHERS AND THAT MIXING THE FREQUENCIES WOULD NOT PRODUCE SUM OR PRODUCT FREQUENCIES THAT COULD MIMIC ANOTHER VALID TONE.A DTMF KEYPAD (GENERATOR OR ENCODER) GENERATES A SINUSOIDAL TONE WHICH IS MIXTURE OF THE ROW AND COLUMN FREQUENCIES. THE ROW FREQUENCIES ARE LOW GROUP FREQUENCIES. IN THE END.'HASH' OR 'GATE' IN THE UK) AND ASTERISK OR "STAR" (*) KEYS AS WELL AS A GROUP OF KEYS FOR MENU SELECTION: A. THIS PREVENTS MISINTERPRETATION OF THE HARMONICS. SOMETIMES CALLED 'OCTOTHORPE. THE HIGH-GROUP FREQUENCIES (THE COLUMN TONES) ARE SLIGHTLY LOUDER THAN THE LOW-GROUP TO COMPENSATE FOR THE HIGH-FREQUENCY ROLL OFF OF VOICE AUDIO SYSTEMS. B.
Mobile phone on the receiving side: The mobile phone on the receiver side picks up the phone automatically after 5seconds. Then each tone is verified by the programmed microcontroller and once a correct sequence of code is received. once the call gets picked up. The Microcontroller: The five output bits of the decoder IC serve as an input to port 1 of the microcontroller. . output corresponding to the tones sent by the user is made available at the port0. Every key has to be pressed for a minimum amount of time to get it latched at the decoder IC. Phone on the transmitting side: The person who wants to switch on/off any device kept at the controller side calls from a phone and. enters the password and tones for a corresponding device. which is connected to relay through a relay driver. and then makes the tones available to the DTMF tone decoder IC through the headphone jack of the phone.
which is connected to relay through a relay driver. As soon as the relay gets driven by the microcontroller the device gets switched on/off. ASSUMPTIONS:1.The Microcontroller: The five output bits of the decoder IC serve as an input to port 1 of the microcontroller. . 3. output corresponding to the tones sent by the user is made available at the port0. The controlled appliances will have to have an electrical interface in order to be controlled by microcontroller. 2. The user and control unit will establish communication via GSM. All service charges from service provider apply. to which the home appliances are connected. Relay Circuitry: The output from the port0 of the microcontroller is given to the relay driver IC which drives the corresponding relay. Home Appliances: One terminal of each appliance is connected to relay and the other terminal is connected to 230v AC. Then each tone is verified by the programmed microcontroller and once a correct sequence of code is received.