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Processing & Analysis of Data- Processing operations; problems in processing; types of analysis Hypothesis Testing- Chi-square test, Z test, t-test, f-test.

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Unit IV

Data

Data The word data is derived from Latin language. It is plural of Datum (But Data is usually used as a singular term.) Datum (singular) Data (plural). Data is any collection of facts of figures. The data is the raw material to be processed by a computer. Example Names of students, marks obtained in the examination, designation of employees, addresses, quantity, rate, sales figures or anything that is input to the computer is data. Even pictures, photographs, drawings, charts and maps can be treated as data. Computer processes the data and produces the output or result

Types of Data

Mainly Data is divided into two types: 1. Numeric Data 2. Character Data 1. Numeric Data The data which is represented in the form of numbers is known as Numeric Data. This includes 0-9 digits, a decimal point (.), +, /, sign and the letters E or D. 2. Character Data Character data falls into two groups. i. String Data ii. Graphical Data String Data String data consists of the sequence of characters. Characters may be English alphabets, numbers or space. The space, which separates two words, is also a character. The string data is further divided into two types. a. Alphabetic Data b. Alphanumeric Data Graphical Data It is possible that pictures, charts and maps can be treated as data. The scanner is normally used to enter this type of data. The common use of this data is found in the National Identity Card.

Information

A collection of data which conveys some meaningful idea is information. It may provide answers to questions like who, which, when, why, what, and how. or The raw input is data and it has no significance when it exists in that form. When data is collated or organized into something meaningful, it gains significance. This meaningful organization is information or Observations and recordings are done to obtain data, while analysis is done to obtain information

Data Processing

Data processing: Any operation or set of operations performed upon data, whether or not by automatic means, such as collection, recording, organization, storage, adaptation or alteration to convert it into useful information.

Once data is collected, it is processed to convert it into useful information. The data is processed again and again until the accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle. The data processing is very important activity and involves very careful planning. Usually, data processing activity involves three basic activities. Input 2. Processing 3. Output

1.

1. Input

It is the process through which collected data is transformed into a form that computer can understand. It is very important step because correct output result totally depends on the input data. In input step, following activities can be performed. i) Verification The collected data is verified to determine whether it is correct as required. For example, the collected data of all B.Sc. students that appeared in final examination of the university is verified. If errors occur in collected data, data is corrected or it is collected again. ii) Coding The verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so that it can be processed through computer. iii) Storing The data is stored on the secondary storage into a file. The stored data on the storage media will be given to the program as input for processing.

The term processing denotes the actual data manipulation techniques such as classifying, sorting, calculating, summarizing, comparing, etc. that convert data into information. i) Classification The data is classified into different groups and subgroups, so that each group or subgroup of data can be handled separately. ii) Storing The data is arranged into an order so that it can be accessed very quickly as and when required. iii) Calculations The arithmetic operations are performed on the numeric data to get the required results. For example, total marks of each student are calculated. iv) Summarizing The data is processed to represent it in a summarized form. ft means that the summary of data is prepared for top management. For example, the summary of the data of student is prepared to show the percentage of pass and fail student examination etc.

3. Output

After completing the processing step, output is generated. The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. Mostly, the output is stored on the storage media for later user. In output step, following activities can be performed. i) Retrieval Output stored on the storage media can be retrieved at any time. For example, result of students is prepared and stored on the disk. This result can be retrieved when required for different purposes. ii) Conversion The generated output can be converted into different forms. For example, it can be represented into graphical form. iii) Communication The generated output is sent to different places. For example, weather forecast is prepared and. sent to different agencies and newspapers etc. where it is required.

1. Manual Data Processing:

This method of data processing involves human intervention. The manual process of data entry implies many opportunities for errors, such as delays in data capture, as every single data field has to be keyed in manually, a high amount of operator misprints or typos, high labor costs from the amount of manual labor required. Manual processing also implies higher labor expenses in regards to spending for equipment and supplies, rent, etc.

EDP

EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication. EDP evolved from "DP" (data processing), a term that was created when most computing input was physically put into the computer in punched card form or in ATM cards form and output as punched cards or paper reports.

3.Real time processing In a real time processing, there is a continual input, process and output of data. Data has to be processed in a small stipulated time period (real time), otherwise it will create problems for the system. For example, when a bank customer withdraws a sum of money from his or her account it is vital that the transaction be processed and the account balance updated as soon as possible, allowing both the bank and customer to keep track of funds.

4.Batch processing In a batch processing group of transactions collected over a period of time is collected, entered, processed and then the batch results are produced. Batch processing requires seperate programs for input, process and output. It is an efficient way of processing high volume of data. For example: Payroll system, Examination system and billing system.

Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing

Decision-making process Statistics used as a tool to assist with decision-making Scientific hypothesis is a statement of the predicted relationship amongst the variables Null hypothesis is a statement of no relationship amongst the variables

Total Population Sample reared in sterile environment Sample reared in enriched environment

Total population of rats reared in sterile environment Sample used in study Total population of rats reared in enriched environment Sample used in study

Your research design determines the kind of statistical test you will use. Experimental studies test hypotheses while quasi-experimental studies tend to focus more on generating hypotheses.

Research Designs/Approaches

Type Purpose Time frame Degree of control

High

Examples

Experimental

Test for cause/ current effect relationships Test for cause/ Current or past effect relationships without full control

Quasiexperimental

Comparing two types of treatments for anxiety. Moderate Gender to high differences in visual/spatial abilities

Research Designs/Approaches

Type Purpose Time frame

Current (crosssectional) or past Past & current

Degree of control

Low to medium

Examples

Examine relationship between two variables Examine the effect of past event on current functioning.

Low to medium

Relationship between studying style and grade point average. Relationship between history of child abuse & depression.

Research Designs/Approaches

Type Purpose Time frame Degree of control

Low to moderate

Examples

Examine relat. Future betw. 2 var. predictive where 1 is measured later. Examine Future change in a var. over time in overlapping groups.

Low to moderate

Relat. betw. history of depression & development of cancer. How motherchild negativity changed over adolescence.

Research Designs/Approaches

Type Purpose Time frame

Current

Degree of control

None or low

Examples

Survey

Qualitative

Assess opinions or characteristics that exist at a given time. Discover potential relationships; descriptive.

Past or current

None or Low

Tests of Significance

The Question

Group Difference between means of 2 diff. groups Diff. betw. 2 means of related groups Diff. betw. means of 3 groups Group Relationships: betw. 2 variables Group Relationships: betw. 2 correlations

H0: g1 = g2 t-independent

t-dependent

H0: g1 = g2 = g3 ANOVA

H0: xy = 0

H0: ab = cd

t-test for sig. Of correlation t-test for sig. Of diff. betw. 2 corr.

Experimental Designs

Examines differences between experimentally manipulated groups or variables (e.g., one group gets a certain drug and the other gets a placebo). At minimum, experimental (independent) variable has two levels (e.g., drug vs. placebo).

Advantage is that you can determine causality. Disadvantage is cost and many variables cannot

Null hypothesis

Results are due to chance H0

Results are due to a true effect H1

Null hypothesis

Results are due to chance (H0)

Results are due to a true effect (H1)

Assess

Assuming H0 is true, what is the probability or

Null hypothesis

Results are due to chance (H0)

Results are due to a true effect (H1)

Assess

Assuming H0 is true, what is the probability or

Decide

If the chance is small enough, reject H0 and infer

Type of Experimental Research Design

Between Subject Within Subject

More than two groups or more then two levels of the independent variable

Two groups

Two-way ANOVA

Correlated t-tests

One-way ANOVA

Level of Related Samples measurement

Nominal Ordinal

McNemar

Independent Samples

Fisher

test

exact

X2

Sign

test

Interval

Median

T-independent test

Level of Related Samples measurement

Nominal Ordinal Interval

Cochran

Independent Samples

X2

test one-

Friedman

Kruskal-Wallis

ANOVA

Repeated

way ANOVA

ANOVA

ANOVA

Level of measurement

Nominal Ordinal Interval

Correlation

Contingency

coefficient

Spearman

Pearsons

Correlation

Coefficient

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Normal Curve

Critical Values of T

df = N-2

Need to determine the p value for rejecting the null hypothesis (alpha) Need to determine if this is a 1-tailed or 2tailed level of significance.

T-Values

What is one of the major criticisms of employing statistical tests of the null hypothesis to determine if effects are true?

Does not take into account the size of the difference between means (effect size)

F-ratio = MSbet MSwithin Essentially is the between group variance divided by the within group variance. If the groups come from similar populations, the variances between the groups will be similar to the variance within groups (null hypothesis is not rejected).

ANOVA

Variability due to the effect of the independent

Variability in data with the treatment groups that

is due to chance since if treatment effect was consistent, all subjects within a treatment group would experience similar magnitude of effect.

F-ratio = MSbet MSwithin The MS refers to the mean square and is the sums of squares divided by the appropriate degrees of freedom. Df for MSbet is the number of groups minus 1. Df for MSwithin is the total number of scores in the experiment minus the number of groups.

ANOVA

MSbet = treatment effect + chance variability MSwithin = chance variability

Two-Way ANOVA

Where you have 2 independent variables, each having at least 2 levels. For example,

Drug dose (none vs. 5 mg)

Factorial design so you can test both main effects and interaction effects

Where you have 2 independent variables, each having at least 2 levels. For example,

Drug dose (none vs. 5 mg) Delivery mood (intravenous vs. oral)

Pre-treatment, 3 and 6 months follow-up

Factorial design so you can test both main effects and interaction effects (3-way interaction effects)

Null hypothesis can be rejected but not accepted Arguments made for allowing some flexibility in being able to conclude the null hypothesis is true;

No other studies of the phenomenon have

rejected the null hypothesis P value for the test of the null hypothesis is large (e.g., > .20 or .40). Research design is sufficiently powerful

At p < .05 there is a 5% chance (5 in 100) of

External Validity

Chapter 14

Goal is to understand the underlying laws governing the behaviour of organisms. The extent to which the results of your study help inform one about these underlying laws, the more valuable the findings. Limits to the importance of the findings are the internal/external validity.

External Validity

Extent to which the results of the study can be generalized across different persons, settings, and times. Typically think of generalizing to specific populations (e.g., North American elementary school students) than world at large. Best safeguard is random selection but not usually feasible.

Population Validity

Generalizing to the defined population (i.e., target population) from which the sample was drawn. Sample is the experimentally accessible population.

Population Validity

Target Population

Sample

Population Validity

Treatment results may not be exactly

Even willingness to volunteer for studies have been shown to result in a selection by treatment interaction effect.

Ecological Validity

Extent to which the results can be generalized across settings or environmental conditions.

E.g., Would the treatment effect observed in

patients recruited from a 1st class medical centre be the same as the the treatment effect observed in patients recruited from a local community hospital?

Ecological Validity

Multiple-Treatment Interference

Sequencing effect whereby exposure to one

treatment influences responses to another treatment; or Exposure to one experiment influences response in another experiment (e.g., sophisticated participants).

Ecological Validity

Hawthorne Effect

Knowing one is in a study can affect ones

Effects are simply due to novelty and wear off

Ecological Validity

Experimenter Effect

Enthusiastic experimenter/clinician may get

different effects than a clinician who is implementing the treatment in routine care.

Pre-testing Effect

Administering a pre-test may sensitive the

participant in such a way that he/she may respond differently to the experiment than what would have occurred without a pre-test.

Temporal Validity

Results might vary depending on the time

elapsed between presentation of the independent variable and the measurement of the dependent variable.

Temporal Validity

Seasonal Variation

Variation that appears regularly over time (e.g.,

change in traffic accident rates between daylight savings time and non-daylight savings time). Fixed-time variation variation at specific, predictable time points Variable-time variation dont know when variation will occur but when it occurs, there are predictable responses.

Temporal Validity

Cyclical Variation

Predictable variation within people or other

organisms

Personological Variation

Variation in the characteristics of the individual

over time

Internal validity ; external validity

In testing for between group differences, you want to minimize within group variability and maximize between group differences To do so you want to ensure high control over factors that could confound the results but this often results in increasingly artificial experimental conditions.

When you dont need to demonstrate that X will happen but rather X can happen. Sometimes the main goal is to test a theory and extent to which it reflects real-life is less important.

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