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Implementation of a phased array antenna for the 2.

45 GHz ISM band
Undergrad thesis

Presented By: Alejandro Fuentes Ricardo Pérez

260725 260769

National university of Colombia GMUN - CMUN group Conrad project and our project logos. 2008 http://gmun.unal.edu.co/cmun

Source: [1]

Block diagram for field test setup

UNAL 2008  Page 2

Source: [2] UNAL 2008  Page 3 .Measurements of radiation patterns Use standard spherical coordinate system for antenna measurements.

Movable-line-of-sight The source antenna is moved trough to the circumference centered at the phase center of the test antenna.Basic antenna-range configurations Fixed-line-of-sight  The test antenna is rotated about a appropriate axis. UNAL 2008  Page 4 .

polarization and power gain. relative phase.Antenna radiation field characterization  Characterize completely measure: relative amplitude.  Characterize is function of space coordinates.  Frecuency of operation is a parameter. UNAL 2008  Page 5 .  R is fixed and θ.Φ are variables in a given radiation pattern.

UNAL 2008  Page 6 .Considerations  The coupling between source and test antennas.  The phase curvature of the illuminating wave front.  Interference from spurious radiating sources.  The transverse and longitudinal amplitude taper of the illuminating wave front.

FAR-FIELD MEASUREMENTS UNAL 2008  Page 7 .

etc.  Design over a flat area.Elevated range (free-space) Source: [4]  Use when test and source antennas are located on roofs or towers. UNAL 2008  Page 8 .

 Be careful with materials of tower. UNAL 2008  Page 9 .Slant range (free-space) Source: [2]  Use less land than elevated range.

Compact range (free-space) Source: [4] Create uniform plane wave in short distances. UNAL 2008  Page 10 .

UNAL 2008  Page 11 .Ground reflection range Source: [4] Use reflections to create constructive interference.

this effects can be eliminated by sharp filters.  In outdoor ranges external signals cause measurement errors. UNAL 2008  Page 12 .Considerations  Elevation range is common in medium size antennas measurement.  The compact range is limited by antenna size and low operation frequency range.

NEAR-FIELD MEASUREMENTS UNAL 2008  Page 13 .

UNAL 2008  Page 14 . Use small RF antenna as source antenna.Types Planar near-field Cylindrical near-field Spherical near-field 1. 2. Separation between source and test antenna about 4 or 10 wavelengths.

 Source antenna moves with precision at the XY plane.Planar near-field measurement Source: [4]  Scan in X and Y coordinates. UNAL 2008  Page 15 .

 Source antenna moves linearly.  Accurately angular coverage for pattern.Cylindrical near-field measurement Source: [4]  AUT (Antenna Under Test) gives ΔΦ. UNAL 2008  Page 16 .

UNAL 2008  Page 17 .Spherical near-field measurement Source: [4]  AUT gives ΔΦ around Z axis for variable θ.  Source antenna is fixed in space.

ANECHOIC CHAMBER UNAL 2008  Page 18 .

UNAL 2008  Page 19 .  Ideal measurement: uniform plane wave. Types  Rectangular anechoic chamber  Tapered anechoic chamber Free-space ranges: null effects of surroundings Reflections ranges: use reflections to produce plane wave.Anechoic chamber Overview Purpose  Simulate free-space without electromagnetic contamination.

Types Rectangular anechoic chamber Tapered anechoic chamber UNAL 2008  Page 20 .

ceiling and floor. Where: R: Separation between source and test antennas W: Width or height of chamber Source: [2] UNAL 2008  Page 21 .Rectangular anechoic chamber  Free-space conditions  Reflect energy to test region  No part of Main lobe is incident upon sidewalls.

Tapered anechoic chamber  Reflections from sidewalls contribute to field.  Source antenna position is determined experimentally  High frequencies become more difficult to place source antenna near to the apex. Where: ht: Perpendicular distance from source antenna to chamber wall R: Separation between source and test antennas hr: Perpendicular distance from test antenna to chamber wall Source: [2] λ: Wavelength UNAL 2008  Page 22 .

sección 6. “Intorduction to antenna measurement." ANSI/IEEE Std 149-1979. A. “The RF an microwave handbook. 2001. 6. http://www.” Microwave instrumentations technologies. ch. Antenna standards committee. "IEEE standard test procedures for antennas.home.9.agilent. 2. 3. measurements and Instrumentation. M.” http://www.com/upload/cmc_upload/All/ORFR-Theory. Orbit/fr Inc. 4.References 1. Fordham. “An Introduction to antenna test ranges.lehmaninc.pdf UNAL 2008  Page 23 .pdf J.” CRC press LLC.com/pdf/mag. 19 Dec 1979. Golio.