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Metamorphic rocks

When rocks are baked by heat of molten magma or squeezed by the movements of huge tectonic plates or by the pressure of overlying thick succession of rocks

They are altered or changed beyond their recognition  i.e. change in Chemical composition, texture and structure

Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphism Is the process that occur in rocks due to the effects of  High temperature  High pressure  Chemically active fluids .

  Low-grade metamorphism: Occurs at about 1000 C to 5000 C.  High-grade metamorphism: Occurs at > 5000 C . and Sed. and texture of rocks (Ig. comp.) which are subjected to temp. > 1000 C and pressure > 1000’s Mpa.Temperature  The source of temperature is either from magma or due to the depth factor Metamorphism usually result into change in min.

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Pressure UNIFORM PRESSURE .Lithostatic pressure.acts in all direction and affects only on solids resulting into deformation of shape and change in mineral composition .high temperature is not always associated.acts vertically downwards and affects the volume of both liquid & solids.due to tectonic forces . .increases with depth due to increase in overburden. to depth factor) .increases with depth upto some extent. high temperature is also associated with (due to depth factor) .Stress.due to overburden . effective in the upper part of the crust. DIRECT or Differential PRESSURE .

min max inter Differential Stress Uniform Stress .

Granite Granite-Gneiss .

STRUCTURES IN METAMORPHIC ROCKS  Foliation: when platy. occurring in rock orient themselves parallel to one another (i. Random orientation Of minerals Preferred orientation Of minerals . perpendicular to the direction of maximum pressure or stress).e. sheet silicate minerals the micas: biotite and muscovite. chlorite. and serpentine). talc. lamellar or flaky minerals (eg.

) occurring in a rock orient themselves parallel to one another (perpendicular to direction of maxi. tourmaline etc. Pressure or stress) . Hornblende. Lineation: when prismatic or rod-like minerals (eg.

.New sheet-structure minerals tends to be parallel to the bedding planes during metamorphism.SLATY CLEAVAGE . .however.usually formed during the early stage of Low-grade Metamorphism due to lithostatic stress. the sheet minerals as well as foliation will no longer be parallel to the bedding planes. . further deep burial along the continental margin. such type of foliation in fine grained rocks is called slaty cleavage. .hence. compressional forces will cause deformation (folding).

Shale Slate .

where the mineral grains grows large in size as compare to that seen in slates -This develops a pronounced foliation where the preferred oriented minerals are seen.usually associated with intermediate grade of metamorphism.PHYLLITES . .

grain size is the main difference between the slaty structure and schistos structure.Grain size increases and can be seen by naked eye.usually formed during intermediate and high grade metamorphism . the coarse grained sheet-structure minerals show preferred orientation . .SCHISTOSE STRUCTURE . grains tends to enlarge with increasing grade of metamorphism.

where the sheet silicates and other minerals like quartz/feldspars/hornblende/pyroxene are segregated in distinct bands in the rocks.e. .GNEISSIC STRUCTURE .usually associated with high-grade regional metamorphism (where differential stress prevails I.known as gneissic banding. tectonic forces) .

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Classification of Metamorphic rocks based on texture/structures SLATE -strongly cleaved rock -cleavage planes are developed due to orientation of fine phyllosilcate grains eg. chlorite etc. giving silk appearance to cleavage surfaces -often cleavage planes less perfectly planar than slates . -individual grains too fine to be visible with naked eye -overall dull appearance PHYLLITE -similar to slate. but slightly coarser phyllosilicate grains -grains can be seen in hand specimen. biotite. Muscovite.

Varieties: --Orthogneiss: rocks formed from Igneous rocks -. kyanite etc.SCHIST -parallel alignment of moderately coarse grains (fabric=schistocity) -grains are visible by eye -mainly phyllosilicates and other minerals such as hornblende.paragneiss: rocks formed from Sedimentary rocks -metasedimentary gneisses . GNEISS -coarse grained rock (grain size several millimetres) and -foliated (planar fabric: either schistosity or compositional layering) -tendency for different minerals to segregate into layers parallel to foliation (gneissic layering): typically quartz and feldspar rich layers tend to separate from micaceous layers.

QUARTIZITE  -it comprise equidimensional minerals viz. quartz and feldspars  Non foliated. show GRANULOSE STRUCTURE .

Heat is generated by the friction of sliding along the zone.  . Cataclastic metamorphism is mere mechanical breakdown of rocks without any new mineral formation. however.Type of Metamorphism    Cataclastic Metamorphism This type of metamorphism occurs mainly due to direct pressure eg. sometime due to intense shearing few new minerals are formed. and the rocks tend to crushed and pulverized due to the sliding. when two bodies of rock slide past one another along a fault zone.

metamorphism is restricted to a zone surrounding the intrusion.  . The rocks formed are non-foliated fine-grained rocks called as HORNFELS.    Contact MetamorphismThis type of metamorphism occurs locally adjacent to the igneous intrusion. with high temp. and low stress There is little change in bulk composition of the rock Area surrounding the intrusion (Batholith) is heated by the magma. this zone is know as METAMORPHIC AUREOLE.

Rocks formed under such environment are usually strongly foliated. when two continental masses collide with one another resulting into mountain building activity. Compressive stresses result in folding of the rock   . such as slates. The differential stresses result from tectonic forces. which is subjected to intense deformation under direct or differential stress. schists. and gniesses. eg.   Regional Metamorphismmetamorphism occurs covering larger area.

Types of Metamorphic Rocks FOLIATED  The common foliated rocks in the order of increasing grain size are SLATE – PHYLLITE – SCHIST – GNEISS NON-FOLIATED Quartzites and hornfels .

cannot withstand great loads But since they are impermeable and split easily. Non-porous and impermeable nature increases the strength of the rock Foliated character to some extend improves workability Load perpendicular to foliated planes gives more stronger foundation . Hornblende etc. pyroxene. Economic importance: Since they are bad conductor of electricity– used in electrical industries for switch board base        GNEISS Gneissic rocks are rich in SILICA i. thin large sized slabs of uniform thickness can be extracted for roofing purpose.    Importance of Metamorphic rocksSLATES Fine grained impermeable.e. predominantly Quartz and Feldspars along with garnet. cleavable and soft Incompetent.

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sillimanite etc (prismatic). chlorite. muscovite. Hornblende. they are incompetent . Eg. tourmaline. which contributes in development of Schistose Structure. talc. kyanite etc. (platy) Cleavable nature of Schists is the main reason for their weakness. SCHIST Mainly composed of prismatic or platy minerals.If mineral assemblage is more or less similar to Granite (with less % mafic minerals) then: It is used as building stone As aggregate for making concrete As road metals etc. biotite.

Result disappearance of cementing material. can be used as concrete aggregate etc. Quartzites are compact. bedding planes. fossil content etc. very less porous and less permeable than the parent Sst.       QUARTZITE SANDSTONE (composed of quartz/feldspars/feldspathoid minerals) when under go metamorphism result into Quartzite. Predominance of Quartz makes the rock very hard and suitable for road metal. hard and strong. Granulose texture/structure (Granoblastic) makes them most competent rock amongst all other metamorphic rocks. Acts as strong foundation for any CE structure. Because metamorphism of Sst. .

     MARBLE Latin word “Marmor”– Shining stone. Calcareous metamorphic rock Though it shows granulose structure it is not as hard as Quartzite because of its Calcareous composition. but can withstand reasonable load. Calcite . Due to its pleasant colour and brilliant appearance when polished it is extensively used as building stone.