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HPEP,RC Puram

Speedtronic® Mark V Turbine Control System

Gas Turbine

Rotating Blow Torch Designed to Run at the Ragged Edge of Self Destruction

C

T

G

Control System for Gas Turbine
 

Gas turbine is controlled Speedtronic control system Control loops includes
     

Start-up Acceleration Speed Temperature Shutdown and Manual Control functions

Speedtronic Control loops  Major Control loops    Secondary control loops Acceleration Manual FSR and Shutdown Start-up Speed and Temperature  Output of these control loops is fed to a minimum value gate Display Fuel circuit Temperature Display Speed Acceleration Rate Display Start Up Shut Down Manual M I N FSR To Turbine .

Speedtronic Control loops  Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR)  Command signal for fuel flow  Controlling FSR   Lowest of the six control loops Establishes the fuel input to turbine @ rate required by system which is in control  Only ONE control loop will be in control at anytime.  The control loop which controls FSR is displayed in operator friendly CRT. .

Flame & Accelerate the turbine in such a manner as to minimize the Low cycle Fatigue of the hot gas path parts during the sequence Command signals to Turbine Accessories.  Allows proper fuel to establish   Software Sequencing involves   Safe and successful start-up   Software Sequencing ensures safe operation of Turbine .Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control  Startup control brings the gas turbine  Zero speed up to Operating speed. Starting device and Fuel control system depends on proper functioning of GT equipment.

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control

Control logic circuitry is associated not only with actuating control devices, but enables protective circuits and obtains permissive conditions before proceeding.

Control settings play a vital role in determining the proper sequencing.

Actual site specific control settings are generated by M/s GEICS,USA. L14HR Zero-Speed (Approx. 0% TNH) L14HM Min Speed (Approx.. 16% TNH) L14HA Accelerating Speed (Approx. 50% TNH) L14HS Operating speed (Approx..95% TNH)

Speed detection - by magnetic pickups
   

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control

Actual settings of speed relays are listed in Control
specification.

The control constants are programmed in <RST>
processors EEPROM.

Always ensure correct site specific, machine
specific control specification.

Consult your system designer for any queries.

Start-up Control - FSRSU

Open loop control

Uses preset levels of fuel command

Various Fuel levels

Zero, Fire, Warm-up, Accelerate and Max.

Typical values for Frame-6
   

Fire Warm-up Accelerate Maximum

15.62% 11.62% 19.82% 100%

Open Loop Control

FSRSU FSRACC FSRN FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN FSR MIN FSR = FSRSU .FSRSU  Startup control FSR (FSRSU) signal operates through the MIN value gate to ensure other control functions can limit FSR as required.Start-up Control .

FSRSU  Speedtronic Control Start-up software generates Fuel command signal (FSR). Speedtronic Control Software also sets the MAX and MIN limits for FSR for Manual Control FSR [ FSRMIN < FSRMAN < FSRMAX ]   When Turbine Breaks away (starts to rotate)    L14HR pick-up Starting clutch solenoid 20CS de-energizes Shuts down the hydraulic ratchet motor (88HR) .Start-up Control .

FSRACC  Acceleration control software  compares the present value of Speed signal with the value at the last sample time.  . thus reduction in fuel supply to turbine. Acceleration control takes over after Warm-up state. Difference between these two numbers is a measure of acceleration.   When actual acceleration is greater acceleration reference. which reduces FSR. FSRACC is reduced.  During startup-acceleration reference is a function of turbine speed.Acceleration Control .

FSRACC  Acceleration reference is a Control constant programmed in <RST> EEPROMS Typical 0.Acceleration Control .35 %/sec 0.10 %/sec 0% 40% 50% 75% 95% 100% TNH .

Acceleration Control .FSRACC FSRSU FSRACC FSRN FSR MIN FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN FSR = FSRACC .

Speed Control .FSRN  Speed Control System software   controls the speed and load of the gas turbine generator in response to the actual turbine speed signal (TNH) and the called-for speed reference(TNR) TNH FSRN TNR .

 Turbine follows 100.  This is preset when START signal is initiated.3% TNH for synchronization .3%.Speed/Load Control  Speed/Load Reference:  Speed control software will change FSR in proportion to the difference the actual turbine generator speed (TNH) and the called-for reference (TNR)  Reference Speed (TNR) range  95% (min) to 107% (max) for a generator drive turbine  Start-up speed reference is 100.

Speed/Load Control  Turbine Speed is held constant when Generator Breaker is closed onto Power grid  Fuel flow in excess of the necessary to maintain FSNL will result in increased power produced by the generator.  Thereby Speed control becomes Load control loop  Speed Control:  Isochronous Speed control Droop Speed Control  .

Isochronous Speed Control TNH TNR FSRSU FSRACC FSRNI FSRN (or FSRNI) FSRT FSRSYN MIN FSR FSR = FSRN FSRMAN .

 Any change in actual speed (grid frequency) will cause a proportional change in unit load.Droop Speed Control  Droop Control is a proportional control. This proportionality is adjustable to the desired regulation or „Droop‟ 104 % 100 % FSNL Full Speed No Load FSR  95% Min TNR Low Speed Stop FSR Rated FSR .

Speed/Load Control loop Raise Rate Speed Ref. Cmd MANUAL SET POINT Speed Load Lower LOG SET POIINT Load Setpoint Load Rate Preset . Command Speed Target Lower Power MANUAL SETPOINT Primary Os LOG SETPOIINT Rate Preset Ememrgency Os SPEED CONTROL Speed Error Mechanical Os Load Raise Rate Load Ref.

Speed Control Schematic SPEED CONTROL FSNL TNR SPEED REF. START-UP or SHUT DOWN . MIN. SELECT LOGIC TNR SPEED REF. <RST> + - ERROR + SIGNAL + FSRN TNH SPEED DROOP <RST> SPEED CHANGER LOAD SET POINT MAX. LIMIT L83SD RATE L70R RAISE L70L LOWER L83PRES PRESET LOGIC MEDIAN SELECT PRESET OPERATING L83TNROP MIN.

FSRSYN  Automatic synchronization software  Algorithms programmed into <RST> controller and <P> software.Synchronising .  Isolation transformers are built into <P> core  <RST> software drives the synch check and system permissive relays. .  Bus and Generator voltage are input signals to Protective core <P>.  Sequencing and algorithms are programmed into <RST> EEPROM  <P> hardware and software sends voted command to actual breaker closure.

Auto Synchronisation Speed Speed Matching Raise Speed System Frequency Lower Speed Speed Raise Volts Generator Volts Voltage Matching Lower Volts System Volts .

Synchronising Scheme <RST> AUTO SYNCH PERMISSIVE Gen Volts REF A A>B B AND L83AS Auto Synch Permissive <XYZ> AUTO SYNCH Line Volts REF A A>B B Calculated Phase within Limits Calculated slip within Limits Calculated Acceleration Calculated Breaker Lead Time AND L25 Breaker Close .

 Highest temperature is in the flame zone of combustion chambers.Temperature Control . TTXM TTREF FSRT .Control software/algorithms  limit fuel flow to the turbine to maintain internal operating temperatures within design parameters of turbine hot gas path parts.FSRT  Temp.

Speedtronic limits this firing temperature. and site conditions as a function of Exhaust Temp(Tx) and CPD Exhaust temperature (Tx) fuel air Isothermal C T Compressor Discharge Pressure (CPD) .temperature of gas as it exits the first stage nozzle. Firing temperature is calculated by     thermodynamic relation ships GT performance calculations.Firing Temperature    Firing temperature .

Firing Temperature  Firing temperature can also be approximated as     a function of Tx and Fuel flow (FSR) and as a function of Tx and Generator MW output Line of constant firing temperature are used in control software to limit the gas turbine operating temp whereas the constant exhaust temperature limit protects the exhaust system during start-up. TA TB TC Exhaust temperature (Tx) Isothermal TA > TB > TC Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) .

 Software is Programmed for  Temperature control command  Temperature control bias calculations Temperature reference selection.Exhaust Temp control software  Series of application programs written to  perform critical exhaust temperature control and monitoring.  Major function is – Exhaust temperature control.  .

 Alarm will be generated  TTXD2 SORT HIGHEST TO LOWEST To Comb.Temperature Control Schematic <RST> If ONE Controller should fail. this TTXDR program ignore the readings from the TTXDS TTXDT failed Controller. The software program converts the temp error to a FSRT . SELECT SLOPE SLOPE FSR CORNER + - + TTXM GAIN + - + + MEDIAN SELECT FSRT FSR ISOTHERMAL  The temp-control-command program in <RST> compares the exhaust temp control setpoint (calculated in the temp-control-bias program and stored in computer memory) TTRXB to the TTXM value to determine temp error. TTXM is based on remaining controllers thermocouples. Monitor <RST> Temp Control Ref CORNER QUANTITY of TC’s Used REJECT LOW TC’s REJECT HIGH AND LOW AVERAGE REMAINING TTXM Temperature Control <RST> + CPD + FSRMIN FSRMAX TTRXB MIN.

Program also selects isothermal setpoint    Final temp control Ref=MIN(FSR bias.  Exhaust Temp Control Setpoints TTKn_C (CPD bias corner) and TTKn_S (CPD bias slope) are used with the CPD data to determine the CPD bias exhaust temperature setpoint.Temperature Control Bias program DIGITAL INPUT DATA COMPUTER MEMORY SELECTED TEMPERATURE REFERANCE TABLE TEMPERATURE CONTROL BIAS PROGRAM TTKn_I COMPUTER MEMORY TTKn_K Isothermal TTKn_C CONSTANT STORAGE CPD FSR Temperature Control Bias Temp control Bias program calculates the Exhaust temp control setpoint TTRXB based on CPD data stored in computer memory and constants from the selected temp-reference table. TTKn_K (FSR bias corner) and TTKn_M (FSR bias slope) are used with the FSR data to determine the FSR bias exhaust temperature setpoint. CPD bias. Isothermal setpoint (TTKn_I)  . This Program also calculates another setpoint based on FSR and constants from another temperaturereference table.

or isothermal setpoint for the final exhaust temperature control reference.Temperature Control Bias Program  This Program selects the minimum of the three set points. The output of this ramp function is the Exhaust temp. During normal operation with Gas or light Distillate fuels.   CPD bias setpoint is compared with the FSR bias setpoint by the program and an alarm occurs when the CPD setpoint exceeds the FSR bias setpoint.Typical rate change limit is 1.  FSR bias setpoint is compared with CPD bias setpoint and an alarm occurs when the FSR bias setpoint exceeds the CPD bias setpoint. FSR bias setpoint will be selected to minimize the turbine nozzle plugging on firing temperature.  .  During normal operation with Heavy fuels. FSR bias.5deg F. this selection results in a CPD bias control with an isothermal limit.  A ramp function is provided in the program to limit the rate of setpoint change. CPD bias. Both Max (TTKRXR1) and Min (TTKRXR2) change in ramp rates (slopes) are programmed.control setpoint which is stored in the computer memory.

Temperature Reference Select Program    Exhaust temperature control function selects control set points to allow GT operation at firing temperatures. Three digital input signals are decoded to select one set of constants which defines the control set points necessary to meet the demand. Temperature-control-select program determines the operational level for control set points based on Digital input information representing temperature control requirements. Typical digital signals are BASE SELECT. PEAK SELECT and HEAVY FUEL SELECT Digital Input Data Temperature Reference Select Selected Temperature Reference Table • When appropriate set of constants are selected they are stored in the selected-temperature-reference memory. Constant Storage Temperature Reference Select Program .

 FSR actually consists of two separate signals added together. .Fuel Control system  Turbine fuel control system will change fuel flow to the combustors in response to the fuel stroke reference signal(FSR). FSR = FSR1 + FSR2 FSR1 = Called-for liquid fuel flow FSR2 = Called-for gas fuel flow  Standard fuel systems are designed for operation with Liquid fuel and/or gas fuel.

Servo Drive System .

A null-bias spring positions the servo so that actuator goes to the fail safe position when ALL power and/or control signal is lost. Servo valve contains three electrically isolated coils on the torque motor. .Servo drive System  The heart of Fuel Control System  3 coil Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve      Servo valve is the interface between the electrical and mechanical systems Servo valve controls the direction and rate of motion of a hydraulic actuator based on the input current to the servo. Each coil is connected to one of the three controllers <RST>. thereby redundancy is ensured if one of the controller fails.

Fuel pump Fuel bypass valve .Liquid Fuel System  Liquid Fuel system consists of  Fuel handling components – – – – – – Primary fuel oil filter (low pressure) Fuel oil stop valve .Combined Selector valve False start drain valve .2.Fuel oil pressure relief valve Secondary fuel oil filter (High pressure) Flow dividers .3 and Speedtronic Control cards TCQC and TCQA  Electrical Control components – – – – – – .Fuel lines & fuel nozzles Liquid fuel press sw (upstream) 63FL-2 Fuel oil stop valve limit sw 33FL Fuel pump clutch solenoid 20CF Liquid fuel pump bypass valve Servo valve 65FP Flow divider magnetic pickups 77FD-1.

For Purge When Required OFV VR4 Atomizing Air 77FD-2 77FD-3 AD 33FL False Start Drain Valve Chamber OFD To Drain .Liquid Fuel System P&ID FSR1 <RST> FQ1 FQROUT <RST> <RST> TCQA TCQA TCQC Flow Divider PR/A Typical Fuel Nozzles TNH L4 L20FLX By-pass Valve Asm 65FP 63FL-2 Diff Press Guage Fuel Stop Valve OF Main Fuel Pump Accessory Gear Drive OLTControl Oil 77FD-1 Combustion Chamber Conn.

to make it a function of speed (an important parameter of Turbine)    to ensure better resolution at the lower. Net result is FQROUT. more critical speeds where air flow will be low.a digital liquid fuel flow command At Full speed. TNH does not change Therefore FQROUT ~~ FSR .Fuel oil Control . Fuel splitter algorithm ensures requisite FSR when FSR1 is active FSR1 is multiplied by TNH .Software  Control system checks the permissive L4 and L20FLX to allow FSR1 for closing the Bypass valve (closing bypass valve sends fuel to the combustors)     These signals control the opening and closing of the fuel oil stop valve. Fuel pump clutch solenoid (20CF) is energised to drive the pump when the Stop valve opens.

L3LFT also initiates trip during start-up) .Software  Analog signal is converted to digital counts and is used in the controllers‟ software to compare to certain limits as well as for display in CRT.Excessive fuel flow on start-up L3LFLT .  The checks performed by software program    L60FFLH .Loss of flow divider feedback   (L60FFLH persists for 2 sec and this fault initiates trip.Loss of LVDT position feedback L3LFBSQ .Servo Current is detected when stop valve is closed L3LFT .Bypass valve is not fully open when the stop valve is closed L3LFBSC .Fuel oil Control .

SRV is designed to maintain a predetermined pressure (P2) at the inlet of the GCV as a function of turbine speed P1 P2 SRV GCV P3 Fuel Supply To Turbine .Fuel Gas System  Fuel gas is controlled by   Gas Speed ratio/stop valve (SRV) Gas Control Valve (GCV) (Both are servo controlled by signals from Speedtronic control panel and actuated by spring acting hydraulic cylinders moving against springloaded valve plugs)   GCV controls the desired gas fuel flow in response to the FSR command signal.

2 & 96SR-1.Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv assembly .Fuel Gas System  Gas Fuel System consists of  Fuel handling components – – – – Gas Strainer Control valve assembly Three pressure gauges .2 Electro hydraulic servo vlv 90SR & 65GC Speedtronic control cards TBQB and TCQC .Fuel gas press xducer(s) 96FG Gas fuel vent sol valve 20VG -LVDTs 96GC-1.Dump valves - Gas manifold with ‟pigtails‟ to respective fuel nozzles  Electrical control components – – – – Gas supply press sw 63FG .

2 TRIP Vh5-1 Dump Relay 90SR SERVO Hydraulic Supply 90GC SERVO LVDT’S 96GC-1.Fuel Gas System P&ID FPRG POS2 FPG TCQC SPEED RATIO VALVE CONTROL POS1 FSR2 TCQC GAS CONTROL VALVE SERVO TCQC GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION FEEDBACK TBQB 96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C TRANSDUCERS 20 VG VENT Gas Control Valve COMBUSTION CHAMBER 63FG-3 Stop Ratio Valve GAS P2 LVDT’S 96SR-1.2 GAS MANIFOLD .

– (Actuation of spring-loaded GCV is by a hydraulic cylinder controlled by an Electro-hydraulic servo valve)  Stroke of the valve is proportional to FSR OFFSET GAIN <RST> <RST> HI SEL TBQC FSR2 L4 L3GCV FSROUT     FSR2 goes through Fuel splitter algorithm. Analog I/O GCV GCV Position Loop Calibration LVDT’S 96GC -1. Op-amp on TCQC converts error signal and sends to servo valve to drive GCV accordingly.Gas Control Valve  Gas Control Valve  GCV position is proportional to FSR2 GCV will open only when permissive L4. GAS GCV stem position is sensed by LVDTs and P2 fed back to an op-amp on TCQC card to compare with FSROUT input signal at summing junction. TCQC converts FSROUT to an analog signal. L20FGX and L2TVX (purge complete) are true.-2 Servo Valve LVDT Position FSR .

a posive voltage bias is placed on servo coils holding them in the “valve closed” position Servo Valve SRV Pres Calibration Hydraulic Oil P2 TNH P2 = (FPKGNG x TNH) + FPKGNO .integral part of protection system L4 L3GCV  Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv has Two control loops  Position loop similar to GCV  Pressure control loop • Fuel gas pressure P2 at the inlet of GCV is controlled by the pressure loop as a function of turbine speed (in proportion to the turbine speed TNH) to become Gas fuel press Ref FPRG • TCQC card converts FPRG to analog signalP2 (FPG) is compared to the FPRG and the error signal is in turn compared with the 96SR LVDT feedback to reposition the valve as in GCV loop POS2 SRV GAS 96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C Op Cyl Posn Trip Oil 96SR-1.Speed Ratio/Stop Valve  It is dual function valve TNH GAIN OFFSET + - <RST> <RST> (It serves as a pressure regulating valve to hold a desired fuel gas pressure ahead of GCV)  FPRG FPG D A HI SEL As a Stop Valve .2 LVDTs Dump Relay Analog I/O Module TBQB – During a trip or no-run condition.

GCV & SRV schematic GAS FUEL CONTROL VALVE GAS CONTROL FQROUT SERVO GAS CONTROL VALVE VALVE OUTPUT COMMAND OUTPUT GAS FUEL REFERENCE GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION GAS RATIO VALVE CONTROL GAS REQUIRED PRESSURE SPEED CONTROL VALVE` OUTPUT SPEED RATIO VALVE SERVO COMMAND MIDVALVE GAS FUEL PRESSURE OUTPUT SPEED RATIO VALVE POSITION .

Liquid to Gas Liquid fuel purge Fuel transfer-Gas to Liquid Mixed fuel operation logics and algorithms .  Control software performs the following: – – – – Transfer of one fuel to other on command Allow time for filling lines with the type of fuel to which turbine operation is being transferred.Duel Fuel Control  Turbines designed to operate on both liquid and gaseous fuel systems are equipped with Control software accordingly.  Software programming involves:      Fuel splitter Fuel transfer. Mixed fuel operation Operation of liquid fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on gas fuel.

software  FSR is splitter into two signals FSR1 & FSR2 to provide dual fuel operation.Fuel splitter .LIMIT L83FZ Permissives RAMP A=B MEDIAN SELECT Rate L83FG Gas Select FSR = FSR1 + FSR2 L83FL Liquid Select FSR LIQ Ref FSR1 FSR2 GAS Ref . <RST> FUEL SPLITTER A=B FSR is multiplied by the liquid fuel fraction FX1 to produce FSR1signal FSR1 is then subtracted from the FSR signal to generate FSR2 signal L84TG Total Gas L84TL Total LIQ MAX.LIMIT MIN.

the software program ramps the fuel commands FSR2 to increase and FSR1 to decrease at a programmed rate through median select gate. FSR1 will remain at its initial value. UNITS – Transfer from Full Gas to Full Liquid FSR2 FSR1 PURGE SELECT DISTILLATE FSR1 TIME Transfer from Full Liquid to Full Gas. The presence of a high pressure than that required by the SRV would cause slow response in initiating gas flow. This opens the GCV slightly to bleed down the inter valve volume. FSR2 will step-up to slightly greater than Zero value (0. UNITS FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS TIME Transfer from Full Liquid to Mixture. Fuel transfer completes in 30 sec.5%).Liquid to Gas.Fuel Transfer . After delay of 30 sec to bleed down the P2 pressure and fill the gas supply line. FSR1 UNITS FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS TIME SELECT MIX . Gas to Liquid Fuel transfer from Liquid to Gas GT running on Liquid (FSR1) and GAS transfer selected.

Fuel Control System  Liquid fuel Purge  To prevent the coking of the liquid fuel nozzles  Mixed fuel Operation  Gas Turbine can be operated on both GAS & LIQ in any proportion when operator choses to be on MIX mode.   . Limits of fuel mixture are required to ensure proper combustion. gas fuel distribution and gas nozzle flow velocities. % of gas flow must be increased as load is decreased to maintain the minimum pressure ratio across the fuel nozzle.

Maintains minimum pressure drop across fuel nozzles in Combined cycle operations maintains high exhaust temperatures at low loads.  IGV modulates during     IGV modulation maintains    . loading and unloading of the generator deceleration of gas turbine proper flows and pressures. and thus the stresses in the compressor.Modulated Inlet Guide Vane System  IGV system   Bang-Bang type (2 position) Modulated acceleration of turbine at rated speed..

SUPPLY <RST> CSRGV CSRGV <RST> IGV REF D/A HIGH SELECT CSRGVOUT Analog I/O HM 3-1 CLOSE At Amb.7º per % increase in TNHCOR.Temp <80ºF TNHCOR > TNH Above 83% IGV open at 6. Turbine speed is corrected to reflect the air conditions at 80ºF.Temp >80ºF TNHCOR < TNH At Amb. HYD. I FH6 O N -1 U T R P OPEN 90TV-1 2 1 A OLT-1 C TRIP OIL VH3-1 IGV open to minimum full speed angle 57º and stop opening at 91% TNH D OD C2 ORIFICES (2) . this compensates for changes in air density as ambient conditions change.Modulated Inlet Guide Vane Control IGV Operation: During start-up IGV is fully closed (34º) from 0% to 83% of corrected speed.

temperature (Normally IGVs begin open when Tx is within 30ºF of temp control Ref. Angle Combined Cycle (TTRX) Simple Cycle (CSKGVSSR) MIN Full Speed Angle Startup Program Region Of Negative 5th Stage Extraction Pressure 100 100 BASE LOAD EXHUAST TEMPERATURE Corrected Speed -% 0 (TNCHOR) FSNL . thereby lessening combustion system resonance. For Simple Cycle operation IGV move to full open position at preselected exhaust temperature. For Combined Cycle operation.Inlet Guide Vane Operation By not allowing the guide vanes to close to an angle less than than the min full speed angle at 100%TNH.temp approaches Temp. usually 700ºF.) 0 Fuel Open Max. as exh. IGV begins to move to full open pos. Control ref. a min press drop is maintained across the fuel nozzles.

. Inlet Guide Vane Ref. Speed Ref. Servo IGV Output Command IGV Reference Speed IGV Part IGV Part Speed Ref. Control Feedback IGV Position Temp. Control Reference Manual Command Compressor Inlet Temp.IGV Control Schematic Temp.

Wet Low NOx Control Gas dP Gas Press Gas Gas Fuel Flow Gas Temp Flow Liq Fuel Flow Humidity Power Augmentation Flow Injection Flow Required Injection Flow Basic Injection Flow + _ Dead band Controller Lower Injection Flow Water Flow Injection Flow Steam Steam Press Steam Temp Select Steam Flow .

protection system will trip the turbine. Detect and alarm the failure. If the failure is of serious nature.Protection Systems  Turbine protection system consists of number of subsystems   which operate during each normal start-up and shutdown Few operate strictly during emergency and abnormal operating conditions. Simple trip signals like – –  Protection systems are set up to    Protection system responds to:  low lube oil press switch high gas compressor discharge pressure etc…. .

Protection Systems  More Complex parameters like – – – – – Over speed Over temperature High Vibration. Combustion monitor Loss of flame etc…..  To ensure the safety and safe operation of turbine Speedtronic system is equipped with master control and protection circuit .

Check Valves & Orifice network Pressure switches Dump valves  Over speed Protection   Electronic Over speed trip Mechanical Over speed bolt Over temperature alarm (L30TXA) Over temperature Trip (L86TXT)  Over temperature Protection    Flame Detection and Protection System .Protection Systems  Turbine Protection systems includes:  Trip Oil – – – Inlet orifice.

Protection Systems  Vibration Protection   High Vibration Alarm & Trip Vibration transducer fault Alarm Spread calculations Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm Combustion Trouble Alarm High Exhaust Temperature Spread Trip Spread monitor enable Primary OS Over temp Vibra tion Comb Monitor Master Prot. Circuit <XYZ> Bypass Valve Servo valve FUEL PUMP  Relay Voting Module 20 FL Liquid Fuel Stop Valve . Circuit <RST> GCV Gas Fuel Control Valve Gas Fuel Speed Ratio/ Stop Valve SRV  Combustion monitoring   Relay Voting Module 20 FG Sec OS Loss Of Flame   Master Prot.

Trip Oil System   It is a primary protection interface between the turbine control and protection system and the components of the turbine which admit or shut-off. fuel. Protective Signals Master Protection L4 Circuits Orifice And Check Valve Network Manual Trip (When Provided) 20 FG 20 FL Liquid Fuel Liquid Fuel Stop Valve 63HL INLET ORIFICE OVERSPEED TRIP 12HA 63HG Gas fuel Gas Fuel Speed Ratio/ Stop Value RESET Manual Trip Gas Fuel Dump Relay Valve OH . System devices are electrically operated by Speedtronic control system as well as some totally mechanical devices.

  TNH TNKHOS TNKHOST LK3HOST L86MR1 <RST> <XYZ> High Pressure Over Speed Trip HP Speed A Trip Setpoint Test Test Premissive Master Reset A>B  TNH is compared with TNKHOS. Position limit switch 12 HA. “ELECTRICAL OVERSPEED TRIP” is displayed in CRT. When TNH>TNKHOS. B L12H To Master Set Prot And And Latch Alarm Msg Reset OLT 12HP Manual Reset Manual Trip  Mechanical Over speed system Consists of    OD Overspeed Bolt   Over speed bolt assembly in accessory gear box. Over speed trip mechanism in the assessory gear. turbine is tripped and latched till Reset. Acts as a back-up control Trip setting > Electronic Setting .Over Speed Protection  Electronic Over speed function is performed in <RST> and <XYZ>.

Over Temperature Protection Protects GT against possible damages against Over firing. 1090º F OVER-TEMP. operates only after the failure of temperature control system. TRIP & ALARM. . TTXM TTXOT3 ALARM A A>B B L30TXA ALARM To Alarm Message And Speed Setpoint Lower TTRXB ISO TRIP 40ºF TTXOT2 A A>B B A A>B B O R Set And Latch Reset TTREF 1030ºF TTXOT1 L86MR1 TRIP Isothermal To Master Prot. And Alarm Msg 25ºF TRIP ALARM CONTROL CPD It is a backup protection system.

of current pulses/sec through UV sensor.Flame Detection & Protection  Speedtronic Mark-V flame detectors perform two functions   One in the Sequencing system other in Protective system   Flame detected by UV radiation. . Speedtronic control furnish +350VDC to drive the UV detector tube. Speedtronic counts the no.   Typically 300 pulses/sec when strong UV signal is present. In the presence of UV radiation. the gas in the detector tube ionizes and conducts current.

Flame Detection & Protection Speedtronic MK-V Flame Detection TUEBINE PROTECTION LOGIC 28FD UV SCANNER <P> ANALOG I/O (Flame Detection Channes) 28FD UV SCANNER 28FD UV SCANNER FLAME DETECTION LOGIC CRT DISPLAY 28FD UV SCANNER TURBINE CONTROL LOGIC NOTE: Excitation for the sensor and signal processing is performed by SPEEDTRONIC Mk V circuits .

30V L30TEST OR FAULT L39VF FAULT A VF A<B B A VA A>B B A VT A>B B AND TRIP ALARM TRIP ALARM L39VA SET AND L39VT LATCH RESET Auto Or Manual Reset Speedtronic control generates High Vibration Trip Vibration Transducer Fault . Vibration protection system trips the turbine when vibration level exceeds predetermined level. Vibration detectors generate a relatively low voltage by the relative motion of a permanent magnet suspended in a coil and therefore no excitation is required.Vibration Protection Gas Turbine unit comprises    <RST>    Several independent vibration channels Each channel detects excessive vibration by a seismic pickup Each channel includes one vibration pickup (velocity type) and a Speedtronic Mark-V amplifier circuit.

Combustion Monitoring <RST>  Primary function  Combustion Monitor Algorithm    to reduce the likelihood of extensive damage to the gas turbine if the combustion system deteriorates. Continuously examines the exhaust temperature and compressor discharge temperature thermocouples Reliability of combustion monitor depends on condition of exhaust thermocouples. Several software programs are written to achieve this CTDA TTKSPL1 TTKSPL2 Median Select Calculate Allowable Spread Median Select TTXSPL TTXC TTKSPL5 TTKSPL7 Constants TTXD2 Calculate Actual Spreads A A>B B A A>B B A A>B B A A>B B L60SP1 L60SP2 L60SP3 L60SP4 .

Combustion Monitoring 1 High 18 Low Actual Spreads TTXSP1 = High .TTXSP1 => TTXSPL TRIP .TTXSP3 > 80% of TTXSPL .2nd Low TTXSP3 = High .TTXSP1 > TTXSPL and TTXSP2 > 80% of TTXSPL and Low TC is physically next to the second to low TC TRIP .TTXSP2 > 80% of TTXSPL and one TC is failed and 2nd lowest TC next to 3rd to lowest TC (a failed TC is defined as TTXSP1 > 5 x TTXSPL) TRIP .3rd Low Allowable Spread (Spread Limit) TTXSPL = Based on CTD & TTXM     ALARM .Low TTXSP2 = High .

Trip Functions Primary Over speed Detected Emergency Over speed Detected Loss Of Speed Signal Vibration Trip Exhaust Over temp Trip Differential Expansion Trip Low Lube Oil Level Trip Low Lube Oil Pressure Trip Low Servo Pressure Trip Axial Position Trip Generator Differential Fault Manual Trip Customer Trip OR TRIP TURBINE .