Objectives / Goals

Organisation Structure

Organisation

Systems and Procedures

Technology

Resources Money, Materials, Machines, People
Organisational Behaviour 001

PERFORMANCE
QUANTITY QUALITY TIMELINESS OF DELIVERY COST EFFECTIVENESS PERFORMANCE=ABILITYX MOTIVATION X TEAMWORK
Organisational Behaviour

2 3/4/2013

Functions of a Manager – Planning – Organising – Directing / Coordinating – Controlling Role of a Manager – Informational Roles • Monitor • Disseminator • Spokesperson
Organisational Behaviour 002

– Decisional Roles • Entrepreneur • Resource Allocator • Negotiator • Disturbance Handler – Interpersonal Roles • Figurehead • Liaison • Leader Organisational Behaviour 003 .

Skills of a Manager – Technical Skills – Conceptual Skills – Interpersonal Skills Organisational Components – Individuals – Groups – Tasks – Management Factors Organisational Behaviour 004 .

Personality. Learning. • Needs. Social Background. Groups • Interpersonal behaviour • Intragroup behaviour • Intergroup behaviour Organisational Behaviour 005 .Individuals • Age. Goals. Values. Sex. Education.

Tasks • Complexity • Interdependence • Motivational Factors Management Factors • • • • Structural Design Leadership Motivational Tools and Systems Organisational Processes Organisational Behaviour 006 .

Fundamental Concepts of OB • • • • • • Individual Differences A Whole Person Human Dignity Organisations are Social Systems Mutuality of Interest Caused Behaviour Organisational Behaviour 007 .

Personality Perception Learning Values Attitudes Motivation Group Dynamics Leadership Power & Politics Communication Conflict Culture Structure Change OrganisationalDevelopment Organisational Behaviour 008 OB Model Individual Behaviour Group Behaviour Organisational Effectiveness Organisation .

Organisational Behaviour • • • • Human Behaviour Behaviour in organisations Behaviour affects effectiveness Related fields of knowledge – Psychology – Sociology – Political Science – Economics – Anthropology Organisational Behaviour 009 .

OB Helps in • • • • • Understanding Prediction Control Problem Prevention Effectiveness Organisational Behaviour 010 .

Learning Classical Conditioning Food Salivation Bell No Response – Pavlov Model Operant Conditioning – Behaviour is function of its consequences – B.Skinner Model Organisational Behaviour 011 .F.

Social Learning • • • • Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes Organisational Behaviour 012 .

• No Operant Conditioning. • Relations: Behaviour: Consequences. Organisational Behaviour 013 .Cognitive Learning • No Classical Conditioning.

Types of Reinforcement Strategy Positive Reinforcement Stimulus Desired behaviour Presentation of attractive consequences Removal of aversive consequences No consequence presented Presentation of aversive consequence Avoidance Stimulus Desired behaviour Extinction Stimulus Desired behaviour Punishment Stimulus Organisational Behaviour 014 Desired behaviour .

Perceptual Process Perceived Characteristics Size Motion Intensity Novelty Contrast Status Repetition Appearance Perceptual Mechanism Selection Organisation Interpretation Perceptual Outputs Attitude Opinion Feeling Objects Events People Perceiver’s Characteristics Needs and Motives Learning Self-Concept Personality Organisational Behaviour 015 .

Perceptual Selection • Perceptual Relevancy • Figure-ground Relationship Perceptual Organisation • Grouping • Closure • Simplification Organisational Behaviour 016 .

Perceptual Interpretation • • • • • • Halo Effect Stereo typing Inference Attribution Impression Projection Organisational Behaviour 017 .

Developing Perceptual Skills • • • • • Empathic Skill Self Concept Frame of Reference Awareness of „Distortions‟ Validate Impressions Organisational Behaviour 018 .

Communication Process Sender Idea Message Feeling Report Instruction Encode .Transmit Feedback Use Receiver Decode Organisational Behaviour 019 .

COMMUNICATION • 7% WORDS – Words are only labels and the listeners put their own interpretation on speakers words • 38% PARALINGUISTIC – The way in which something is said . Organisational Behaviour .the accent. • 55% BODY LANGUAGE – What a speaker looks like while delivering a message affects the listener‟s understanding most. tone and voice modulation is important to the listener.

dress important? • (E)PRESSIONS OF EMOTION Organisational Behaviour using facial expressions to express emotion? – Are you . appearance.TYPES OF BODY LANGUAGE Remember that you are dealing with “PEOPLE” • (P)OSTURES & GESTURES – How do you use hand gestures? Stance? • (E)YE CONTACT – How‟s your “Lighthouse”? • (O)RIENTATION – How do you position yourself? • (P)RESENTATION – How do you deliver your message? • (L)OOKS – Are your looks.

Barriers to Effective Communication Sender Related • • • • • • • Lack of communication goals Lack of communication skills Lack of credibility Interpersonal insensitivity Incorrect frames of reference Lack of perceptual skills Information overload Organisational Behaviour 020 .

Receiver Related • • • • • Evaluative tendencies Preconceived ideas Selective listening Rehearsing response Lack of responsive feedback Organisational Behaviour 021 .

Barriers to Listening • • • • • Equate With Hearing Uninteresting Topics Speaker’s Delivery External Distractions Mentally Preparing Response • • • • Listening for Facts Personal Concerns Personal Bias Language/Culture Differences • Faking Attention Organisational Behaviour .

Bad Listening Habits • • • • • Criticizing the subject or the speaker consistently Listening only for facts Lacking EMPATHY Creating distraction Letting emotions take over the conversation and the subject Organisational Behaviour .

Situational Barriers • • • • Time pressure Climate Semantic Problems Noise/distance Organisational Behaviour 022 .

Overcoming Communication Barriers • • • • • • • • • • Setting communication goals Channel Selection Communication skills Verbal/Nonverbal Empathic Communication Improving credibility Developing trusting Climate Listening to total meaning Avoiding prejudices Avoiding evaluative judgement Not rehearsing response Providing responsive feedback Organisational Behaviour 023 .

Active Listening • … Allows you to make sure you hear the words and understand the meaning behind the words • Your Goal should be to go beyond listening to understanding Organisational Behaviour .

Active Listening Requires… • • • • Definite Intent to Listen Focus on the Speaker Verbal and Non-Verbal Encouragers Feedback Loop to ensure correctness Organisational Behaviour .

Active Listening 1. 2. 4. 3. Listen Question Reflect Agree Organisational Behaviour .

Johari Window Feedback (Arena) Public area Blind Area Known to others Private area (Façade) Known to self Unknown Area Unknown to self Unknown to others • Exposing to each other • Receiving feedback Organisational Behaviour 024 .

The Loner Exhibitionist Games man Organisational Behaviour 025 .

Open person • • • • Realistic mutual expectations Mutual trust Mutual influence Interpersonal sensitivity Organisational Behaviour 026 .

Developing Interpersonal Skills • • • • • • • Increasing interpersonal awareness Empathic skills Coping with anger Perceptual skills Strong self concept Interpersonal risks Constructive confrontation Organisational Behaviour 027 .

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Self Actualisation Esteem Needs Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Organisational Behaviour 028 .

• • • • • • Salary Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security Organisational Behaviour 029 .

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Dissatisfiers (hygiene factors) • • • • Company policy and administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work Conditions Organisational Behaviour 030 .

Motivators (Satisfiers) • • • • • • Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Organisational Behaviour 031 .

Motivational How much efforts should I put forth? Strength Perceived efforts-performance probability Perceived performancereward probability Perceived value of rewards Expectancy Organisational Behaviour 032 Instrumentality Valence .

Change Comparisons 6. Leave situation Organisational Behaviour 033 . Change inputs 2. Alter perception of others 5. Change out comes 3. Alter perception of self 4.Equity Theory Equity Comparison of self with other In Equity Motivation to maintain current situation Motivation to maintain current situation 1.

Job Enrichment • • • • • • Skills variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback from job Interactional opportunity Organisational Behaviour 034 .

Trust.. 9..1 1 Low Organisational Behaviour 035 Concern for Production 9 High .9 9.5 Impoverished Management 1..Team Work..9 Style ..Managerial Grid – Developed by Blake & Mouton 9.1 Sweat Shop Management.9 9 Country club Team Management 9 Concern for People Management Organisation Man Management 5. Commitment High 1.

Task Motivated Leader RML .Relation Motivated Leader Leadership Effectiveness TML RML Organisational Behaviour 036 .Fielder’s Contingency Theory – Situational/Contingency Thinking TML .

Situational Favourableness Situational Factors Leader Member Relation Task Structure Position Power High Good Moderate Neutral Low Poor High Medium Low Strong Moderate Weak Organisational Behaviour 037 .

Leadership Match • Situations that suit styles • Changing situational factors Organisational Behaviour 038 .

The Path-Goal Theory • Task Structure • Authority system • Work group Leader Behavior  Directive  Participative  Achievement  Supportive Oriented Environmental contingency factors Outcomes • Performance • Satisfaction • Locus of control • Experience • Perceived • Ability Subordinate contingency factors Organisational Behaviour 039 .

(High) Style of Leader High task and high relationship Relationship Behaviour (Supportive behaviour) High relationship and low task S3 S2 S4 Low High task relationship and low and low task relationship Task Behaviour (Directive behaviour) S1 (Low) High (High) Low Moderate M4 Organisational Behaviour 040 M3 M2 M1 Maturity of Followers (S) The situational Leadership Model .

persistence • Integrity • Desire for accomplishment • Self confidence • High tolerance for ambiguity • Low susceptibility to interpersonal stress Organisational Behaviour 041 .Leadership Traits • Courage • Initiative.

Skills • Envisioning • EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE • Communicating • Motivating • Decision making • Problem solving • Conflict resolution • Perceptual skills • Mentoring • Team building Organisational Behaviour 042 .

Styles • Telling • Selling • Participating • Delegating Organisational Behaviour 043 .

Intergroup/Intragroup Conflict Model Causes of Conflict Differencesin Goals Task Interdependence Competition forRewards Competition forResources Work Orientation Personality Conflict handling Behaviour Consequences Positive Problem Awareness Innovation Catharsis Group Solidarity Negative Distorted Perceptions Antagonism Productivity Loss Disharmony Avoiding Accommodating Competing Compromising Collaborating Organisational Behaviour 044 Conflict Prevention Conflict Simulation Conflict Resolution .

Conflict Handling Behaviours High Competing Collaborating Compromising Low Avoiding Low Accommodating Organisational Behaviour 045 Cooperation High .

Conflict Management
• • • • • • Stimulating productive conflict. Focus on superordinate goals. Restructuring organisations. Balanced orientation. Third Party „Help‟. Locating „Common‟ enemies.

Organisational Behaviour 046

The Process of Group Formation and Development
Group Attraction Group Formation

Group Components Group Maturity

Group Performance

Interpersonal attraction Group goals Group Activities Social interaction Group as a means Physical proximity Group synergy

Group structure Roles Norms

Tasks Member Group composition Structural elements Group processes

Trust Openness Influence Control

Quality Quantity Acceptance Satisfaction

Organisational Behaviour 047

The Dynamics of Group

Trust
Willing to take chance on others

Communication Exchanging valid and relevant information

Influence Permitting mutual influence

Control Promoting goalcongruence and self-control

Organisational Behaviour 048

Communication Networks in small Groups Leader Members Unilateral Y Wheel Circle All-channel Organisational Behaviour 049 .

Group Cohesiveness Factors that enhance : • • • • • • • Prestige and status Cooperative relationships High degree of interaction Relatively small size Common threat in environment Good communication networks Good decision making processes Organisational Behaviour 050 .

Performance = Skills x Motivation x Teamwork HR Productivity Organisational Behaviour 051 .

giving • Conflict Resolution • Empathy • Sense of Belonging Organisation-related factors • Stability and security • Appropriate rewards and recognition • Processes • Leadership • Task related factors • Clear goals and objectives • Challenging tasks • Job rotation Organisational Behaviour 052 Effective Teamwork • Synergy • Satisfaction • Commitment .Team Effectiveness People-related factors • Mutual trust • Openness • Information sharing. seeking.

Changing forces in Environment External • • • • • • • • • Technology Development Economic Conditions Customer Expectations Competition -local and global Government policies Labour market Union Characteristics Demographic characteristics Social systems and values Organisational Behaviour 053 .

Internal • Productivity • Aspirations of people • Union characteristics Organisational Behaviour 054 .

Unfreezing Identify need for change Increase Driving forces Reduce Resisting forces Change Individual components Group components Task components Structural components Refreezing Reinforcement at individual and institutional levels Maintain Organisation’s ‘FITS’ Organisational Behaviour 055 .

Reasons for Resistance to change • • • • • • Fear of the unknown Fear of failure Loss of status / job security Disturbance of social relationships Economic reasons Lack of resources Organisational Behaviour 056 .

• • • • • • Institutional inertia Effort/time required Individuals pre-disposition Peer pressure Climate of mistrust Personality conflict with “Change Drivers” Organisational Behaviour 057 .

Overcoming Resistance to Change • • • • • • • • Education Communication Involvement and participation Negotiation Manipulation Coercion Use respected change agents Reinforce earlier changes Organisational Behaviour 058 .

Organisational Development • Organisational diagnosis • Identify sources of misfit • Under take corrective actions Organisational Behaviour 059 .

Target Behavior Individual behavior & Group behavior OD Techniques • Career planning and development • Assertiveness training • Sensitivity training • Team building • Managerial grid • Process consultation Job enlargement Job enrichment Reward systems Organisation restructuring TQM MBO Survey feedback BPR BPR Task. structure. systems and practices Organisational Behaviour 060 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful