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STEEL MEMBERS AND SHEETING
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Industrial production of cold formed thin gauge sections
1.3. The steel used for cold formed thin gauge members. Characteristics for
design
1.4. Influence of cold forming (hammering)
1.5. Maximum WidthtoThickness Ratios
2.1.Specific Features of the Cross Sections of Cold Formed Thin Gauge Shapes
2.2. Calculation of Sectional Properties
1.1 INTRODUCTION
• Sheet, strip, plates or flat bars, fabricated in rollforming machines or by press brake
operations;
• The thickness of the steel sheets or strips excluding the coating ¬ 0.5 mm to 4 mm
for sheeting and from 1 mm to 8 mm for profiles; also, steel plates and bars as 25 mm
may be cold formed into structural shapes
• Some important advantages:
• a) cold formed light members are manufactured for relatively light loads and/or short
spans;
• b) various and intricate sectional configurations are produced economically by cold
forming operations ¬ favourable strengthtoweight ratios may be obtained;
• c) nestable sections are produced ¬ compact packaging and shipping;
• d) load carrying panels and decks are able to provide useful surfaces for floors, roofs
and wall constructions, and in other cases they can also provide enclosed cells for
electrical and other conduits;
• e) panels and decks not only withstand loads normal to their surfaces, but they can
also act as shear diaphragms to resist force in their own plans if they are adequately
interconnected to each other and to the supporting members.
1.2 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF COLD FORMED THIN GAUGE SECTIONS
A. Continuous process: important series of sections, by continuous forming, in rolling mills. The coil
is unrolled and the steel sheet passes through successive pairs of roles and after that the sections
are cut at the desired length. Stripped steel may be processed with thickness between 0.3 mm and
18 mm and width between 20 mm and 2000 mm.
B. Discontinuous process: small series of sections, either a leaf press brake (folding) of the steel
sheets or a coin press brake (press braking) are commonly used for pressing the steel strip in a
mould. The thickness of the of the shapes obtained by press folding is relatively small, under 3 mm,
and the length of the elements is between 1.5 m and 4.0 m. The shapes obtained by pressing in
moulds have the thickness under 16 mm and 6 m length.
Types of structural elements:
Coldformed structural members can be classified into two major types:
a) individual structural framing members; used in buildings as beams, columns, trusses, and in
the workshop design as purlins, skylights, bracing, structural elements for walls transmission towers,
etc
b) panels and decks (corrugated shells); used in facades as external layer for curtain walls,
diaphragms, roofs, floors and permanent shuttering.
COLD FORMING OF THIN GAUGE SECTIONS
Forme diverse realizate din prfile cu pereti subtiri
(Trebilcock, 1994)
1.3. The steel used for cold formed thin gauge members.
Characteristics for design
E Continuously hotdip metal coated sheeting with nominal thickness supplied with half of the normal
standard tolerances, the design thickness t may be taken as the nominal core thickness, t
c,nom
.
E In case of continuously hotdip metal coated steel sheet and strip the core thickness is:
t
z,
the thickness of the zinc protection, usually 0.04 mm both sides of the sheet and 275 g/m
2
.
E “Standard” grades of steel shall have the properties that conform to the required suitability for cold
forming, welding and galvanising. The ratio of the specific minimum ultimate tensile strength f
u
to
the specific minimum yield strength satisfies:
E The nominal (characteristic) values of the yield strength f
yb
and tensile strength f
u
for the specified
steels are presented in table, course notes.
E The basic material used for fabrication of the steel sections consists in flat sheet steel strips and
the Romanian standards available are: STAS 90890, STAS 194590, STAS 923680, STAS
915080, STAS 1089680, all of them being now harmonized with the european norms
(SREN). Generally, all these grades of steel will have the elongation at failure, A (%)>20%. Also,
supplementary measures will be adopted for the stripes of 0,2…8 mm thickness considering cold
forming process and sensibility to brittle fracture.
2 . 1 >
y u
f f
z nom c
t t t ÷ =
Examples of profiled sheeting and members (SREN 199313): a basic elements; b structural
elements suitable for axial loading; c structural elements suitable for bending
Influence of cold forming (hammering)
The manufacturing process ¬ modify the mechanical
properties of the profiles¬ alteration of the stress
strain curve of the steel.
Strain hardening provides an increase of the yield
strength and sometimes, of the ultimate strength that
is important in the corners and still appreciable in the
flanges, while press braking lets these characteristics
unchanged in these zones.
( )
yb u yb ya
f f
A
Cnt
f f ÷ ·


.

\

+ =
2
¿

.

\

÷ =
90
2
i
n
u
i
u
0
90 =
i
u
( )
u yb ya
f f f + s 5 . 0
fyb, fu  yield strength, respectively ultimate tensile strength, N/mm
2
;
t  thickness of the steel plate;
A  gross area of the cross section (mm
2
);
C =7 for cold rolling and 5 for other methods of cold forming;
n  number of folders at 90
0
having the internal radius r<5t on the whole perimeter of the cross section; for different
angles from 90
0
the number n is determined with:
where:
n  relevant number of folders that increase the strength;
internal angle of the folder, between 90
0
and 135
0
; for values under 90
0
, we will use:
and for values bigger then 135
0
the folder will not be considered anymore.
A superior limit value is imposed also for the average limit yield strength:
DETERMINATION OF N –NUMBER OF RELEVANT CORNERS
Etapele formarii la rece (Rhodes) 1992 ale unui profil
Echipamente industriale de laminare (formare continua) a profilelor la rece
STRUCTURE OF COLD FORMED SHAPESWALLS
Cold formed shapes are obtained from several walls. The walls may be internal or external,
stiffened or unsitffened, according to their end (edge) conditions.
• stiffened walls – that have their edges bound with another wall or with a folded end stiff enough
as to prevent from its deformation in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the element:
• unstiffened walls – that have one edge fee to displace (rotate) in a plane normal to the plane
of the element .
Stiffened walls of the cold formed shapes:
a) external wall with end stiffener; b) internal walls with intermediate stiffeners
Conditions are imposed for the stiffness of the walls:
for intermediary stiffeners:
for end stiffeners:
4
2
4 1 1
min
4 , 18
266000
66 , 3 t
R t
b
t I
p
· > ÷


.

\

· >
÷
4 2 4 1 1
min
2 , 9
266000
) ( 83 , 1 t
R t
b
t I
p
· > ÷ · · s
÷
t
R t
a
t a
p
· > ÷ · · = 8 , 4
266000
) ( 8 , 2
6
2
min
Cold formed shapes with stiffened walls:
a) intermediate stiffeners; b) with lip and clip (end stiffener)
OBSERVATION: The end stiffeners of Ω and C
shapes must respect also the condition: a
min
≥ ¼ b
p
from the total width (excluding the rounded corners)
of the wall that is stiffened.
Maximum b/t ratios and modelling of the static behaviour
Shapes with or without stiffeners, their geometric characteristics and
mechanical behaviour, according to EC 3 (SR EN 199311.3)
TIPURI DE RIGIDIZARI ALE PERETILOR PROFILELOR FORMATE LA RECE
Rigidizari intermediare
Rigidizari marginale: a cu rebord; b – cu rebord intarit
Rigidizari intermediare longitudinale cu una sau mai multe cute
INFLUENTA ROTUNJIRILOR IN STABILIREA LATIMII bp
•The plane widths b
p
is measured from the midpoint of the
corner.
• In the case when a cross section is made up from plane
elements with sharp corners with r≤5t and r/b
p
≤0.15,
rounding of corners is ignored.
• All the sectional properties may be calculated based on an
ideal section and the following approximations:
n number of corners;
m number of flat widths;
b
i
 length of the mid line of the flat widths.
PARTICULAR FEATURES FOR THE DESIGN OF THE COLD
FORMED THIN GAUGE SECTIONS
Coldformed (thin gauge) sections may buckle under normal stresses smaller than the yield limit of
the steel.
The instability of the thin gauge flat sheets subjected to inplane loading is due to imperfections.
The following assumptions are demonstrated to be inconsistent:
I. The perfect planarity  the initial deformations of the sheets due to faults of fabrication must be
between certain limits. Still, the real plane elements do have initial geometrical imperfections initial
deflection w
0
, which grows with the increase of loading. Due to the effect of membrane behavior, the
ultimate strength of the sheet is bigger than the critical elastic force of buckling, N
cr
. This reserve of
strength clearly insures a postcritical behavior.
Plate in compression: conditions of supports and postcritical reserve
II. Reduced deformations out of the plane of the plate – this assumption is normally available in
the theory of linear buckling in elastic domain. In reality, the ultimate strength of the plate exceeds
the critical stress, the deformations being rather important;
III. Axial loads  this assumption is impossible from the practical point of view, the planarity of the
plate being an ideal assumption.
Measurement of residual stresses in a coldrolled C shape: a) – residual flower: b) slicing method; c) curvature method;
IV. Linear elastic behavior of the material – this condition is satisfied up to the yield limit. Still, due to
residual stresses caused by rolling, welding, cutting etc, in some fibers the plastic stresses are reached for
applied stresses lower than f
y
.
Local buckling in compression and bending
of the thin walled elements
Consecutive stages of stress distribution
in stiffened compressed elements
Winter’s model (grid)
The two distinct stages in the postcritical domain of the
behavior of a plate are:
Elastic uniformly distributed stresses, under the critical force;
Postcritic  below the critical force, the plate is deformed
more and more, the stresses are not anymore uniform.
Buckling is reached for a critical value of the normal stress: σ
c
≥ σ
cr
where the critical stress is ([N/mm2])
( )
3
2 2
2
2
10 190
1 12
·


.

\

· =


.

\

÷
· =
p p
cr
b
t
k
b
t E
k
o o
v
t
o
The coefficient k
o
depends on the nature and the distribution of the stress on the width of the wall, on the
boundary conditions, on the ratio between the dimensions of this wall.
 non  stiffened walls: k
σ
=0.425;
 stiffened walls: k
σ
=4.0, the supports are considered articulated.
! It is important to observe that:
 in the case of a wall under compression in its plane, the lost of strength capacity will not happen
as long as the longitudinal edges will remain rectilinear;
 the limits of strength capacity are much increased for certain types of walls. This remark leads to
the theory of effective width of the wall.
The design concept ¬ the grid model proposed by Winter (1959) for the instability phenomenon. The
cross section for these profiles is made up from flat elements (walls) with constant thickness interconnected,
generating a grid.
In the post critical stage (post buckling strength) the central grid do not work anymore while the extreme
grids, where the strains are smaller, are able to take over stresses that may reach the design value of
strength. At the moment when the maximum strength value of the material fy, is reached in the extreme
zones, a bigger portion in the internal part of the wall already isn’t working anymore (where o =0), the
deformations being very important.
The width of the wall reaches its minimum value, called the effective width b
eff
.
From the point of view of the local buckling:
the stiffened compressed elements (walls) are flat elements in compression with both edges parallel to
the direction of stress, which are stiffened by web elements, flanges or edge stiffeners of sufficient rigidity;
the nonstiffened compressed elements (walls) are flat elements in compression which are stiffened only
at one edge parallel to the direction of the stress.
BUCKLING OF THE THIN WALLSWINTER’S GRID MODEL
Local buckling in compression and bending
of the thin walled elements
Consecutive stages of stress distribution
in stiffened compressed elements
Winter’s model (grid)
Effective width of a plate in compression
Stiffened wallsmarginal and intermediate
Buckling is reached for a critical value of the normal stress: σ
c
≥ σ
cr
where the critical stress is
determined with the known relationship:
( )
3
2 2
2
2
10 190
1 12
·


.

\

· =


.

\

÷
· =
p p
cr
b
t
k
b
t E
k
o o
v
t
o
The coefficient k
o
depends on the nature and the distribution of the stress on the width of the wall, on
the boundary conditions, on the ratio between the dimensions of this wall.
• non  stiffened walls: k
σ
=0.425;
• stiffened walls: k
σ
=4.0, the supports are considered articulated.
! It is important to observe that:
 in the case of a wall under compression in its plane, the lost of strength capacity will not
happen as long as the longitudinal edges will remain rectilinear;
 the limits of strength capacity are much increased for certain types of walls. This remark
leads to the theory of effective width of the wall.
The design concept ¬ the grid model proposed by Winter (1959) for the instability phenomenon. The
cross section for these profiles is made up from flat elements (walls) with constant thickness inter
connected, generating a grid.
[N/mm
2
]
In the post critical stage (post buckling strength) the central grid do not work anymore while the
extreme grids,
where the strains are smaller, are able to take over stresses that may reach the design value of
strength.
At the moment when the maximum strength value of the material R, is reached in the extreme zones,
a bigger portion in the internal part of the wall already isn’t working anymore (where o = 0), the
deformations being very important.
The width of the wall reaches its minimum value, called the effective width b
eff
.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE WALLS OF A COLD FORMED SECTION
From the point of view of the local buckling:
stiffened compressed elements (walls) flat
elements in compression with both edges parallel to the
direction of stress, which are stiffened by web
elements, flanges or edge stiffeners of sufficient rigidity
nonstiffened compressed elements (walls) flat
elements in compression which are stiffened only at
one edge parallel to the direction of the stress.
Considering that in the situation of buckling in elastic of
a wall having its effective width, b
eff
, the stress σ
cr,eff
reaches the maximum stress in the plate in postcritical
domain, that is: σ
max
=f
y.
Then the former relationship
becomes:
( )
2 2
2
2
,
1 12


.

\

· =


.

\

·
÷
=
eff
p
cr
eff
eff cr
b
b
b
t E
k o
v
t
o
o
From this relationship it results that the effective width of
the wall depends on the ratio σ
cr
/σ
max :
max
o
o
cr
p eff
b b =
In buckling stage, the averaged stress on the whole width of the wall is σ
u
, the equivalence between the
stresses will impose the following equation:
u p eff u p y eff
b b b f b o o o · = · · · = ·
max
Von Karman determined the following relationship for the effective wall:
( )
max
2
2
2
1
1 12 o v
t
o
·


.

\

·
÷
· · =
p
p eff
b
t E
k b b
In the case of the plate articulated all around and uniformly compressed, k
σ
= 4.0:
max
9 . 1
o
E
t b
eff
· · =
in order to simplify the further design specifications EC3 uses the following relationships:
relative slenderness (of the plate) referred to b
p
:
o
c o
ì
k
t
b
f
p
cr
y
p
·
= =
4 , 28
• reduction factor:
y
u
p
eff
f b
b
o
µ = =
• influence of the elastic limit:
y
f
240
= c
1
1
s = µ
ì
µ and
p
The slenderness of a wall, λ
p
is the ratio between the flat width of the wall, b
p
and its thickness, t.
It results that:
Winter proposed a semi  empirical relationship, derived from that of von Karman’s that takes into
account the imperfections:



.

\

÷ · · =
max max
415 . 0
1 9 . 1
o o
E
t
b
E
t b
p
eff
This is used by EC3 in the design of the strength of very slender sections.
The following annotations are used:
673 . 0 s
p
ì
1 = µ
673 . 0 >
p
ì


.

\

÷ =
p p
ì ì
µ
22 . 0
1
1
Specifications:
×The effective width of a flat wall in compression and/or in bending is determined considering the
relative slenderness referred to the width of the flat wall, b
p
and also, the limit of yield strength, f
yb
.
×In order to identify the way the cross section of a wall is working we have to compare the
effective slenderness with the limit slenderness.
×The recommended values of the maximum slenderness (limit slenderness) for different types of
coldformed sections are presented in table 1. The common experience and the tests in laboratory
impose these values.
×The limit slenderness is defined as the ratio between the width and the thickness of the wall in
the case when the normal stresses are uniformly distributed on the whole cross section and equal
with the design strength of the material. The values of the limit slenderness depend on the kind of
the wall and the grade of the steel. The presence of the imperfections reduces the theoretical
values of these limits over which buckling may occur anytime, see table.
For:
For:
DIFFERENCIES BETWEEN BUCKLING OF IDEAL SLENDER MEMBER,
HOT ROLLED SECTION MEMBERS AND COLD FORMED SECTIONS
STRESSES DEVELOPED IN THE WALLS OF A COLD FORMED SECTION
SUBJECTED TO BUCKLING
Thin walled C section in compression
Buckling ranges depending on slenderness
EUROCODE buckling curves
BUCKLING MODES OF COLD FORMED SECTIONS
Local Flexural+ Flexural Torsional
interactive buckling
a) Flexural + FlexuralTorsional
interactive buckling;
b) b) Local+Flexural Torsional
interactive buckling
Simple buckling modes for a C column (thin walled section)
DISTORTION OF OPENED SECTIONES WITH THIN WALLS
Combined modes of buckling leading to distortion of thin walled opened sections
(wavelength is considered as buckling length in the case of a column)
Moduri simple de flambaj ale unui profil C fara rebord:
Fflambaj prin incovoiere generala; FT flambaj prin
incovoiererasucire; L
w
, L
f
– distorsiunea inimii si
respectiv a talpilor
Moduri de flambaj prin distorsiune
Forme de flambaj, forte critice de flambaj si rezistente la
flambaj n functie de lungimea elementului
The effective width and effective area of the walls in buckling
THE EFFECTIVE WIDTH AND EFFECTIVE AREA OF THE WALLS IN BUCKLING
• Von Karman’s theory mentions that the maximum stress in the wall σ
max
systematically reaches the
elastic limit f
y
, so a pattern of the determination of the effective widths comprises:
• Determination of the stress ratio ψ that shows the distribution of the stresses in the wall considered
with its effective width (tab. 2 and 3). For doubly supported elements the stress ratio may be based
on the properties of the gross cross section;
• Considering the supports (internal wall or end wall as cantilever) and again the value of ψ the
buckling coefficient is determined k
σ
;
• Relative slenderness is determined;
• Reduction factor ρ is determined;
• The effective width is calculated with the help of tables 2 and 3.
• ! Specification:
• In the case when the initial stress applied to the wall is small enough the amplified stress due to the
lost of the efficacy σ
max
may reach a value much lower than the elastic limit f
y
. It is rational in this
case to determine the effective width on the basis of the compression stress and not based on the
limit of elasticity. For that, the parameter ε is computed by replacing f
y
with σ
com
as a first
approximation of the σ
max
value.
• A new, altered value of σ
max
is determined for the effective width based on the reiteration of the
method and starting from the determination of the relative slenderness of the wall. A procedure of
convergence for the stress σ
max ,
until is reaches the recommended values is based on calculation of
the relative slenderness of the effective wall and then using this value in the expression of ε.
FLAMBAJUL PRIN DISTORSIUNE
Flambaj prin distorsiune a unui profil Z supus la
compresiune (a) si la incovoiere (b)
a) Modelul de flambaj prin distorsiune utilizat de SR EN
199313/2006; b) rigidizare de capat pe fundatia elastica
reprezentata de un resort; c) modelul utilizat pentru
determinarea coeficientului de rigiditate
Aria eficace a unei rigidizari de capat
dupa SR EN 199313/2006
Perete nerigidizat (in consola)
Tensiunea critica elastica de flambaj la un element zvelt
comprimat prins intro fundatie elastica avand coeficientul de
pat K este determinata dupa Timoshenko si Gere in 1961
Coeficientul de flambaj prin distorsiune:
unde zveltetea relativa pentru flambajul
distorsional este:
ELEMENTS WITHOUT STIFFENERS (PLANE ELEMENTS)
I step
The reduction factor for the determination of the effective widths according to tab. 4. for doubly
supported or 5., for singly supported elements shall be obtained as we have already seen. The
value of relative slenderness is determined with:
where:
σ
com
– effective stress of compression on the extremities of the wall, σ
1
, determined with respect to the
effective area of the transversal section and multiplied with the safety factor, γ
M1
;
k
σ
– buckling coefficient according to tab. 4 and 5..
II step
The design for the limit state of serviceability, σ
1
f
y
: The value of the reduction factor ρ is determined
with the relative slenderness obtained as in the I step, where σ
com
= σ
1
· γ
M1
and the effective
stress calculated is σ
1
< f
y
/γ
M1
.
The following relationships are used:
For: we take: ρ=1;
For : we take:
After determining the values:
III step
In tables 6 and 7 the geometrical width of the flat wall is b
p
. In the case of the lateral webs without
intermediate stiffeners (the folders of the sheeting), the annotation s
w
is equivalent with b
p
.
o
o
ì
k E t
b
com
p
p
·
· = 052 . 1
673 . 0 >
pd
ì
0 . 1
6 . 0
18 . 0
22 . 0 1
s
÷
÷
· +


.

\

÷
=
pu
pd pu
pd
pd
ì
ì ì
ì
ì
µ
o
o
ì
k E t
b
com
p
pd
·
· = 052 . 1
o
ì
k E
f
t
b
y p
pu
·
· = 052 . 1
DETERMINAREA LATIMII EFICACE A PERETILOR COMPRIMATI IN
FUNCTIE DE TIPUL LOR SI DE DISTRIBUTIA DE TENSIUNI
Perete nerigidizat Perete rigidizat
ELEMENTS WITH EDGE OR INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS
Determination of the stiffness (elastic restraint) of the spring determined by the
presence of edge stiffeners for C and Z sections: real and equivalent system
Annotations for edge stiffeners for
a) lipped channel;
b) with lip and clip
The design is based on the assumption that the stiffener works as a beam on elastic foundation represented
by a spring stiffness, depending on the bending stiffness of adjacent parts of plane elements and on the
boundary conditions of the element.
The determination of the spring stiffness is illustrated in figure 6 for intermediate and edge stiffeners
respectively, where: C
s
= 1/f
s
and C
r
= 1/f
r
.
The significance of the terms are:
f the deflection of the stiffener due to a force equal with 1;
f
s
and f
r
– are taken as in the figure.
For the rotational stiffness in the supports C
ө
, C
ө1
and C
ө2
, the effects of other stiffeners are considered if
there is the case, for any element that forms the cross section in compression.
For an edge stiffener, the deflection f
y
is determined with the relationship:
where:
In the case of C and Z
In the case of a intermediary stiffener, C
θ1
and C
θ2
will be conservatory annulled, deflection being thus
determined:
 reduction factor χ due to buckling is determined considering the relative slenderness of the wall, and
imperfection coefficient according to the table of classification the cross sections by buckling curves, (curve
a
0
):
 σ
cr,s
– the critical stress in the ideal plate (without imperfections).
( )
3
2
2
1 12
3 t E
b
b f
p
p y
·
÷
· + · =
v
u
u
u
C
b
p
·
=
1
( )
3
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
1 12
) ( 3 Et b b
b b
f
v ÷
·
+
·
=
s cr
yb
f
,
o
ì =
( )
( )  
2
2 2
2 , 0 1 5 , 0 ;
1
ì ì o 
ì  
_ + ÷ + =
+ +
=
Edge stiffeners
In order to determine the effective widths that split into several sections a stiffened wall the general
method applied follows 7 successive steps; it also may be simplified in a restrained form by imposing
initial conditions. Both methods may be developed iteratively.
General method:
O. An initial effective area of the edge stiffener is determined, based on the fact that it will act as an
element infinite rigidly supported and subjected to a stress
O. The reduction factor χ will be determined for this stiffener but this time, the elastic spring will be
considered;
O. The reduction factor will be improved by iteration. The initial values of the effective widths b
ef,1
and
b
ef,2
are obtained from the indications in the table, considering that the wall is an intermediary one;
The initial values of the effective widths c
ef
si d
ef
are obtain as it follows:
Lip:
in the relationship, ρ and are prior determined and the values of the local buckling coefficient , k
σ
is
determined as it follows:
For: k
σ
=0,5;
 for:
1
,
M
yb
Ed com
f
¸
o =
c p ef
b c
,
· = µ
35 , 0
,
s
p
c p
b
b
6 , 0 35 , 0
,
< <
p
c p
b
b
3
2
,
35 , 0 83 , 0 5 , 0 
.

\

÷ · + =
p
c p
b
b
k
o
ì
ì
Lip and clip: as for an intermediary wall and then: as for an edge element
Sectional characteristics of the effective section of the stiffener will be:
 Area: ;
 Moment of inertia with respect to the neutral axis of the effective section;
O. Critical stress of the edge stiffener is determined with: K=1/f
O. Effective reduced area of the stiffener:
O. The reduced thickness of the wall used for the effective area:
Reducing factor χ, for edge stiffener is determined based on the value of σ
cr,s
obtained priory but its value
may be improved via iteration method if χ<1 through a value of the factor ρ after determining the
compression stress.
O. as to have:
Iteration stops when χ
n+1
~ χ
n
but χ
n+1
< χ
n
.
c p ef
b c
,
· = µ
d p ef
b d
,
· = µ
( )
ef ef e s
d c b t A + + =
2
s
s
s cr
A
KEI 2
,
= o
s
Ed com
M yb
s red s
A
f
A A s
(
(
¸
(
¸
· =
,
1
,
o
¸
_
s
red s
red
A
A
t t
,
· =
1
,
M
yb
Ed com
f
¸
_
o
·
=
_ ì ì · =
p red p,
Simplified method:
If the following condition is satisfied by the wall of which the width is b
p
:
where :
 h  depth of the web adjacent to the wall, on the opposite edge to the end stiffener;
 A
s
 effective area of the edge stiffener, that is:
determined for an even distributed stress , , with b
e2
, c
ef
, d
ef
, determined according to
the general method and ;
 q
r
=0,31.
Effective area of the stiffener is obtained with :
but and χ=0,5.
Effective cross section characteristics are determined based on the reduced thickness of the wall, t
s,red
.
In the case when χ=1 and q
r
=4,86, the stiffener plays the role of a support for the adjacent wall.
3 2
2
5 , 1


.

\



.

\



.

\

+ >
t
b
E
f
b
h
A I
p yb
p
s r s
q
( )
ef ef e s
d c b t A + + · =
2
1
,
M
yb
Ed com
f
¸
_
o
·
=
_ ì ì · =
p red p,


.

\

· · =
Ed com
M yb
s red s
f
A A
,
1
,
o
¸
_
s red s
A A s
,
ETAPIZAREA CALCULULUI SECTIUNII EFICACE A UNEI TALPI RIGIDIZATE MARGINAL
Determinarea coeficientului de rigiditate k
o
si a coeficientului de reducere µ dupa SR EN 199313/2006
Pereti rigidizati
Strength Verifications of the Cold Formed Thin Gauge Members
(Considering the Buckling of the Walls)
1. Members in Tension Rd t Ed
N N
,
s
N
Ed
–tensile force due to design load
N
t,Rd
– the minimum of ) ; (
,
0
Rd t
M
ya
F
A f
¸
·
Rd t
F
,
 net section resistance depending on fastener type according to chapter 4, Joints and Connections
2. Members in Compression
Rd c Ed
N N
,
s
N
Ed
– compressive force due to design load;
1
,
M
eff y
Rd c
A f
N
¸
·
=
The shift of the neutral axis, e
N
is the cause of an additional bending moment N Ed Ed
e N M · =
3. Members in Bending
Rd c Ed
M M
,
s
M
Ed
– the bending moment due to the design load
M
c,Rd
– the bending moment resistance of the section,
1
M
eff y
W f
¸
·
;
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