# Quality Team Improvement Boards

Quality Minds, Inc. 2/26/09

Quality Team Improvement Boards
• Sometimes called story boards • Used to summarize the activities of quality improvement teams • There is no set format. It is left to the creativity of the team. • Keep it simple-I suggest the following:
– – – – – – – – Trend Chart Pareto Chart Process Flow Diagram 5W2H Problem Definition Fishbone Diagram Nominal Technique Corrective Action (PDCA) Paynter Chart
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Team Story Board
Exteme Values

Trend

30 20 10 0
100 90 Cumulative Percentage of Total Defectives 80

Fishbone Diagram

M

T

W

Th

F

Sa

S

M

T

Percent of Total Defectives

Pareto

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Emulsion-Glue Oil/Dirt Hot Melt-Glue Sewing Thread Gilding Defects

Nominal Technique
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T

Process Flow
Who What

Action Plan
Plan Act Do

Paynter Chart
M
Defect 8

5W2H

When Where Why How Detected How Many

T 5

W Th 6C 0

Check

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Trend Chart
• • Presents data in a time sequence mode Always start with a picture of the response variable over time. How has it behaved over time? Are there any patterns to the behavior? Steps for Creating a Trend Chart
– – – – Draw an x and y axis The time variable will be on the x axis and the response variable will be on the y axis Plot the response variable in the time sequence of the data Interpret the chart
50.00% Pe rce nt a ge of Shots Ma de in Ga me 45.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 2 4 6 8 10 Game 12 14 16
Variable FG Shooting % Mean

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Pareto Diagrams
• 80/20 rule: Approximately 80% of problems are caused by approximately 20% of defect categories • A pareto diagram helps you focus on the vital few defect categories • The tool helps you best utilize your resources. You will be working on the right things.
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How To Create a Pareto Diagram
• • • • Step 1: Write the categories in descending order along with the amount for each category Step 2: Add up the amount to get a total amount Step 3: For each category, calculate the percent of the total amount. (This will be the height of each bar) Step 4: Write a cumulative total beside each category. (This will be used to plot the straight line on the Pareto Diagram) Step 5: For each category, calculate the cumulative percentage Step 6: Create the pareto diagram. The height of each bar is the percentage from step three. Draw in the cumulative line using the percentage from step five
Defect Category Emulsionglue Oil/Dirt Hot meltglue Sewing Thread Gilding defects End Sheet Case Damage Square Variation Head Bands Upside down books Total Total Defectives 67 59 30 29 28 25 17 17 6 2 Percent of Total 23.9 21.1 10.7 10.4 10.0 8.9 6.1 6.1 2.1 0.7 Cumulative Total 67 126 156 185 213 238 255 272 278 280 Cumulative Percent 23.9 45 55.7 66.1 76.1 85 91.1 97.1 99.3 100.0

• •

280

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Example of Pareto Diagram
Pareto Chart of Paint Defects
90 N ber of Defectives um 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Paint Defects 0
ht ig L ay pr S s un R s rip D r te is Bl r t in tte a Pa pl d S Ba r he Ot

100 80 60 40 20 0 Percent

Number of Defectives Percent Cum %

30 32.6 32.6

25 27.2 59.8

11 12.0 71.7

10 10.9 82.6

7 7.6 90.2

5 5.4 95.7

4 4.3 100.0

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How to Create a Process Flow Diagram
• • Determine the start and stop points to your flow of process steps . The stop point is typically near the customer. Walk through the flow, writing down the process steps as they exist now (Rule of thumb: Pretend your are the part). Make sure you use a noun and verb to describe the process step. – You can be very general or very specific. • General: “Machine Part” • Specific: “Turn part, grind outside diameter, and deburr part” Once you have roughly mapped out the process, make it more formal by adding symbols.

Activity (Process Step)

Decision Point

Start/Stop

• •

If possible, number the process steps. This helps link the process flow diagram to the other key documents (especially the PFMEA and Control Plan) Once finished, sign and date the flow diagram with a revision level.

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5W, 2H Method for Defining a Problem
• Analogy to newspaper articles • Who: Area affected, part number, completely identify the defective • What: What is the symptom of the problem? Use illustrations • When: Date of occurrence and other time specific details • Where: Location of occurrence: in house and where, at the customer, in the market place • Why: The content of the complaint, why is this a problem? • How Detected: How was the problem detected? • How Many?: The defective rate
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Cause and Effect Diagrams (Fishbone)
• • A problem solving tool: best used for continuous improvement projects Filling out the Fishbone Diagram
– Write the problem statement in the head – Brainstorm for ideas in a group of five to six people – Place the ideas on a fishbone diagram using the 4Ms as categories (Man, Material, Method, and Machine) or create categories that best fit the ideas – Vote on the critical ideas and decide on the vital few – Develop an action plan for the vital few ideas
Cause-and-Effect Diagram
Material Man

I dea 10 I dea 11 I dea 12

I dea 1 I dea 2 I dea 2

Problem Statement
I dea 6 I dea 5 I dea 4 I dea 9 I dea 8 I dea 7

Methods

Machines

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Nominal Group Technique
• • • • • Principles – Works best if the number of ideas is relatively small (less than thirty) How to Use the Nominal Technique: Assign a letter or number to each idea generated in the brainstorming session Each team member writes the letters, numbers, or ideas on sheets of paper Each team member prioritizes the ideas by placing a priority number next to the letter. For example, if there are eight ideas, identify the most important idea with an eight and the least important with a one. Compute the totals for each idea and assign priority. The idea with the highest point total gets the highest priority.
Ideas TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4 TM5 Total Priority A 6 5 7 5 6 29 1

B

3

2

4

1

3

13

6

C

1

1

2

2

2

8

7

D

4

4

5

6

4

23

4

E

7

7

6

7

1

28

2

F

2

3

1

3

5

14

5

G

5

6

3

4

7

25

3

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The PDCA Cycle of Improvement
Plan
To improve processes, first find out what areas need improvement. Based on what you learn, plan a change or test. Avoid the “shot gun” approach. Have a plan. Decide what you want to do and how you will do it. You don’t know if it will work but put your best foot forward. Think ahead to the check phase and decide now how you will measure results.

You have planned, done, and checked. Now you must decide what to do with the results of your check. The options typically include: Adopt the change Abandon it and go back to the drawing board Run it through the cycle again using a different area, running a larger scale trial, or making the trial more complex. Start over at the planning phase

Act
Continuous Improvement of Work Processes

Do

Once you have a plan, carry out the change or test on a small scale to minimize disruption to normal activity. Example: Don’t run a trial (with a process change) for an entire week. If it fails, the costs could be high. Try it on a smaller scale (ex. one half shift) first. It is important to do something. The best plans are worthless if they are not carried out.

Check
In the Plan phase, you should have decided how to measure the results of the Do phase. After completing the Do phase, check to see if the changes or tests are working (What did you learn? What went right? What went wrong? What does the data mean?)

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PDCA as it Applies to Taking Corrective Action Plan:

– What action will be taken, who will manage it, when will it be done? • Do: – Carry out of the corrective action per the due date • Check: – Verify that the corrective action worked. Make sure the root cause was eliminated • Act – If the root cause was not eliminated, start over – If it was eliminated, proceed with step six (preventive action)
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Verifying the Action Works
• There must be a process for monitoring the effectiveness of corrective action.
– Simply put, the defect must not be seen after the action is taken.
Defect Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Emulsion -glue Oil/Dirt 3 Hot Melt glue Sewing Thread Gilding Defects
14

7

C 6 3

0

0

0 C 13

0 0

0

4

5

7

10

0 0

0

• Paynter chart is a great tool for verifying corrective action (C)