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Presented by Namrata Tripathi
• • Introduction Definition of communication,
• • • • Elements of communication Types of communications Communication process Characteristics of effective communication • Knowledge and skills needed for effective interpersonal communication
“People don’t get along because they fear each other. People fear each other because they don’t know each other. They don’t know each other because they have not properly communicated with each other.”
Martin Luther King Jr.
gestures. facial expressions can show how we feel and what we think about an issue or another person. The means of communication are usually spoken or written words. But we also give information through body language. pictures or symbols. knowledge and feelings through the transmission of symbolic messages. experience.What is Communication? Communication can be defined as the process by which people share ideas. and looks. .
Meaning.THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION 1-Senders and Receivers 2-Transmitters and Receptor 3-Messages and Channels 4-Decoding. and Encoding 5-Feedback .
What are the most common ways we communicate? Written Word .
Upwards Communications : It is non directive in nature from down below. approval to highlight problems etc. seeking approvals. Lateral or Horizontal Communication: Among colleagues. to inform about progress/problems. to inform to offer feed back. give instructions. .Types of Communication Downwards Communication : Highly Directive. to assign duties. peers at same level for information level for information sharing for coordination. to save time. to give feedback. from Senior to subordinates.
M. Forman .HIERARCHY LEVEL Executive Director Manager Vice President A. Manager Supervisor Supervisor 1 Supervisor 2 Supervisor 3 Horizontal Comm.G.
or between people at corresponding levels in different divisions. Information Flow in Business Organizations .• Downward communication occurs when a manager or supervisor sends a message to one or more subordinates. • Upward communication occurs when messages flow from subordinates to managers or from supervisors to executives. • Horizontal communication occurs between people at the same level.
Information Flow in Business Organizations (a) CEO Division Manager Departmen t Head Departmen t Head Departmen t Head Division Manager Departmen t Head Departmen t Head Division Manager Departmen t Head Departmen t Head Departmen t Head Departmen t Head (a) Tall Organization structure (b) CEO Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er (b) Flat Organization structure .
prejudices.Five Levels of Communication • Intrapersonal Communication is communication that occurs in your own mind. . biases. – Examples are when you make any kind of decision – what to eat or wear. It is “self-talk” which are the inner speech or mental conversations that we carry on with ourselves. – You can also communicate with yourself when you dream at night. It is the basis of your feelings. and beliefs. When you think about something – what you want to do on the weekend or when you think about another person.
A patient and a doctor discussing a treatment. Through this kind of communication we maintain relationships. A manager and a potential employee during an interview. Any one on one or informal communication. . – Examples are when you are talking to your friends.Five Levels of Communication • Interpersonal communication is the communication between two people but can involve more in informal conversations. A teacher and student discussing an assignment.
It is group interaction that results in decision making. – Examples would be a group planning a surprise birthday party for someone. A team working together on a project .Five Levels of Communication • Small Group communication is communication within formal or informal groups or teams. problem solving and discussion within an organization.
persuade or motivate an audience.Five Levels of Communication • One-to-group communication involves a speaker who seeks to inform. A speaker and an assembly of people in the auditorium. – Examples are a teacher and a class of students. . A preacher and a congregation.
Newspapers. Billboards. Outlets called mass media include things like radio. A magazine article. – A television commercial.Five Levels of Communication • Mass communication is the electronic or print transmission of messages to the general public. film. The key is that you are reaching a large amount of people without it being face to face. Hearing a song on the radio. and printed materials designed to reach large audiences. . Feedback is generally delayed with mass communication. Books. television.
Communication Key Elements •Message •Source (sender) •Channel •Receiver •Filter •Feedback .
The Communication Process Medium Barrier SENDER (encodes) RECEIVER (decodes) Barrier Feedback/Response .
Characteristics of effective communications Effective communication requires the message to be: • Clear and concise • Accurate • Relevant to the needs of the receiver • Timely • Meaningful • Applicable to the situation .
Basic Model Of Communication .
Characteristics of effective communications Effective communication requires the sender to: • Know the subject well • Be interested in the subject • Know the audience members and establish a rapport with them • Speak at the level of the receiver • Choose an appropriate communication channel .
Characteristics of effective communications The channel should be: • Appropriate • Affordable • Appealing .
and willing to accept the message • Listen attentively • Understand the value of the message • Provide feedback . interested.Characteristics of effective communications The receiver should: • Be aware.
Characteristics of effective communicator An effective verbal communicator: • Clarifies • Listens • Encourages empathically • Acknowledges • Restates/repeats An effective nonverbal communicator: • Relaxes • Opens up • Leans toward the other person • Establishes eye contact • Shows appropriate facial expressions .
Barriers to communication • • • • • • • • • • Language Values and beliefs Sex/gender and age Economic status Educational level Physical barriers Attitude Timing Understanding of message Trust .
Summary • Communication is the art of inducing and influencing others to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the speaker. • Communication is carried out at different levels in organizations. decoding and feedback from the receiver. • Communication is a complex process as it involves encoding. .
Lecture 2 .
Lecture Plan • Role of Communication in Organizations • Communication Network • Channels of Communication • Achieving Effective Communication • Principles of Communication for Negotiation .
Role of Communication in Organizations • Facilitates planning • Brings co-ordination • Helps in decision – making • Facilitates Management • Rapport with employees .
Communication Network .
Manufacturing Engineering Vice-President. and routine communications Vice-President. Formal communication networks contain more of the written. Formal networks indicate a unity of command.Channels of Communication Formal are legitimate and often indicated by an organization chart that displays who answers to whom. Sales Marketing Vice-President. Auxiliary Services Vice-President. predictable. Research and Development Maintenance Production development networks CEO Vice-President. Services Technical Assistance Personal computers CRX 1000 PC Individual customers Supplies Product refinement XT computers CRX 2000 XT Business applications AT Computers CRX 3000 AT .
Informal Networks Informal networks are unofficial channels through which information passes in an organization. and communication is more likely to be face-to-face. . and often more accurate. richer. Informal networks are faster.
Span Of Control The smaller the span of control. . the more communication access each employee will have to the supervisor.
Even „gossip‟ and „rumors‟ usually provide accurate information”. people may have choose to not communicate at all if they have no formal channels available. Such networks are called grapevines.Grapevines Conrad (1990). “Because using formal communication networks takes so much time and effort. .
Merits of Grapevine 1. Distorted information 3. Faster than normal communication 4. Quick results and decisions . Is not always active 4. Not good for confidential information 5. More free expressions Demerits of Grapevine 1. Promotes Socialization 2. Know the Latest Information 3. Incomplete information 2.
Achieving Effective Communication A two way channel Mutual Trust Clarity of Message Timely Message Consistency of Message Good Relations Feedback Empathetic Listening Flexibility .
Principles of Communication for Negotiation Speed Clarity of Message Creation of Impression Creation of Response or Feedback Accuracy Economy Secrecy Two – way traffic .
QUESTIONING For clarifying communications. IMPROVING COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS IN NEGOTIATION ACTIVE LISTENING / REFLECTING ROLE REVERSAL Understand the other’s position by actively arguing his position to his satisfaction. . and eliminating noise and distortion .
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