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BASIC REFINING OPERATIONS & DISTILLATION

Presented by Senior Manager (TS) Haldia Refinery, IOCL

Soma Chattopadhyay

22nd December, 2010

Refineries in India

Panipat Mathura RPL BPC HPC-M MRPL KRL

Digboi BRPL Barauni NRL Guwahati

Koyali HPC-V

Haldia Refinery
CPCL CBR

Fourth in the chain of 8 operating refineries under Indian Oil, the largest commercial enterprise in the country and one of the Fortune 500 company in India

Geonkhali
Kukrahati

Roychak

Mitsubishi CHLORIDE HLL


DURGACHAK
HALDIA PETRO. SHAW WALLACE FROM CALCUTTA

HFC

Haldia Refinery
HALDIA TOWNSHIP

PORT

LOCATION PLAN
3

Haldia Refinery

7.5 MMTPA Crude capacity* Fuel + Lube combine refinery

~1600 employees

500 Acres area

Own township and


hospital at 8Km distance

Haldia Refinery: Process Units

FOB BLOCK CDU-I CDU-II NHDT/CRU KHDS

LOB BLOCK VDU-I PDA FEU NMP SDU LHFU CDWU WHFU

DHDS BLOCK DHDS HGU SRU/ARU/SWS FCCU MSQ NGU

OHCU BLOCK OHCU HGU NGU SRU/ARU/SWS

THE REFINERY
Very Simplified Petroleum and Petrochemical Flowchart
Natural Gas RX Ethylene RX Fuel Polyethylene Fuel Polymers RX RX (Furnitures 7 UP Bottles)

Propane & Butane RX

Naphtha (C5 - C10 )

Gasoline Organic Chemicals (Aspirin, Hair Spray) (Football Helmet, Astro More Polymers Turf, Nylon) Jet Fuel

Kerosene & Conversions Separations and Purifications Gas Oils (C 10 +)

Diesel Fuels
Home Heating Oil, Lubricating Oil, Wax

Oil Well

Crude Oil

Separations

Coke (Carbon Material Similar to Coal)

Asphalt Purifications remove sulfur and heavy metals RX = Chemical Reactions

Fuel Steel Making Graphite Fibers (Tennis Racquets) Pot Holes


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What Is Crude Oil?

Crude Oil is a liquid mixture of thousands of organic


chemicals found underground. It is the result of organic matter decaying over thousands of years; hence the name fossil fuel

Crude oil is found all over the world and varies in its
density, aromatics, sulfur, and metals content

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What Is Crude Oil?

Crude Oil is a liquid mixture of thousands of organic


chemicals found underground. It is the result of organic matter decaying over thousands of years; hence the name fossil fuel

Crude oil is found all over the world and varies in its
density, aromatics, sulfur, and metals content

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CRUDE OIL NA

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CRUDE OIL NATURE & COMPOSITION

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Major Refinery Products

LPG (Propane/Butane) GASOLINE JET FUELS DIESEL FUELS HEATING OILS LUBRICATING OILS ASPHALTS COKE (not the kind you drink )
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Gasoline Specifications
Gasoline must meet many criteria which change with the time of year and geographic location. Some critical specifications are:

Vapor Pressure Density Octane No. Sulfur Content Benzene Content


Gasoline is always a blend of a number of streams in the refinery
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Other Specifications
Other refinery products must meet other specifications such as:

Cetane number Density Pour Point Flash Point Viscosity Viscosity Index Colour
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So, How You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude ?

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In a Complex Refinery with Separation Process and Secondary Conversion Processes..

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THE REFINERY
Very Simplified Petroleum and Petrochemical Flowchart
Natural Gas RX Ethylene RX Fuel Polyethylene Fuel Polymers RX RX (Furnitures 7 UP Bottles)

Propane & Butane RX

Naphtha (C5 - C10 )

Gasoline Organic Chemicals (Aspirin, Hair Spray) (Football Helmet, Astro More Polymers Turf, Nylon) Jet Fuel

Kerosene & Conversions Separations and Purifications Gas Oils (C 10 +)

Diesel Fuels
Home Heating Oil, Lubricating Oil, Wax

Oil Well

Crude Oil

Separations

Coke (Carbon Material Similar to Coal)

Asphalt Purifications remove sulfur and heavy metals RX = Chemical Reactions

Fuel Steel Making Graphite Fibers (Tennis Racquets) Pot Holes


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REFINERY CONFIGURATION

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Complexity of a Refinery
The combination of refining processes and operations employed (complexity ) varies from one refinery to another. Factors deciding the complexity of a refinery

Nature/source of crude oils to be processed


Demand pattern in the markets to be covered Product quality - current/future Production of feedstocks for downstream units Environmental stipulations

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Basic Refining Operations

SEPERATION TECHNIQUES

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Basic Refining Operations & Processes


Unit Operations Desalting Distillation Extraction Filtration Crystallisation Evaporation Condensation Unit Processes

De-Sulphurisation
Reforming Cracking Iso-merisation Hydro-cracking Coking

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Crude Desalting

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Fractionation Concept

Separate crude into fractions Convert low octane components to higher octane
components

Convert the very heavy stuff to heavy oils Convert heavy oils to Gasoline,Diesel,Jet fuel &
Lubes

Remove Sulfur/Nitrogen through reaction Blend intermediate streams together to meet


product specifications

Blending & Certification Product Storage & Dispatch


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Distillation - Concept

Distillation is defined as a process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat.

Distillation is based on the fact that the vapour of a boiling mixture will be richer in the components that have lower boiling points.

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Types of Distillation Columns


Distillation Columns

Batch

Continuous

Binary

Multi-Component

Two Product & Multi-Product Columns Tray Columns & Packed Columns
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Distillation Basic Operation

The liquid-vapour mixture (feed) is introduced near the middle of the column to a tray known as the feed tray. The feed tray divides the column into a top (enriching or rectification section ) and a bottom (stripping section). The feed flows down the column and collected at the bottom in the reboiler. Heat is supplied to the reboiler to generate vapour using other hot streams or steam.

The vapour raised in the reboiler is re-introduced into the unit at the bottom of the column. The liquid removed from the reboiler is known as the bottoms product or simply, bottoms.

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Distillation Basic Operation The vapour moves up the column, and as it exits the top of the unit, it is cooled by a condenser. The condensed liquid is stored in a holding vessel known as the reflux drum. Some of this liquid is recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux.

The condensed liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product.

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SEPARATIONS -

CRUDE/VACUUM FRACTIONATION: MOTHER UNITS

DISTILLATION COLUMNS ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION


Light (LPG, Naphtha & MS), Middle Distillate ( SKO /ATF & HSD ) components and Heavier portion of the crude is separated by heating up to 370 380 oC and fractionation at a pressure of 2.0 2.8 Kg/cm2g.

VACUUM DISTILLATION
Heavier Distillate ( Heavy Diesel , VGO ) is separated from Reduced Crude Oil (RCO) by heating up to 410 420 oC and fractionation under vacuum ( 20-60 mm Hg abs ) condition

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SEPARATIONS

CRUDE/VACUUM FRACTIONATION: MOTHER UNITS

Typical Products from CDU

Gas/LPG Naphtha SKO/ATF HSD RCO Vacuum Distillation of RCO produces VGO (or LOBS
cuts) and VR

All products need further treatment/processing.


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SEPARATIONS -

CRUDE/VACUUM FRACTIONATION: MOTHER UNITS

Typical Products from VDU

Vacuum Gas Oil DHDS Feed Stream FCCU Feed Streams LOBS Feed Streams Vacuum Residue
All products need further treatment/processing.

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REACTIONS

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REACTIONS

Almost all the reactions in the refinery use special catalysts that increase the rate and selectivity of the reaction. This improves efficiency and reduces unwanted byproducts.

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Reactions to Make Higher Octane


ISOMERIZATION C-C-C-C-C-C --> C C nC6 REFORMING C-C-C-C-C-C-C --> nC7 C C C C C-CH3 C toluene C-C-C-C iC6

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Reactions To Make Higher Octane


ALKYLATION C C C propylene isobutane isoheptane (2,2,dmp)

C=C-C + C-C-C --> C-C-C-C-C

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Conversion : Cracking and rearranging molecules to add value

Need : To increase the production of distillates by


converting residues, for value addition

Major Conversion Processes Thermal conversion : Visbreaking, Delayed Coking Catalytic conversion : FCC, Hydrocracking Technological Factors
Heavier
Hydro-Carbon molecules are cracked under severe operating conditions of Temp. ( 500 510 oC ) and pressure ( 1.4 2.2 kg/cm2) to get Lighter Hydro-Carbons like LPG , MS & HSD components. Strict operating conditions are maintained to get onspecs. products
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Reactions To Convert Heavy Oils


HYDROCRACKING

H2 + heavy oil --> gasoline + diesel


290 C 150 C 232 C

use boiling point to describe oils


CAT CRACKING
heavy oil --> gasoline + propylene, butane, other light ends 290 C 150 C

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Reactions To Convert Resid


Resid is the bottom of the barrel - the material that is left in the bottom of the crude/vacuum distillation towers
COKING resid + heat --> coke + heavy oil + Lighter Products

> 482 C

solid

290 C

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Reactions To Remove Sulfur


HYDRODESULFURIZATION 2 R-SH + H2 --> 2 R + 2 H2S Mercaptan hydrocarbon SULFUR RECOVERY

convert H2S to elemental sulfur:


2 H2S + 2 O2 --> SO2 + S + 2 H2O 2 H2S + SO2 --> 3S + 2 H2O

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THANK YOU

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